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Hippocampal sclerosis

Explanation

Hippocampal sclerosis is a neuropathological condition with severe neuronal cell loss and gliosis in the hippocampus, specifically in the CA-1 and subiculum of the hippocampus. It was first described in 1880 by Wilhelm Sommer. Hippocampal sclerosis is a frequent pathologic finding in community-based dementia. Hippocampal sclerosis can be detected with autopsy and MRI. Individuals with hippocampal sclerosis have similar initial symptoms and rates of dementia progression to those with Alzheimer's disease and therefore are frequently misclassified as having Alzheimer's Disease. But clinical and pathologic findings suggest that hippocampal sclerosis has characteristics of a progressive disorder although the underlying cause remains elusive. A diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis has a significant effect on the life of patients because of the notable mortality, morbidity and social impact related to epilepsy, as well as side effects associated with antiepileptic treatments.

  • also known as AHS, Mesial temporal sclerosis

Printed encyclopedias and other books with definitions for Hippocampal sclerosis

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Google previewBradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice E-Book (2015)

by Robert B. Daroff, Joseph Jankovic, John C Mazziotta, Scott L Pomeroy

Hippocampal sclerosis is a potential typical imaging finding in patients with seizures of temporal lobe origin. Previous history of febrile seizures is quite common. On the affected side, the hippocampus exhibits decreased size and often also abnormal T2 hyperintense signal, which is best appreciated on coronal T2 as well as coronal and axial FLAIR images (eFig. 39.44). The underlying pathology is neuronal loss and gliosis involving the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus.

Google previewCase Studies in Dementia (2011)

Common and Uncommon Presentations by Serge Gauthier, Pedro Rosa-Neto

Hippocampal sclerosis Hippocampal sclerosis is a localized form of ischemia and atrophy observed in very old demented subjects, ...

Google previewFunctional Neurosurgery (2011)

by Phillip A. Starr, Nicholas M. Barbaro, Paul S. Larson

We have modified these surgical techniques based on the hypothesis that the entorhinal-hippocampal complex is the generator and amplifier of abnormal epileptiform discharges and that hippocampal sclerosis is a necessary ...

Google previewNeurosurgical Operative Atlas (2009)

Functional neurosurgery by Philip A. Starr, Nicholas M. Barbaro, Paul S. Larson (MD.)

We have modified these surgical techniques based on the hypothesis that the entorhinal-hippocampal complex is the generator and amplifier of abnormal epileptiform discharges and that hippocampal sclerosis is a necessary ...

Google previewThe SAGE Encyclopedia of Abnormal and Clinical Psychology (2017)

by Amy Wenzel

Risk factors for psychosis in TLE include age at onset, history of status epilepticus , hippocampal sclerosis, and abnormalities in the left hemisphere, although this research area has room for improvement. Seizure disorders have been characterized as disorders of inhibition, and there is growing recognition that schizophrenia may also be a disorder of inhibition; thus, the comorbidity between TLE and schizophrenia may be explained by shared neurobiological features. As seen in ...

Google previewLexicon of Psychiatry, Neurology, and the Neurosciences (2000)

by Frank J. Ayd

hippocampal sclerosis The most common pathological finding in 60% to 75% of patients with medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. It is characterized by neuronal loss and gliosis affecting sectors CA1, CA3, and CA4 of the hippocampus, with sparing of CA2, the subiculum, and the dentate gyrus. There can be more widespread pathology in severe cases. Computed tomographic scanning is not very helpful in detecting ...

Google previewThe Cambridge Encyclopedia of Child Development (2017)

by Brian Hopkins, Elena Geangu, Sally Linkenauger

Right hippocampal sclerosis (arrowed). A pacemaker is inserted under the skin in the left axilla, with a wire passed subcutaneously to the vagus nerve in the ...

Google previewEncyclopedia of Neuroscience (2009)

Volume One by Larry R. Squire

These observations and the strong association of Tnc with human pathology in CNS cancer, hippocampal sclerosis, and various types of lesion warrant further studies of this versatile multifunctional glycoprotein. The antiadhesive glycoproteins of the CNS also comprise the thrombospondins, which have been found to mediate an astrocyte-derived signal for synaptic maturation. Proteoglycans of the Extracellular Matrix Key features of proteoglycans and heparan sulfate proteoglycans ...

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