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enzyme

Definition of enzyme

What does enzyme mean?

noun

  1. any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions
    • more generic words: accelerator / catalyst = a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected; protein = any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells; consist of polymers of amino acids; essential in the diet of animals for growth and for repair of tissues
    • more specific terms:
      • adenosine deaminase / ADA = an enzyme found in mammals that can catalyze the deamination of adenosine into inosine and ammonia
      • amylase = any of a group of proteins found in saliva and pancreatic juice and parts of plants
      • cholinesterase = an enzyme that hydrolyses acetylcholine
      • coagulase = an enzyme that induces coagulation
      • collagenase = any enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of collagen and gelatin
      • complement = one of a series of enzymes in the blood serum that are part of the immune response
      • catalase = enzyme found in most plant and animal cells that functions as an oxidative catalyst
      • cyclooxygenase / Cox = either of two related enzymes that control the production of prostaglandins and are blocked by aspirin
      • decarboxylase = any of the enzymes that hydrolize the carboxyl group
      • de-iodinase = an enzyme that removes the iodine radical
      • disaccharidase = an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of disaccharides into monosaccharides
      • elastase = a pancreatic enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of elastin
      • enterokinase = enzyme in the intestinal juice that converts inactive trypsinogen into active trypsin
      • histaminase = enzyme that acts as a catalyst in converting histidine to histamine
      • isomerase = an enzyme that catalyzes its substrate to an isomeric form
      • kinase = an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of a proenzyme to an active enzyme
      • lipase = an enzyme secreted in the digestive tract that catalyzes the breakdown of fats into individual fatty acids that can be absorbed into the bloodstream
      • muramidase / lysozyme = an enzyme found in saliva and sweat and tears that destroys the cell walls of certain bacteria
      • monoamine oxidase / MAO = an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of many body compounds
      • nitrogenase = an enzyme of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms that catalyzes the conversion of nitrogen to ammonia
      • nuclease = general term for enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleic acid by cleaving chains of nucleotides into smaller units
      • oxidase = any of the enzymes that catalyze biological oxidation
      • oxidoreductase = an enzyme that catalyzes oxidation-reduction
      • papain = a proteolytic enzyme obtained from the unripe papaya
      • beta-lactamase / penicillinase = enzyme produced by certain bacteria that inactivates penicillin and results in resistance to that antibiotic
      • pepsin = an enzyme produced in the stomach that splits proteins into peptones
      • pepsinogen = precursor of pepsin
      • phosphatase = any of a group of enzymes that act as a catalyst in the hydrolysis of organic phosphates
      • fibrinolysin / plasmin = an enzyme that dissolves the fibrin of blood clots
      • polymerase = an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of new DNA and RNA from an existing strand of DNA or RNA
      • proteolytic enzyme / proteinase / peptidase / protease = any enzyme that catalyzes the splitting of proteins into smaller peptide fractions and amino acids by a process known as proteolysis
      • reductase = an enzyme that catalyses the biochemical reduction of some specified substance
      • chymosin / rennin = an enzyme that occurs in gastric juice
      • secretase = a set of enzymes believed to snip pieces off a longer protein producing fragments of amyloid protein that bunch up and create amyloid protein plaques in brain tissue
      • streptodornase = an enzyme produced by some hemolytic strains of streptococcus that dissolves fibrinous secretions from infections
      • streptokinase = an enzyme produced by some strains of streptococcus that can liquefy blood clots by converting plasminogen to plasmin
      • superoxide dismutase / SOD = an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of superoxide into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen
      • telomerase = an enzyme in eukaryotic cells that can add telomeres to the ends of chromosomes after they divide
      • transferase = any of various enzymes that move a chemical group from one compound to another compound
      • trypsin = an enzyme of pancreatic origin
      • urease = an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia
      • zymase = a complex of enzymes that cause glycolysis
    • part: active site = the part of an enzyme or antibody where the chemical reaction occurs

Phrases with enzyme

Phrases starting with the word enzyme:

  1. Enzyme Inhibitor
  2. enzyme-linked-immunosorbent serologic assay

Phrases ending with the word enzyme:

  1. Adaptive Enzyme
  2. proteolytic enzyme
  3. restriction enzyme
  4. angiotensin converting enzyme
  5. angiotensin-converting enzyme

Other phrase containing the word enzyme:

  1. angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor

Explanation

  1. Enzyme: Enzymes are biological molecules that catalyze chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. Almost all chemical reactions in a biological cell need enzymes in order to occur at rates sufficient for life. Since enzymes are selective for their substrates and speed up only a few reactions from among many possibilities, the set of enzymes made in a cell determines which metabolic pathways occur in that cell.
    • also known as ferment, kvasina
  2. Enzyme: Enzymes (pron.

Printed encyclopedias and other books with definitions for enzyme

Click on a title to look inside that book (if available):

Google previewClass 2 Transferases VIII (2007)

EC 2.6.1.58 - 2.7.1.37 by Dietmar Schomburg, A. Chang, Ida Schomburg

<2 , 36>, enzyme is the major activator for...

Google previewConcise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (1997)

by Thomas Scott, Eric Ian Mercer

Enzyme immunodetection assay rows showing the direction of the reaction. Each arrow is labeled with the corresponding rate constant. An E.g. simplifies the writing of Rate equations (see) for the reactions. The Fig. shows an example of an ...

Google previewThe Encyclopedia of Genetic Disorders and Birth Defects (2009)

by James Wynbrandt, Mark D. Ludman

PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS is possible by measuring the amount of the enzyme in fetal cells. pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency Symptoms of this ...

Google previewInternational Encyclopaedia of Engineering and Technology (2007)

by M N Doja

Enzymes are important in the construction and degradation of other molecules; An enzyme is a type of protein molecule specifically adapted to act as a catalyst for a biochemical reaction. Analysis of the specific features of enzymic catalysis ...

Google previewEncyclopedia of Biological Chemistry (2013)

Table 1 Major sphingolipidoses Disease Sphingolipid stored Defective enzyme Clinical phenotype Farber Ceramide Acid ceramidase Painful and deformed joints, subcutaneous nodules, Acid sphingomyelinase Metachromatic leukodystrophy ...

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enzyme

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View more videos about Restriction Enzyme.

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Scrabble value of E1N1Z10Y4M3E1

The value of this 6-letter word is 20 points. It is included in the first and second editions of the Official Scrabble Players Dictionary.

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