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Enzyme

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Definition of the noun enzyme

What does enzyme mean as a name of something?

noun - plural: enzymes

  1. any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions
    • examples: Pineapples contain an enzyme denominated bromelain that decomposes some proteins. | This enzyme is produced in the stomach.
    • lexical domain: Substances - nouns denoting substances
    • more generic words: accelerator / catalyst = a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected; protein = any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells; consist of polymers of amino acids; essential in the diet of animals for growth and for repair of tissues
    • more specific terms:
      • adenosine deaminase / ADA = an enzyme found in mammals that can catalyze the deamination of adenosine into inosine and ammonia
      • amylase = any of a group of proteins found in saliva and pancreatic juice and parts of plants
      • cholinesterase = an enzyme that hydrolyses acetylcholine
      • coagulase = an enzyme that induces coagulation
      • collagenase = any enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of collagen and gelatin
      • complement = one of a series of enzymes in the blood serum that are part of the immune response
      • catalase = enzyme found in most plant and animal cells that functions as an oxidative catalyst
      • cyclooxygenase / Cox = either of two related enzymes that control the production of prostaglandins and are blocked by aspirin
      • decarboxylase = any of the enzymes that hydrolize the carboxyl group
      • de-iodinase = an enzyme that removes the iodine radical
      • disaccharidase = an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of disaccharides into monosaccharides
      • elastase = a pancreatic enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of elastin
      • enterokinase = enzyme in the intestinal juice that converts inactive trypsinogen into active trypsin
      • histaminase = enzyme that acts as a catalyst in converting histidine to histamine
      • isomerase = an enzyme that catalyzes its substrate to an isomeric form
      • kinase = an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of a proenzyme to an active enzyme
      • lipase = an enzyme secreted in the digestive tract that catalyzes the breakdown of fats into individual fatty acids that can be absorbed into the bloodstream
      • muramidase / lysozyme = an enzyme found in saliva and sweat and tears that destroys the cell walls of certain bacteria
      • monoamine oxidase / MAO = an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of many body compounds
      • nitrogenase = an enzyme of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms that catalyzes the conversion of nitrogen to ammonia
      • nuclease = general term for enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleic acid by cleaving chains of nucleotides into smaller units
      • oxidase = any of the enzymes that catalyze biological oxidation
      • oxidoreductase = an enzyme that catalyzes oxidation-reduction
      • papain = a proteolytic enzyme obtained from the unripe papaya
      • beta-lactamase / penicillinase = enzyme produced by certain bacteria that inactivates penicillin and results in resistance to that antibiotic
      • pepsin = an enzyme produced in the stomach that splits proteins into peptones
      • pepsinogen = precursor of pepsin
      • phosphatase = any of a group of enzymes that act as a catalyst in the hydrolysis of organic phosphates
      • fibrinolysin / plasmin = an enzyme that dissolves the fibrin of blood clots
      • polymerase = an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of new DNA and RNA from an existing strand of DNA or RNA
      • proteolytic enzyme / proteinase / peptidase / protease = any enzyme that catalyzes the splitting of proteins into smaller peptide fractions and amino acids by a process known as proteolysis
      • reductase = an enzyme that catalyses the biochemical reduction of some specified substance
      • chymosin / rennin = an enzyme that occurs in gastric juice
      • secretase = a set of enzymes believed to snip pieces off a longer protein producing fragments of amyloid protein that bunch up and create amyloid protein plaques in brain tissue
      • streptodornase = an enzyme produced by some hemolytic strains of streptococcus that dissolves fibrinous secretions from infections
      • streptokinase = an enzyme produced by some strains of streptococcus that can liquefy blood clots by converting plasminogen to plasmin
      • superoxide dismutase / SOD = an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of superoxide into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen
      • telomerase = an enzyme in eukaryotic cells that can add telomeres to the ends of chromosomes after they divide
      • transferase = any of various enzymes that move a chemical group from one compound to another compound
      • trypsin = an enzyme of pancreatic origin
      • urease = an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia
      • zymase = a complex of enzymes that cause glycolysis
    • part: active site = the part of an enzyme or antibody where the chemical reaction occurs

Explanation

  1. Enzyme: Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts. They are responsible for thousands of metabolic processes that sustain life. Enzymes are highly selective catalysts, greatly accelerating both the rate and specificity of metabolic chemical reactions, from the digestion of food to the synthesis of DNA. Most enzymes are proteins, although some catalytic RNA molecules have been identified. Enzymes adopt a specific three-dimensional structure, and may employ organic and inorganic cofactors to assist in catalysis.
    • also known as ferment, kvasina
  2. Enzyme: Enzymes (pron.

Phrases with Enzyme

Phrases starting with the word Enzyme:

  1. Enzyme inhibitor
  2. enzyme-linked-immunosorbent serologic assay

Phrases ending with the word Enzyme:

  1. Adaptive enzyme
  2. proteolytic enzyme
  3. restriction enzyme
  4. angiotensin converting enzyme
  5. angiotensin-converting enzyme

Other phrase containing the word Enzyme:

  1. angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor

Printed dictionaries and other books with definitions for Enzyme

Click on a title to look inside that book (if available):

Google previewClass 2 Transferases (2009)

EC 2.7.11.17-2.8 by Dietmar Schomburg, Ida Schomburg

The enzyme is a component of a stress and cytokine-induced signal transduction pathway involving MAPK proteins, additional role for MKK4 in tumor suppression [40]; <8> the enzyme is an activator of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, the enzyme is a component of the JNK...

Google previewHandbook of Biotransformations of Aromatic Compounds (2004)

by B.L. Goodwin

Transamination D-Phenylglycine aminotransferase Pseudomonas stutzeri enzyme is a homodimer, molecular weight 92000,

Google previewJournal of the Royal Horticultural Society (1903)

An enzyme is a soluble ferment, and one that is proteolytic decomposes proteids. The author returns to the subject of the digestion of Nepenthes in order to bring to notice a paper of considerable importance, by the late Georges Clautriau, ...

Google previewOxidases and Related Redox Systems (2013)

Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Oxidases and Related Redox Systems, held in the State University of New York at Albany, USA by Tsso E. King, Howard S. Mason, Martin Morrison

VLIEGENTHART: We think the reduced enzyme is a complex of Fe and...

Google previewGene Amplification in Mammalian Cells (1992)

A Comprehensive Guide by Rodney E. Kellems

The enzyme is a heterodimer of membrane spanning catalytic a and glycoprotein (3 subunits (see Fig.

Functionally, the enzyme is an electrogenic antiporter, which couples the hydrolysis of ATP to the efflux of three Na+ and influx of two K+ ...

Google previewPlant Biochemistry (2016)

by James Bonner, J. E. Varner

For example, the phosphorylated enzyme is a stable intermediate in the phosphoglucomutase reaction and the sequence at the phosphorylated site is alanineserine phosphate-histidine (Milstein and Sanger, 1961); an acyl enzyme is a stable ...

Google previewMetabolism of Drugs and Other Xenobiotics (2012)

by Pavel Anzenbacher, Ulrich M. Zanger

The second enzyme is the NAD(P)H oxidoreductase, also named DT-diaphorase since it can use both NADH (abbreviated DPNH in earlier...

The soluble cytosolic enzyme is a dimer oftwo identical subunits, each containing the FAD moiety, ...

Google previewEnzymology Primer for Recombinant DNA Technology (1996)

by Hyone-Myong Eun

Physiologically, an enzyme is an essential, life-sustaining biocatalyst. Many chemical and biochemical reactions in...

Google previewTextbook of Biochemistry for Medical Students (2013)

by D M Vasudevan, Sreekumari S, Kannan Vaidyanathan

The enzyme is a flavoprotein. The succinate dehydrogenase is competitively inhibited by malonate (see Fig. 5.19). Seventh Step: Formation of Malate The formation of malate from fumarate is catalyzed by fumarase (step 7, Fig. 19.2).

Google previewTietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics (2012)

by Carl A. Burtis, Edward R. Ashwood, David E. Bruns

The enzyme is a homodimer consisting of two subunits of 63 kDa each. The dimeric form of GPI is a prerequisite for catalytic activity because the active site of the enzyme is composed of polypeptide chains from both subunits.50,145 The gene ...

Google previewTextbook of Children's Environmental Health (2013)

by Philip J. Landrigan, Ruth A. Etzel

One such epigenetic modifying enzyme is the set domain containing histone methyltransferase, Setd8, which places the H4K20Me mark. Expression of Setd8 depends upon binding of PPARγ to a PPAR response element (PPRE) in the Setd8 ...

Google previewAdvances in Genetics (1994)

by Jeffrey C. Hall

One such enzyme is the product of the gene polo, first identified through a female sterile mutant allele. Embryos derived from mothers homozygous for the polo1 mutation undergo highly abnormal mitoses that show disorganized arrays of ...

Google previewEicosanoids and Other Bioactive Lipids in Cancer, Inflammation, and Radiation Injury 2 (1998)

by Kenneth V. Honn, Santosh Nigam, Lawrence J. Marnett

Plenum Press, New York, 1997 183 enzyme is a hemoprotein of cytochrome P450 ...

Google previewSarup's Dictionary of Biotechnology (2000)

by Rita Singh

Techniques fall into two groups; those used to separate enzymes from solid substrate culture; those used to release enzymes from the interior of microbial cells. — Enzyme fermentation. A process in which a microorganism is grown as ...

Google previewEncyclopedia of Microbiology, Four-Volume Set (2000)

by Martin Alexander, Barry R. Bloom, David A. Hopwood, Roger Hull, Barbara H. Iglewski, Allen I. Laskin, Stephen G. Oliver, Moselio Schaechter, William C. Summers

First, the terminal D-Ala–D-Ala peptide bond of the pentapeptide precursor is cleaved, the terminal D-Ala is released, and a substrate–enzyme intermediate is formed. In a second reaction step the murein peptidyl moiety is transferred to a free ...

Google previewDictionary of DNA and Genome Technology (2012)

by Paul Singleton

If a library is to be used for CHROMOSOME WALKING then the products of enzyme digestion should be large (overlapping) fragments. A library may be screened for a particular gene or sequence by various methods: see e.g. COLONY ...

Google previewDictionary of Environmental Science and Technology (2013)

by Andrew Porteous

mg/m3 Controlled Uncontrolled Enzyme technology Enzyme technology covers a wide commercial area which embraces drug manufacture, beer malting, ...

Google previewThe Nutrition and Health Dictionary (1995)

by Percy Russell, Anita Williams

Li - Glycogenolysis *- --Cellular oxidation for energy Glucogon activates enzyme - -H.-Glycogenesis Gk * (liver and muscle) (10% of fat molecule; --- lipogenesis about 50% of ornino acids) --Synthesis of carbohydrateincreased by containing ...

Online dictionaries and encyclopedias with entries for Enzyme

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Photos about Enzyme

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enzyme

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Small photo of Papaya salad is a rich source of antioxidants, minerals and more of the enzyme pappin. It is healthy food. Good nutrition is an important part of leading a healthy lifestyle. Help you lose weightSmall photo of Ripe papaya, Paw-paw or Tree melon (Carica papaya L) which Rich in Betacarotene, Vitamin C, Fiber and Papine Enzyme.Small photo of Enzyme Ionic Plasma or Bio ExtractSmall photo of Mango Enzyme TeaSmall photo of Ripe papaya, Pawpaw or Tree melon (Carica papaya L) which Rich in Betacarotene, Vitamin C, Fiber and Papine Enzyme.Small photo of Strawberry Enzyme TeaSmall photo of Enzyme More...

Video language resources about Enzyme

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View more videos about Adaptive enzyme, Enzyme inhibitor, Restriction enzyme, and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme.

See also the pronunciation examples of Enzyme!

Quotes about Enzyme

A key issue in developmental biology at that time was the problem of how cells underwent differentiation, with most workers concentrating on explanations in terms of changes in enzyme and gene regulation. (Paul Nurse)
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Scrabble value of E1N1Z10Y4M3E1

The value of this 6-letter word is 20 points. It is included in the first and second editions of the Official Scrabble Players Dictionary.

Anagrams of ENZYME

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