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Mannitol

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Definition of the noun Mannitol

What does Mannitol mean as a name of something?

noun - plural: mannitols

  1. [organic compound] a polyhydroxy alcohol, an isomer of sorbitol, used as an artificial sweetener

Explanation

  1. Mannitol is a white, crystalline solid that looks and tastes sweet like sucrose. It was originally isolated from the secretions of the flowering ash and called manna after its resemblance to the Biblical food. In plants it is used to induce osmotic stress. Mannitol has several industrial uses, but is mainly used to produce tablets of medicine. Its fetal safety is "C" in Briggs' Reference Guide to Fetal and Neonatal Risk. Mannitol is classified as a sugar alcohol; that is, it is derived from a sugar by reduction. Other sugar alcohols include xylitol and sorbitol. Mannitol and sorbitol are isomers, the only difference being the orientation of the hydroxyl group on carbon 2.
    • also known as Cordycepate, Cordycepic acid, Diosmol, Hexahydroxyhexane, Hexanhexol, Hexitol, Invenex, Isotol, MAN, MTL, Manicol, Maniton s, Manna sugar, Mannazucker, Mannidex, Mannigen, Mannistol, Mannit, Mannit p, Mannite, Marine crystal, Mushroom sugar, Osmitrol, Osmofundin, Osmosal, Resectisol
  2. Mannitol: A naturally occurring alcohol found in fruits and vegetables and used as an osmotic diuretic. Mannitol is freely filtered by the glomerulus and poorly reabsorbed from the renal tubule, thereby causing an increase in osmolarity of the glomerular filtrate. An increase in osmolarity limits tubular reabsorption of water and inhibits the renal tubular reabsorption of sodium, chloride, and other solutes, thereby promoting diuresis. In addition, mannitol elevates blood plasma osmolarity, resulting in enhanced flow of water from tissues into interstitial fluid and plasma.

Printed books with definitions for Mannitol

Click on a title to look inside that book (if available):

Google previewEmergency Management in Neurocritical Care (2012)

by Edward Manno

Mannitol is a sugar alcohol molecule which is given in a dose of 0.25– 1.0g/kg intravenously over 15 minutes.

Google previewOlives (2009)

by Ioannis Nikolaos Therios

Mannitol is an osmoprotectant and also serves as a storage compound and a redox agent. Mannitol degradation produces, in its initial stage, NADH and its oxidation in mitochondria yields up to three molecules of ATP (Stoop et al., 1996).

Google previewPractice Questions for NCLEX-PN (2010)

by Judith C. Miller

Mannitol is an osmotic diuretic that increases urine output and will decrease intracranial pressure. Streptokinase and tPA dissolve clots and might be ordered for this client. Antihypertensive medications may also be ordered for this client. 3.

Google previewCritical Care Study Guide (2010)

Text and Review by Gerard J. Criner, Rodger E. Barnette, Gilbert E. D'Alonzo

mannitol is a very hypertonic solution (20–25%), which when added to the blood (0.9%) produces a sudden rise in...

Google previewBerne & Levy Physiology, Updated Edition (2009)

by Bruce M. Koeppen, Bruce A. Stanton

Mannitol is a sugar (molecular weight of 182 g/mol) that does not readily cross the blood-brain barrier and membranes of cells (neurons, as well as other cells in the body). Therefore, mannitol is an effective osmole, and intravenous infusion ...

Google previewPediatric Neurocritical Care (2012)

by Nicholas S. Abend, MD, Mark A. Helfaer, MD

Furthermore, mannitol is a potent osmotic diuretic and may precipitate hypotension and renal failure if the patient becomes...

The main mechanism of action is the osmotic effect similar to mannitol, but its main theoretical advantage over mannitol is that hypertonic saline can be administered in a hemodynamically...

Mannitol is an osmotic diuretic and may worsen intravascular depletion and hypotension.

Google previewBoard Buster Step 1 (2007)

by Stanley Zaslau

Mannitol is an osmotic diuretic. Spironolactone is a potassium-sparing diuretic. . Hydralazine is an antihypertensive agent often used in hypertensive emergencies (systolicBP>200). By increasing cGMP and dilatingarteries, it acts to decrease ...

Google previewPharmacology (2012)

by Joanne I. Moore

Mannitol is an osmotic agent which increases urine volume (increases water excretion) without altering sodium reabsorption. a, b, c, and e increase both sodium and water excretion Propranolol (a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist) does ...

Google previewDealing with Food Allergies in Babies and Children (2007)

by Janice Vickerstaff Joneja

Mannitol is a monosaccharide that is relatively poorly absorbed by the human intestine. Mannitol molecules pass through the luminal membrane by way of aqueous pores in the brush border membrane. The larger and the more numerous the ...

Google previewCommon Perioperative Problems and the Anaesthetist (2012)

by G.M. Woerlee

Mannitol is an osmotic diuretic. When administered to adults with normal renal function in a dose of 0.25-1.0g/kg, it causes an increase of renal blood flow secondary to renovascular dilation as well as elevation of the cardiac output and blood ...

Google previewManaging the Kidney when the Heart is Failing (2012)

by George L. Bakris

Mannitol is a polysaccharide diuretic given intravenously that is freely eliminated by glomerular filtration. Mannitol is poorly reabsorbed along the length of the nephron and thereby exerts a dose-dependent osmotic effect. This osmotic effect ...

Google previewBrain Injury Medicine (2006)

Principles and Practice by Douglas I Katz, MD, Ross D Zafonte, DO, Nathan D Zasler, MD, FAAPM&R, FAADEP, DAAPM

Mannitol is a very effective drug for lowering ICP and is a mainstay in this regard. It works by dehydrating the brain, especially areas of cerebral edema and by altering cerebral rheology. Unfortunately it loses some of its efficacy with time and ...

Google previewSBA MCQs for the MRCS (2012)

by Sri G. Thrumurthy, Tania Samantha De Silva, Zia Moinuddin, Stuart Enoch

Mannitol is an osmotic diuretic and a potent free radical scavenger.

Google previewVander's Human Physiology, The Mechanisms of Body Function (2016)

Medicine, Human anatomy by CTI Reviews

Mannitol is a white, crystalline organic compound with the formula (C6H8(OH)6). This polyol is used as an osmotic diuretic agent and a weak renal vasodilator. It was originally isolated from the secretions of the flowering ash, called manna ...

Google previewGet Through Primary FRCA: MTFs (2014)

by James Day, Amy Thomson, Tamsin McAllister

6A: False 6B: True 6C: False 6D: False 6E: True Mannitol is a polyol. It is an isomer of sorbitol and a sugar alcohol.

Google previewFearless Puppy on American Road (2007)

by Doug "Ten" Rose

Mannitol is a harmless milk sugar baby laxative that's often used to dilute heroin, which in its pure form would be too potent for a human to survive. There were plenty of overdoses in the neighborhood. Junkies are crazy and sometimes don't ...

Google previewNetter's Pediatrics (2011)

by Todd Florin, Stephen Ludwig, MD, Paul L. Aronson, Heidi C. Werner

Because mannitol is an osmotic diuretic, one must be careful to avoid hypovolemia with resultant hypotension, which may lead to an overall decrease in CPP despite improving ICP. b. Hypertonic saline: IV hypertonic saline establishes an ...

Google previewMedical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (2013)

by Derek G. Waller, Tony Sampson

Mannitol is an osmotic diuretic with relatively few uses (Ch. 14), but is effective for the reduction of cerebral oedema. D. False. The coagulopathy is due to a reduction in vitamin K-dependent clotting factors. Warfarin, a vitamin K antagonist , ...

Google previewSmith and Aitkenhead's Textbook of Anaesthesia E-Book (2013)

by Alan R. Aitkenhead, Jonathan Thompson, David J. Rowbotham, Iain Moppett

Osmotic Diuretics Mannitol Mannitol is an alcohol produced by the reduction ...

Google previewNurse Anesthesia (2009)

by John J. Nagelhout, Karen Plaus

Because mannitol is an osmotic diuretic, decreased vascular volume resulting in hypotension can occur. Because most patients require large amounts of fluid and blood replacement, postoperative mechanical ventilation is recommended.

Google previewMedical Sciences E-Book (2014)

by Jeannette Naish, Denise Syndercombe Court

Mannitol is a pharmacologically inert substance. It is administered intravenously and filtered, unchanged, at the glomerulus, with little or no tubular reabsorption, and excreted unchanged. The most important uses are: □ Cerebral oedema and ...

Google previewHead Injury 2Ed (2005)

Pathophysiology & Management by P Reilly, R Bullock

Mannitol is a potent osmotic diuretic that may compromise hemodynamic stability by inducing an inappropriate diuresis in a hypovolemic patient. Consequently, systemic hypotension may ensue which may cause further cerebral ischemia or ...

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Small photo of Staphylococcus aureus grow on Mannitol salt agar show yellow colony with yellow zone.Small photo of Laboratory doctor holding Mannitol salt agar petri dish (MSA)Small photo of Isolation of Staphylococcus on Mannitol salt agar petri dishSmall photo of Mannitol salt agar petri dish (MSA), isolated on white background More...

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Mannitol Meaning

Video shows what mannitol means. a polyhydroxy alcohol, an isomer of sorbitol, used as an artificial sweetener. mannitol synonyms: E421 when used as a ...

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Scrabble value of M3A1N1N1I1T1O1L1

The value of this 8-letter word is 10 points. It is included in the first and second editions of the Official Scrabble Players Dictionary.

Anagrams of MANNITOL

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