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Plants - nouns denoting plants

  1. aalii = a small Hawaiian tree with hard dark wood
  2. Aaron's rod = tall-stalked very woolly mullein with densely packed yellow flowers
  3. abaca = Philippine banana tree having leafstalks that yield Manila hemp used for rope and paper etc
  4. abele = a poplar that is widely cultivated in the United States
  5. abelia = any of various deciduous or evergreen ornamental shrubs of the genus Abelia having opposite simple leaves and cymes of small white or pink or purplish flowers
  6. Abelmoschus = genus of tropical coarse herbs having large lobed leaves and often yellow flowers
  7. Abelmoschus esculentus = tall coarse annual of Old World tropics widely cultivated in southern United States and West Indies for its long mucilaginous green pods used as basis for soups and stews
  8. Abelmoschus moschatus = bushy herb of tropical Asia grown for its yellow or pink to scarlet blooms that resemble the hibiscus
  9. abelmosk = bushy herb of tropical Asia grown for its yellow or pink to scarlet blooms that resemble the hibiscus
  10. Abies = true firs
  11. Abies alba = tall timber tree of central and southern Europe having a regular crown and grey bark
  12. Abies amabilis = medium to tall fir of western North America having a conic crown and branches in tiers
  13. Abies balsamea = medium-sized fir of northeastern North America; leaves smell of balsam when crushed
  14. Abies bracteata = a pyramidal fir of southwestern California having spiny pointed leaves and cone scales with long spines
  15. Abies concolor = medium to tall fir of central to western United States having a narrow erect crown and soft wood
  16. Abies fraseri = small fast-growing but short-lived fir of southern Alleghenies similar to balsam fir but with very short leaves
  17. Abies grandis = lofty fir of the Pacific coast of northwestern America having long curving branches and deep green leaves
  18. Abies lasiocarpa = medium-tall timber tree of the Rocky Mountains having a narrowly conic to columnar crown
  19. Abies lowiana = medium to tall fir of central to western United States having a narrow erect crown and soft wood
  20. Abies venusta = a pyramidal fir of southwestern California having spiny pointed leaves and cone scales with long spines
  21. Abronia = genus of western North American herbs having showy flowers
  22. Abronia elliptica = plant having heads of fragrant white trumpet-shaped flowers
  23. Abronia fragrans = taller than Abronia elliptica and having night-blooming flowers
  24. Abronia latifolia = plant having hemispherical heads of yellow trumpet-shaped flowers
  25. Abronia maritima = plant having hemispherical heads of wine-red flowers
  26. Abronia umbellata = prostrate herb having heads of deep pink to white flowers
  27. Abronia villosa = soft-haired sticky plant with heads of bright pink trumpet-shaped flowers; found in sandy desert soil
  28. abruptly-pinnate leaf = a pinnate leaf with a pair of leaflets at the apex
  29. absinthe = aromatic herb of temperate Eurasia and North Africa having a bitter taste used in making the liqueur absinthe
  30. Abutilon = herbs or shrubs or small trees: flowering maple
  31. Abutilon theophrasti = tall annual herb or subshrub of tropical Asia having velvety leaves and yellow flowers and yielding a strong fiber
  32. Abyssinian banana = large evergreen arborescent herb having huge paddle-shaped leaves and bearing inedible fruit that resemble bananas but edible young flower shoots
  33. acacia = any of various spiny trees or shrubs of the genus Acacia
  34. Acacia auriculiformis = Australian tree that yields tanning materials
  35. Acacia cambegei = scrubby Australian acacia having extremely foul-smelling blossoms
  36. Acacia catechu = East Indian spiny tree having twice-pinnate leaves and yellow flowers followed by flat pods
  37. Acacia dealbata = evergreen Australasian tree having white or silvery bark and young leaves and yellow flowers
  38. Acacia farnesiana = tropical American thorny shrub or small tree
  39. Acacia melanoxylon = tall Australian acacia yielding highly valued black timber
  40. Acacia pycnantha = shrubby Australian tree having clusters of fragrant golden yellow flowers
  41. Acacia xanthophloea = African tree supposed to mark healthful regions
  42. Acalypha = a genus of herbs and shrubs belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae
  43. Acalypha virginica = weedy herb of eastern North America
  44. Acanthaceae = widely distributed herbs and shrubs and trees
  45. Acanthocereus = mostly trailing cacti having nocturnal white flowers
  46. Acanthocereus pentagonus = cactus of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico having edible juicy fruit
  47. Acanthocereus tetragonus = cactus of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico having edible juicy fruit
  48. acanthus = any plant of the genus Acanthus having large spiny leaves and spikes or white or purplish flowers
  49. acanthus family = widely distributed herbs and shrubs and trees
  50. Acanthus mollis = widely cultivated southern European acanthus with whitish purple-veined flowers
  51. accessory fruit = fruit containing much fleshy tissue besides that of the ripened ovary
  52. acellular slime mold = a slime mold of the class Myxomycetes
  53. Acer = type genus of the Aceraceae
  54. Acer argutum = small shrubby Japanese plant with leaves having 5 to 7 acuminate lobes
  55. Acer campestre = shrubby Eurasian maple often used as a hedge
  56. Acer circinatum = small maple of northwestern North America having prostrate stems that root freely and form dense thickets
  57. Acer glabrum = small maple of northwestern North America
  58. Acer japonicum = leaves deeply incised and bright red in autumn
  59. Acer macrophyllum = maple of western North America having large 5-lobed leaves orange in autumn
  60. Acer negundo = common shade tree of eastern and central United States
  61. Acer negundo Californicum = maple of the Pacific coast of the United States
  62. Acer palmatum = ornamental shrub or small tree of Japan and Korea with deeply incised leaves
  63. Acer pennsylvanicum = maple of eastern North America with striped bark and large two-lobed leaves clear yellow in autumn
  64. Acer platanoides = a large Eurasian maple tree naturalized in North America; five-lobed leaves yellow in autumn
  65. Acer pseudoplatanus = Eurasian maple tree with pale grey bark that peels in flakes like that of a sycamore tree
  66. Acer rubrum = maple of eastern and central America
  67. Acer saccharinum = a common North American maple tree; five-lobed leaves are light green above and silvery white beneath
  68. Acer saccharum = maple of eastern and central North America having three-lobed to five-lobed leaves and hard close-grained wood much used for cabinet work especially the curly-grained form; sap is chief source of maple syrup and maple sugar
  69. Acer spicatum = small shrubby maple of eastern North America
  70. Aceraceae = a family of trees and shrubs of order Sapindales including the maples
  71. acerate leaf = the leaf of a conifer
  72. acerola = tropical American shrub bearing edible acid red fruit resembling cherries
  73. acervulus = small asexual fruiting body resembling a cushion or blister consisting of a mat of hyphae that is produced on a host by some fungi
  74. achene = small dry indehiscent fruit with the seed distinct from the fruit wall
  75. achillea = any of several plants of the genus Achillea native to Europe and having small white flowers in flat-topped flower heads
  76. Achillea millefolium = ubiquitous strong-scented mat-forming Eurasian herb of wasteland, hedgerow or pasture having narrow serrate leaves and small usually white florets
  77. Achillea ptarmica = Eurasian herb having loose heads of button-shaped white flowers and long grey-green leaves that cause sneezing when powdered
  78. achimenes = any plant of the genus Achimenes having showy bell-shaped flowers that resemble gloxinias
  79. achira = canna grown especially for its edible rootstock from which arrowroot starch is obtained
  80. Achras = tropical trees having papery leaves and large fruit
  81. Achras zapota = large tropical American evergreen yielding chicle gum and edible fruit
  82. Acinos = plants closely allied to the genera Satureja and Calamintha
  83. Acinos arvensis = fragrant European mint having clusters of small violet-and-white flowers
  84. acinus = one of the small drupes making up an aggregate or multiple fruit like a blackberry
  85. Acocanthera = small genus of trees and shrubs containing strongly toxic cardiac glycosides
  86. Acocanthera oblongifolia = medium-sized shrubby tree of South Africa having thick leathery evergreen leaves and white or pink flowers and globose usually two-seeded purplish black fruits
  87. Acocanthera oppositifolia = evergreen shrub or tree of South Africa
  88. Acocanthera spectabilis = medium-sized shrubby tree of South Africa having thick leathery evergreen leaves and white or pink flowers and globose usually two-seeded purplish black fruits
  89. Acocanthera venenata = evergreen shrub or tree of South Africa
  90. Acokanthera = small genus of trees and shrubs containing strongly toxic cardiac glycosides
  91. aconite = any of various usually poisonous plants of the genus Aconitum having tuberous roots and palmately lobed leaves and blue or white flowers
  92. Aconitum = genus of poisonous plants of temperate regions of northern hemisphere with a vaulted and enlarged petal
  93. Aconitum lycoctonum = poisonous Eurasian perennial herb with broad rounded leaves and yellow flowers and fibrous rootstock
  94. Aconitum napellus = a poisonous herb native to northern Europe having hooded blue-purple flowers
  95. Acoraceae = used in some classifications for the genus Acorus which is usually assigned to Araceae
  96. acorn = fruit of the oak tree: a smooth thin-walled nut in a woody cup-shaped base
  97. acorn cup = cup-shaped structure of hardened bracts at the base of an acorn
  98. acorn squash = squash plant bearing small acorn-shaped fruits having yellow flesh and dark green or yellow rind with longitudinal ridges
  99. Acorus = sweet flags
  100. Acorus calamus = perennial marsh plant having swordlike leaves and aromatic roots
  101. Acrasiomycetes = cellular slime molds
  102. acrocarp = a moss in which the main axis is terminated by the archegonium
  103. acrocarpous moss = a moss in which the main axis is terminated by the archegonium
  104. Acrocarpus = small genus of trees of Indonesia and Malaysia
  105. Acrocarpus fraxinifolius = East Indian timber tree with hard durable wood used especially for tea boxes
  106. Acroclinium = genus of herbs and shrubs of Australia and South Africa: everlasting flower
  107. Acroclinium roseum = flower of southwestern Australia having bright pink daisylike papery flowers
  108. Acrocomia = Central and South American feather palms
  109. Acrocomia aculeata = tropical American feather palm having a swollen spiny trunk and edible nuts
  110. Acrocomia vinifera = tropical American palm having edible nuts and yielding a useful fiber
  111. acrogen = any flowerless plant such as a fern (pteridophyte) or moss (bryophyte) in which growth occurs only at the tip of the main stem
  112. Acrostichum = in some classification systems placed in family Polypodiaceae
  113. Acrostichum aureum = stout tropical swamp fern (especially tropical America) having large fronds with golden yellow sporangia covering the undersides
  114. Actaea = baneberry
  115. Actaea alba = North American herb with white poisonous berries
  116. Actaea rubra = North American perennial herb with alternately compound leaves and racemes of small white flowers followed by bright red oval poisonous berries
  117. Actinidia = small Asiatic woody vine bearing many-seeded fruit
  118. Actinidia arguta = climbing Asiatic vine having long finely serrate leaves and racemes of white flowers followed by greenish-yellow edible fruit
  119. Actinidia chinensis = climbing vine native to China
  120. Actinidia deliciosa = climbing vine native to China
  121. Actinidia polygama = ornamental vine of eastern Asia having yellow edible fruit and leaves with silver-white markings
  122. Actinidiaceae = tropical trees or shrubs or woody vines
  123. Actiniopteris = terrestrial ferns of tropical Asia and Africa
  124. Actinomeris = used in some classification systems for plants now included in genus Verbesina
  125. Actinomeris alternifolia = perennial herb with showy yellow flowers
  126. action plant = prostrate or semi-erect subshrub of tropical America, and Australia
  127. aculeus = a stiff sharp-pointed plant process
  128. acumen = a tapering point
  129. acuminate leaf = a leaf narrowing to a slender point
  130. Adam's apple = tropical shrub having glossy foliage and fragrant nocturnal flowers with crimped or wavy corollas
  131. Adam's needle = yucca with long stiff leaves having filamentlike appendages
  132. Adam's needle-and-thread = yucca with long stiff leaves having filamentlike appendages
  133. adam-and-eve = North American orchid bearing a single leaf and yellowish-brown flowers
  134. Adansonia = baobab
  135. Adansonia digitata = African tree having an exceedingly thick trunk and fruit that resembles a gourd and has an edible pulp called monkey bread
  136. Adansonia gregorii = Australian tree having an agreeably acid fruit that resembles a gourd
  137. adder's fern = mat-forming lithophytic or terrestrial fern with creeping rootstocks and large pinnatifid fronds found throughout North America and Europe and Africa and east Asia
  138. adder's tongue = ferns with fertile spikes shaped like a snake's tongue
  139. adder's tongue fern = ferns with fertile spikes shaped like a snake's tongue
  140. Adenanthera = small genus of trees of tropical Asia and Pacific areas
  141. Adenanthera pavonina = East Indian tree with racemes of yellow-white flowers
  142. Adenium = one species: succulent shrub or tree of tropical Africa and Arabia
  143. Adenium multiflorum = South African shrub having a swollen succulent stem and bearing showy pink and white flowers after the leaves fall
  144. Adenium obesum = South African shrub having a swollen succulent stem and bearing showy pink and white flowers after the leaves fall
  145. Adiantaceae = used in some classification systems for some genera of the family Polypodiaceae
  146. Adiantum = cosmopolitan genus of ferns: maidenhair ferns
  147. Adiantum bellum = delicate endemic Bermudian fern with creeping rootstock
  148. Adiantum capillus-veneris = delicate maidenhair fern with slender shining black leaf stalks
  149. Adiantum pedatum = hardy palmately branched North American fern with divergent recurved branches borne on lustrous dark reddish stipes
  150. Adiantum tenerum = tropical American fern with broad pinnae
  151. Adiantum tenerum farleyense = named for a country house in Barbados where it was discovered
  152. Adlumia = one species: climbing fumitory
  153. Adlumia fungosa = vine with feathery leaves and white or pinkish flowers
  154. adobe lily = California herb with pinkish purple flowers
  155. Adonis = annual or perennial herbs
  156. Adonis annua = Eurasian herb cultivated for its deep red flowers with dark centers
  157. adsuki bean = bushy annual widely grown in China and Japan for the flour made from its seeds
  158. adventitious root = root growing in an unusual location e.g. from a stem
  159. adzuki bean = bushy annual widely grown in China and Japan for the flour made from its seeds
  160. aeciospore = spore of a rust fungus formed in an aecium
  161. aecium = fruiting body of some rust fungi bearing chains of aeciospores
  162. Aegiceras = a genus of herbs of the family Verbenaceae
  163. Aegiceras majus = an Australian tree resembling the black mangrove of the West Indies and Florida
  164. Aegilops = goat grass
  165. Aegilops triuncalis = European grass naturalized as a weed in North America
  166. Aeonium = a genus of plants of the family Crassulaceae
  167. Aeonium haworthii = perennial subshrub of Tenerife having leaves in rosettes resembling pinwheels
  168. aerides = any orchid of the genus Aerides
  169. aerophyte = plant that derives moisture and nutrients from the air and rain
  170. aeschynanthus = a plant of the genus Aeschynanthus having somewhat red or orange flowers and seeds having distinctive hairs at base and apex
  171. Aeschynanthus radicans = epiphyte or creeping on rocks
  172. Aesculus = deciduous trees or some shrubs of North America; southeastern Europe
  173. Aesculus hippocastanum = tree having palmate leaves and large clusters of white to red flowers followed by brown shiny inedible seeds
  174. Aethionema = Old World genus of the family Cruciferae
  175. Aethusa = fool's parsley
  176. Aethusa cynapium = European weed naturalized in America that resembles parsley but causes nausea and poisoning when eaten
  177. Aframomum = an African genus of plants of the family Zingiberaceae
  178. Aframomum melegueta = West African plant bearing pungent peppery seeds
  179. African bowstring hemp = bowstring hemp of South Africa
  180. African daisy = any of several plants of the genus Arctotis having daisylike flowers / African or Asiatic herbs with daisylike flowers / shrub of southwestern Mediterranean region having yellow daisylike flowers
  181. African hemp = large shrub of South Africa having many conspicuously hairy branches with large hairy leaves and clusters of conspicuous white flowers / bowstring hemp of South Africa
  182. African holly = woolly-stemmed biennial arborescent shrub of tropical Africa and southern Asia having silvery-white prickly branches, clusters of blue or white flowers, and bright red berries resembling holly berries
  183. African lily = African plant with bright green evergreen leaves and umbels of many usually deep violet-blue flowers
  184. African love grass = perennial South African grass having densely clumped flimsy stems
  185. African mahogany = African tree having hard heavy odorless wood
  186. African marigold = a stout branching annual with large yellow to orange flower heads
  187. African millet = East Indian cereal grass whose seed yield a somewhat bitter flour, a staple in the Orient
  188. African oil palm = oil palm of Africa
  189. African sandalwood = small shrubby African tree with hard wood used as a dyewood yielding a red dye
  190. African scented mahogany = African tree having rather lightweight cedar-scented wood varying in color from pink to reddish brown
  191. African tulip = African plant with bright green evergreen leaves and umbels of many usually deep violet-blue flowers
  192. African violet = tropical African plant cultivated as a houseplant for its violet or white or pink flowers
  193. African walnut = tropical African timber tree with wood that resembles mahogany
  194. African yellowwood = South African tree or shrub having a rounded crown
  195. Afrocarpus = dioecious evergreen trees or shrubs; equatorial to southern and southeastern Africa: yellowwood
  196. Afrocarpus falcata = medium-sized tree of South Africa
  197. Agalinis = semiparasitic herb with purple or white or pink flowers
  198. agamete = an asexual reproductive cell
  199. agapanthus = any of various plants of the genus Agapanthus having umbels of showy blue to purple flowers
  200. Agapanthus africanus = African plant with bright green evergreen leaves and umbels of many usually deep violet-blue flowers
  201. agaric = a saprophytic fungus of the order Agaricales having an umbrellalike cap with gills on the underside / fungus used in the preparation of punk for fuses
  202. Agaricaceae = large family including many familiar mushrooms
  203. Agaricales = typical gilled mushrooms belonging to the subdivision Basidiomycota
  204. Agaricus = type genus of Agaricaceae
  205. Agaricus arvensis = coarse edible mushroom with a hollow stem and a broad white cap
  206. Agaricus campestris = common edible mushroom found naturally in moist open soil
  207. Agastache = giant hyssop
  208. Agastache foeniculum = much-branched North American herb with an odor like fennel
  209. Agastache mexicana = erect perennial of Mexico having rose to crimson flowers
  210. Agastache nepetoides = erect perennial with stout stems and yellow-green flowers
  211. Agathis = kauri pine
  212. Agathis alba = native to the Moluccas and Philippines
  213. Agathis australis = tall timber tree of New Zealand having white straight-grained wood
  214. Agathis dammara = native to the Moluccas and Philippines
  215. Agathis lanceolata = New Zealand tree with glossy leaves and scaly reddish-brown bark
  216. Agathis robusta = Australian timber tree resembling the kauri but having wood much lighter in weight and softer
  217. Agavaceae = chiefly tropical and xerophytic plants: includes Dracenaceae
  218. agave = tropical American plants with basal rosettes of fibrous sword-shaped leaves and flowers in tall spikes
  219. Agave americana = widely cultivated American monocarpic plant with greenish-white flowers on a tall stalk
  220. Agave atrovirens = Mexican plant used especially for making pulque which is the source of the colorless Mexican liquor, mescal
  221. Agave cantala = Philippine plant yielding a hard fibre used in making coarse twine
  222. agave family = chiefly tropical and xerophytic plants: includes Dracenaceae
  223. Agave sisalana = Mexican or West Indian plant with large fleshy leaves yielding a stiff fiber used in e.g. rope
  224. Agave tequilana = Mexican plant used especially for making tequila
  225. Agdestis = a genus with one species that is a rapidly growing climbing vine with tuberous roots
  226. Ageratina = annual to perennial herbs or shrubs of eastern United States and Central and South America
  227. Ageratina altissima = American herb having flat-topped clusters of small white flower heads; reputedly a cause of trembles and milk sickness
  228. ageratum = any plant of the genus Ageratum having opposite leaves and small heads of blue or white flowers / rhizomatous plant of central and southeastern United States and West Indies having large showy heads of clear blue flowers
  229. Ageratum houstonianum = small tender herb grown for its fluffy brushlike blue to lavender blooms
  230. aggregate fruit = fruit consisting of many individual small fruits or drupes derived from separate ovaries within a common receptacle: e.g. blackberry; raspberry
  231. Aglaomorpha = epiphytic ferns of tropical Asia
  232. Aglaomorpha meyeniana = epiphytic fern with large fronds
  233. Aglaonema = climbing herbs of southeastern Asia having thick fleshy oblong leaves and naked unisexual flowers: Chinese evergreen
  234. Aglaonema modestum = erect or partially climbing herb having large green or variegated leaves
  235. agrimonia = a plant of the genus Agrimonia having spikelike clusters of small yellow flowers
  236. Agrimonia eupatoria = erect perennial Old World herb of dry grassy habitats
  237. Agrimonia procera = fragrant European perennial herb found at woodland margins on moist soils
  238. agrimony = a plant of the genus Agrimonia having spikelike clusters of small yellow flowers
  239. Agropyron = perennial grasses of temperate and cool regions: wheatgrass
  240. Agropyron cristatum = Eurasian grass grown in United States great plains area for forage and erosion control
  241. Agropyron intermedium = Asiatic grass introduced into United States rangelands for pasture and fodder
  242. Agropyron pauciflorum = North American grass cultivated in western United States as excellent forage crop
  243. Agropyron repens = European grass spreading rapidly by creeping rhizomes
  244. Agropyron smithii = valuable forage grass of western United States
  245. Agropyron subsecundum = a wheatgrass with straight terminal awns on the flowering glumes
  246. Agropyron trachycaulum = North American grass cultivated in western United States as excellent forage crop
  247. Agrostemma = a caryophylloid dicot genus including corn cockles
  248. Agrostemma githago = European annual having large trumpet-shaped reddish-purple flowers and poisonous seed; a common weed in grainfields and beside roadways
  249. Agrostis = annual or perennial grasses cosmopolitan in northern hemisphere: bent grass
  250. Agrostis alba = slender European grass of shady places
  251. Agrostis canina = common grass with slender stems and narrow leaves
  252. Agrostis nebulosa = Spanish grass with light feathery panicles grown for dried bouquets
  253. Agrostis palustris = common pasture or lawn grass spread by long runners
  254. ague grass = colicroot having a scurfy or granuliferous perianth and white flowers
  255. ague root = colicroot having a scurfy or granuliferous perianth and white flowers
  256. ague weed = gentian of eastern North America having clusters of bristly blue flowers
  257. agueweed = perennial herb of southeastern United States having white-rayed flower heads
  258. Ahuehuete = Mexico's most famous tree
  259. ailanthus = any of several deciduous Asian trees of the genus Ailanthus
  260. Ailanthus altissima = deciduous rapidly growing tree of China with foliage like sumac and sweetish fetid flowers
  261. air plant = plant that derives moisture and nutrients from the air and rain
  262. air potato = yam of tropical Africa and Asia cultivated for it large tubers
  263. Aizoaceae = succulent herbs or small shrubs mostly of South Africa but also New Zealand and North America: carpetweeds
  264. Ajuga = bugle
  265. Ajuga chamaepitys = low-growing annual with yellow flowers dotted red; faintly aromatic of pine resin
  266. Ajuga genevensis = upright rhizomatous perennial with bright blue flowers
  267. Ajuga pyramidalis = European evergreen carpeting perennial
  268. Ajuga reptans = low rhizomatous European carpeting plant having spikes of blue flowers
  269. akee = widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions for its fragrant flowers and colorful fruits
  270. akee tree = widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions for its fragrant flowers and colorful fruits
  271. Alabama lip fern = southeastern United States to northern Mexico and Jamaica
  272. Alaska cedar = tall evergreen of the Pacific coast of North America often cultivated for ornament
  273. Alaska rein orchid = similar to coastal rein orchid but with smaller flowers
  274. Albatrellus = a genus of fungi belonging to the family Polyporaceae
  275. Albatrellus dispansus = a rare fungus having a large (up to 14 inches wide) yellow fruiting body with multiple individual caps and a broad central stalk and a fragrant odor
  276. Albatrellus ovinus = a fungus with a whitish often circular cap and a white pore surface and small pores and a white central stalk; found under conifers
  277. albizia = any of numerous trees of the genus Albizia
  278. Albizia julibrissin = attractive domed or flat-topped Asiatic tree having bipinnate leaves and flowers with long silky stamens
  279. Albizia lebbeck = large spreading Old World tree having large leaves and globose clusters of greenish-yellow flowers and long seed pods that clatter in the wind
  280. Albizia saman = large ornamental tropical American tree with bipinnate leaves and globose clusters of flowers with crimson stamens and seed pods that are eaten by cattle
  281. albizzia = any of numerous trees of the genus Albizia
  282. Albizzia julibrissin = attractive domed or flat-topped Asiatic tree having bipinnate leaves and flowers with long silky stamens
  283. Albizzia lebbeck = large spreading Old World tree having large leaves and globose clusters of greenish-yellow flowers and long seed pods that clatter in the wind
  284. albuca = any of various plants of the genus Albuca having large clusters of pale yellow flowers
  285. Albuginaceae = fungi that produce white sori resembling blisters on certain flowering plants
  286. Albugo = type genus of the Albuginaceae
  287. Alcea = genus of erect herbs of the Middle East having showy flowers: hollyhocks
  288. Alcea rosea = plant with terminal racemes of showy white to pink or purple flowers
  289. alder = north temperate shrubs or trees having toothed leaves and conelike fruit; bark is used in tanning and dyeing and the wood is rot-resistant / wood of any of various alder trees; resistant to underwater rot
  290. alder buckthorn = small tree common in Europe
  291. alder dogwood = small tree common in Europe
  292. alder tree = north temperate shrubs or trees having toothed leaves and conelike fruit
  293. alder-leaved serviceberry = shrub or small tree of northwestern North America having fragrant creamy white flowers and small waxy purple-red fruits
  294. alderleaf Juneberry = shrub or small tree of northwestern North America having fragrant creamy white flowers and small waxy purple-red fruits
  295. Aldrovanda = one species: waterwheel plant
  296. Aldrovanda vesiculosa = floating aquatic carnivorous perennial of central and southern Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia having whorls of 6 to 9 leaves ending in hinged lobes for capturing e.g. water fleas
  297. alecost = tansy-scented Eurasian perennial herb with buttonlike yellow flowers; used as potherb or salad green and sometimes for potpourri or tea or flavoring
  298. Alectoria = lichens having dark brown erect or pendulous much-branched cylindrical thallus
  299. alehoof = trailing European aromatic plant of the mint family having rounded leaves and small purplish flowers often grown in hanging baskets; naturalized in North America
  300. Aleppo grass = tall perennial grass that spreads by creeping rhizomes and is grown for fodder
  301. Aletris = small genus of bitter-rooted herbs of eastern North America and Asia
  302. Aletris aurea = colicroot with yellow-bracted racemose flowers; smaller than Aletris farinosa
  303. Aletris farinosa = colicroot having a scurfy or granuliferous perianth and white flowers
  304. Aleuria aurantia = a discomycete with bright orange cup-shaped or saucer-shaped fruiting bodies and pale orange exteriors
  305. Aleurites = candlenut
  306. Aleurites fordii = Chinese tree bearing seeds that yield tung oil
  307. Aleurites moluccana = large tree native to southeastern Asia; the nuts yield oil used in varnishes
  308. Alexander = European herb somewhat resembling celery widely naturalized in Britain coastal regions and often cultivated as a potherb
  309. Alexanders = European herb somewhat resembling celery widely naturalized in Britain coastal regions and often cultivated as a potherb
  310. Alexandria senna = erect shrub having racemes of tawny yellow flowers; the dried leaves are used medicinally as a cathartic
  311. Alexandrian laurel = East Indian tree having racemes of fragrant white flowers
  312. Alexandrian senna = erect shrub having racemes of tawny yellow flowers; the dried leaves are used medicinally as a cathartic
  313. alfalfa = important European leguminous forage plant with trifoliate leaves and blue-violet flowers grown widely as a pasture and hay crop
  314. alfilaria = European weed naturalized in southwestern United States and Mexico having reddish decumbent stems with small fernlike leaves and small deep reddish-lavender flowers followed by slender fruits that stick straight up
  315. alfileria = European weed naturalized in southwestern United States and Mexico having reddish decumbent stems with small fernlike leaves and small deep reddish-lavender flowers followed by slender fruits that stick straight up
  316. algarobilla = mesquite pod used in tanning and dyeing
  317. algarroba = mesquite of Gulf Coast and Caribbean Islands from Mexico to Venezuela / mesquite pod used in tanning and dyeing / evergreen Mediterranean tree with edible pods; the biblical carob / long pod containing small beans and sweetish edible pulp
  318. algarroba bean = long pod containing small beans and sweetish edible pulp
  319. algarrobilla = mesquite pod used in tanning and dyeing
  320. Alisma = small genus of aquatic or semiaquatic plants
  321. Alisma plantago-aquatica = marsh plant having clusters of small white or pinkish flowers and broad pointed or rounded leaves
  322. Alismales = an order of aquatic monocotyledonous herbaceous plants
  323. Alismataceae = perennial or annual aquatic or marsh plants
  324. Alismatidae = one of four subclasses or superorders of Monocotyledones
  325. alkali grass = plant of western North America having grasslike leaves and greenish-white flowers
  326. alkanet = perennial or biennial herb cultivated for its delicate usually blue flowers
  327. allamanda = a plant of the genus Allamanda having large showy funnel-shaped flowers in terminal cymes
  328. Allamanda cathartica = vigorous evergreen climbing plant of South America having glossy leathery foliage and golden yellow flowers
  329. Alleghany plum = wild plum of northeastern United States having dark purple fruits with yellow flesh
  330. Allegheny chinkapin = shrubby chestnut tree of southeastern United States having small edible nuts
  331. Allegheny mountain spurge = low semi-evergreen perennial herb having small spikes of white or pinkish flowers
  332. Allegheny plum = wild plum of northeastern United States having dark purple fruits with yellow flesh
  333. Allegheny spurge = low semi-evergreen perennial herb having small spikes of white or pinkish flowers
  334. Allegheny vine = vine with feathery leaves and white or pinkish flowers
  335. allgood = European plant naturalized in North America
  336. Alliaceae = one of many families or subfamilies into which some classification systems subdivide the Liliaceae but not widely accepted
  337. alliaceous plant = bulbous plants having a characteristic pungent onion odor
  338. Alliaria = a genus of herbs of the family Cruciferae
  339. Alliaria officinalis = European herb that smells like garlic
  340. alligator grass = prolific South American aquatic weed having grasslike leaves and short spikes of white flowers
  341. alligator weed = prolific South American aquatic weed having grasslike leaves and short spikes of white flowers
  342. Allionia = small genus of chiefly American herbs
  343. Allionia incarnata = trailing plant having crowded clusters of 3 brilliant deep pink flowers resembling a single flower blooming near the ground; found in dry gravelly or sandy soil
  344. Allioniaceae = a family of flowering plants of the order Caryophyllales
  345. Allium = large genus of perennial and biennial pungent bulbous plants: garlic; leek; onion; chive
  346. Allium acuminatum = a common North American wild onion with a strong onion odor and an umbel of pink flowers atop a leafless stalk
  347. Allium ampeloprasum = coarse Old World perennial having a large bulb and tall stalk of greenish purple-tinged flowers
  348. Allium ascalonicum = type of onion plant producing small clustered mild-flavored bulbs used as seasoning
  349. Allium canadense = North American bulbous plant
  350. Allium carinatum = Eurasian bulbous plant
  351. Allium cepa = bulbous plant having hollow leaves cultivated worldwide for its rounded edible bulb
  352. Allium cepa aggregatum = type of onion plant producing small clustered mild-flavored bulbs used as seasoning
  353. Allium cepa viviparum = type of perennial onion grown chiefly as a curiosity or for early salad onions
  354. Allium cernuum = widely distributed North American wild onion with white to rose flowers
  355. Allium fistulosum = Asiatic onion with slender bulbs
  356. Allium haematochiton = onion with white to deep red tunic
  357. Allium neopolitanum = European onion with white flowers
  358. Allium paradoxum = leek producing bulbils instead of flowers
  359. Allium porrum = plant having a large slender white bulb and flat overlapping dark green leaves; used in cooking
  360. Allium sativum = bulbous herb of southern Europe widely naturalized
  361. Allium schoenoprasum = perennial having hollow cylindrical leaves used for seasoning
  362. Allium scorodoprasum = European leek cultivated and used like leeks
  363. Allium sphaerocephalum = Old World leek with a spherical bulb
  364. Allium tricoccum = North American perennial having a slender bulb and whitish flowers
  365. Allium triquetrum = European leek naturalized in Great Britain
  366. Allium tuberosum = a plant of eastern Asia
  367. Allium ursinum = pungent Old World weedy plant
  368. Allium vineale = pungent Old World wild onion
  369. allspice = deciduous shrubs having aromatic bark; eastern China
  370. allspice tree = aromatic West Indian tree that produces allspice berries / tropical American tree having small white flowers and aromatic berries
  371. almond = small bushy deciduous tree native to Asia and North Africa having pretty pink blossoms and highly prized edible nuts enclosed in a hard green hull
  372. almond oil = pale yellow fatty oil expressed from sweet or bitter almonds
  373. almond tree = any of several small bushy trees having pink or white blossoms and usually bearing nuts
  374. almond willow = Old World willow with light green leaves cultivated for use in basketry
  375. almond-leaves willow = willow of the western United States with leaves like those of peach or almond trees
  376. Alnus = alders
  377. Alnus crispa = North American shrub with light green leaves and winged nuts
  378. Alnus glutinosa = medium-sized tree with brown-black bark and woody fruiting catkins
  379. Alnus incana = native to Europe but introduced in America
  380. Alnus maritima = shrub or small tree of southeastern United States having soft light brown wood
  381. Alnus rhombifolia = tree of western United States
  382. Alnus rubra = large tree of Pacific coast of North America having hard red wood much used for furniture
  383. Alnus rugosa = common shrub of Canada and northeastern United States having shoots scattered with rust-colored down
  384. Alnus serrulata = common shrub of the eastern United States with smooth bark
  385. Alnus veridis = shrub of mountainous areas of Europe
  386. Alnus veridis crispa = North American shrub with light green leaves and winged nuts
  387. Alnus vulgaris = medium-sized tree with brown-black bark and woody fruiting catkins
  388. alocasia = any plant of the genus Alocasia having large showy basal leaves and boat-shaped spathe and reddish berries
  389. Alocasia macrorrhiza = large evergreen with extremely large erect or spreading leaves; cultivated widely in tropics for its edible rhizome and shoots
  390. aloe = succulent plants having rosettes of leaves usually with fiber like hemp and spikes of showy flowers
  391. aloe family = one of many families or subfamilies into which some classification systems subdivide the Liliaceae but not widely accepted
  392. Aloe ferox = much-branched South African plant with reddish prickly succulent leaves
  393. Aloe vera = very short-stemmed plant with thick leaves with soothing mucilaginous juice; leaves develop spiny margins with maturity; native to Mediterranean region
  394. Aloeaceae = one of many families or subfamilies into which some classification systems subdivide the Liliaceae but not widely accepted
  395. Alopecurus = annual or perennial grasses including decorative and meadow species as well as notorious agricultural weeds
  396. Alopecurus pratensis = stout erect perennial grass of northern parts of Old World having silky flowering spikes; widely cultivated for pasture and hay
  397. Alpine anemone = silky-foliaged herb of the Rocky Mountains with bluish-white flowers
  398. alpine ash = tall timber tree with hard heavy pinkish or light brown wood
  399. alpine azalea = creeping mat-forming evergreen shrub of high mountain regions of northern hemisphere grown for its rose-pink flowers
  400. alpine bearberry = deciduous creeping shrub bright red in autumn having black or blue-black berries
  401. Alpine besseya = small pale plant with dense spikes of pale bluish-violet flowers
  402. Alpine celery pine = small shrubby celery pine of New Zealand
  403. alpine clover = European mountain clover with fragrant usually pink flowers
  404. alpine clubmoss = a variety of club moss
  405. alpine coltsfoot = rhizomatous herb with purple-red flowers suitable for groundcover
  406. Alpine enchanter's nightshade = an Alpine variety of enchanter's nightshade
  407. Alpine fir = medium-tall timber tree of the Rocky Mountains having a narrowly conic to columnar crown
  408. alpine gold = low tufted plant having hairy stems each topped by a flower head with short narrow yellow rays
  409. Alpine golden chain = an ornamental shrub or tree of the genus Laburnum
  410. alpine goldenrod = goldenrod similar to narrow goldenrod but having bristly hairs on edges of leaf stalks
  411. alpine hulsea = low tufted plant having hairy stems each topped by a flower head with short narrow yellow rays
  412. Alpine lady fern = a lady fern with deeply cut leaf segments
  413. alpine milk vetch = perennial of mountainous areas of Eurasia and North America
  414. Alpine mouse-ear = widespread in the Arctic and on mountains in Europe
  415. alpine sunflower = whitish hairy plant with featherlike leaves and a few stout stems each bearing an especially handsome solitary large yellow flower head
  416. alpine totara = low wide-spreading coniferous shrub of New Zealand mountains
  417. Alpine woodsia = slender fern of northern North America with shining chestnut-colored stipes and bipinnate fronds with usually distinct marginal sori
  418. Alpinia = perennial rhizomatous herbs of Asia and Australia and Polynesia having ginger-scented rhizomes
  419. Alpinia galanga = southeastern Asian perennial with aromatic roots
  420. Alpinia officinalis = Chinese perennial with pyramidal racemes of white flowers and pungent aromatic roots used medicinally and as flavoring
  421. Alpinia officinarum = Chinese perennial with pyramidal racemes of white flowers and pungent aromatic roots used medicinally and as flavoring
  422. Alpinia purpurata = an ornamental ginger native to Pacific islands
  423. Alpinia speciosa = cultivated for its shining oblong leaves and arching clusters of white flowers with pink shading and crinkled yellow lips with variegated magenta stripes
  424. Alpinia Zerumbet = cultivated for its shining oblong leaves and arching clusters of white flowers with pink shading and crinkled yellow lips with variegated magenta stripes
  425. Alsobia = tropical American herbs sometimes included in genus Episcia
  426. Alsobia dianthiflora = low-growing creeping perennial of Central America having deeply fringed white flowers
  427. Alstonia = genus of evergreen trees or shrubs with white funnel-shaped flowers and milky sap
  428. Alstonia scholaris = evergreen tree of eastern Asia and Philippines having large leathery leaves and small green-white flowers in compact cymes
  429. alstroemeria = any of various South American plants of the genus Alstroemeria valued for their handsome umbels of beautiful flowers
  430. Alstroemeria pelegrina = an Andean herb having umbels of showy pinkish-purple lily-like flowers
  431. Alstroemeriaceae = one of many families or subfamilies into which some classification systems subdivide the Liliaceae but not widely accepted
  432. Alternanthera = genus of low herbs of tropical America and Australia
  433. Alternanthera philoxeroides = prolific South American aquatic weed having grasslike leaves and short spikes of white flowers
  434. althaea = any of various plants of the genus Althaea
  435. althea = any of various plants of the genus Althaea
  436. Althea officinalis = European perennial plant naturalized in United States having triangular ovate leaves and lilac-pink flowers
  437. Althea rosea = plant with terminal racemes of showy white to pink or purple flowers
  438. alumbloom = any of several herbs of the genus Heuchera
  439. alumroot = any of several herbs of the genus Heuchera
  440. Alyssum = a genus of the family Cruciferae / any garden plant of the genus Alyssum having clusters of small yellow or white flowers
  441. amabilis fir = medium to tall fir of western North America having a conic crown and branches in tiers
  442. Amanita = genus of widely distributed agarics that have white spores and are poisonous with few exceptions
  443. Amanita caesarea = widely distributed edible mushroom resembling the fly agaric
  444. Amanita mappa = agaric often confused with the death cup
  445. Amanita muscaria = poisonous (but rarely fatal) woodland fungus having a scarlet cap with white warts and white gills
  446. Amanita phalloides = extremely poisonous usually white fungus with a prominent cup-shaped base
  447. Amanita rubescens = yellowish edible agaric that usually turns red when touched
  448. Amanita verna = fungus similar to Amanita phalloides
  449. amaranth = any of various plants of the genus Amaranthus having dense plumes of green or red flowers
  450. amaranth family = cosmopolitan family of herbs and shrubs
  451. Amaranthaceae = cosmopolitan family of herbs and shrubs
  452. Amaranthus = large widely distributed genus of chiefly coarse annual herbs
  453. Amaranthus albus = bushy plant of western United States
  454. Amaranthus caudatus = young leaves widely used as leaf vegetables
  455. Amaranthus cruentus = tall showy tropical American annual having hairy stems and long spikes of usually red flowers above leaves deeply flushed with purple
  456. Amaranthus graecizans = bushy plant of western United States
  457. Amaranthus hybridus erythrostachys = tall showy tropical American annual having hairy stems and long spikes of usually red flowers above leaves deeply flushed with purple
  458. Amaranthus hybridus hypochondriacus = tall showy tropical American annual having hairy stems and long spikes of usually red flowers above leaves deeply flushed with purple
  459. Amaranthus hypochondriacus = leaves sometimes used as potherbs; seeds used as cereal; southern United States to Central America
  460. Amaranthus spinosus = erect annual of tropical central Asia and Africa having a pair of divergent spines at most leaf nodes
  461. amarelle = any of several cultivated sour cherry trees bearing pale red fruit with colorless juice
  462. Amaryllidaceae = snowdrop; narcissus; daffodil
  463. amaryllis = bulbous plant having showy white to reddish flowers
  464. Amaryllis belladonna = amaryllis of South Africa often cultivated for its fragrant white or rose flowers
  465. amaryllis family = snowdrop; narcissus; daffodil
  466. amatungulu = very large closely branched South African shrub having forked bright green spines and shiny leaves
  467. Amauropelta = epiphytic or terrestrial ferns of America and Africa and Polynesia
  468. amber lily = plant having basal grasslike leaves and a narrow open cluster of starlike yellowish-orange flowers atop a leafless stalk; southwestern United States
  469. amberbell = eastern North American dogtooth having solitary yellow flowers marked with brown or purple and spotted interiors
  470. Amberboa = herbs of Mediterranean to central Asia cultivated for their flowers
  471. Amberboa moschata = Asian plant widely grown for its sweetly fragrant pink flowers
  472. amboina pine = native to the Moluccas and Philippines
  473. amboyna = tree native to southeastern Asia having reddish wood with a mottled or striped black grain / mottled curly-grained wood of Pterocarpus indicus
  474. amboyna pine = native to the Moluccas and Philippines
  475. ambrosia = any of numerous chiefly North American weedy plants constituting the genus Ambrosia that produce highly allergenic pollen responsible for much hay fever and asthma
  476. Ambrosia artemisiifolia = annual weed with finely divided foliage and spikes of green flowers; common in North America
  477. Ambrosia psilostachya = coarse perennial ragweed with creeping roots of dry barren lands of southwestern United States and Mexico
  478. Ambrosia trifida = a coarse annual with some leaves deeply and palmately three-cleft or five-cleft
  479. Ambrosiaceae = in some classifications considered a separate family comprising a subgroup of the Compositae including the ragweeds
  480. Amelanchier = North American deciduous trees or shrubs
  481. Amelanchier alnifolia = shrub or small tree of northwestern North America having fragrant creamy white flowers and small waxy purple-red fruits
  482. Amelanchier bartramiana = open-growing shrub of eastern North America having pure white flowers and small waxy almost black fruits
  483. ament = a cylindrical spikelike inflorescence
  484. Amentiferae = used in some classification systems for plants that bear catkins
  485. American agave = widely cultivated American monocarpic plant with greenish-white flowers on a tall stalk
  486. American aloe = tropical American plants with basal rosettes of fibrous sword-shaped leaves and flowers in tall spikes
  487. American angelica tree = small deciduous clump-forming tree or shrub of eastern United States
  488. American arborvitae = small evergreen of eastern North America having tiny scalelike leaves on flattened branchlets
  489. American arrowroot = white-flowered West Indian plant whose root yields arrowroot starch
  490. American aspen = slender aspen native to North America
  491. American barberry = deciduous shrub of eastern North America whose leaves turn scarlet in autumn and having racemes of yellow flowers followed by ellipsoid glossy red berries
  492. American basswood = large American shade tree with large dark green leaves and rounded crown
  493. American beech = North American forest tree with light green leaves and edible nuts
  494. American bittersweet = twining shrub of North America having yellow capsules enclosing scarlet seeds
  495. American bog asphodel = of the eastern United States: New Jersey to South Carolina
  496. American brooklime = plant of western North America and northeastern Asia having prostrate stems with dense racemes of pale violet to lilac flowers
  497. American bugbane = bugbane of the eastern United States having erect racemes of white flowers
  498. American centaury = any of several pink-flowered marsh plant of the eastern United States resembling a true centaury
  499. American chestnut = large tree found from Maine to Alabama
  500. American columbo = any of various tall perennial herbs constituting the genus Frasera
  501. American crab apple = medium-sized tree of the eastern United States having pink blossoms and small yellow fruit
  502. American cranberry = trailing red-fruited plant
  503. American cranberry bush = deciduous North American shrub or small tree having three-lobed leaves and red berries
  504. American cress = of southwestern Europe
  505. American dewberry = North American dewberry / of eastern North America
  506. American dog violet = violet of eastern North America having pale violet to white flowers
  507. American dogwood = common North American shrub with reddish purple twigs and white flowers
  508. American dwarf birch = small shrub of colder parts of North America and Greenland
  509. American elder = common elder of central and eastern North America bearing purple-black berries
  510. American elm = large ornamental tree with graceful gradually spreading branches common in eastern North America
  511. American featherfoil = a featherfoil of the eastern United States with submerged spongy inflated flower stalks and white flowers
  512. American feverfew = stout perennial herb of the eastern United States with whitish flowers
  513. American fly honeysuckle = erect deciduous North American shrub with yellow-white flowers
  514. American frogbit = American plant with roundish heart-shaped or kidney-shaped leaves
  515. American gentian = any of various tall perennial herbs constituting the genus Frasera
  516. American germander = subshrub with serrate leaves and cream-colored to pink or purple flowers in spikelike racemes
  517. American ginseng = North American woodland herb similar to and used as substitute for the Chinese ginseng
  518. American gray birch = medium-sized birch of eastern North America having white or pale grey bark and valueless wood
  519. American grey birch = medium-sized birch of eastern North America having white or pale grey bark and valueless wood
  520. American hackberry = large deciduous shade tree of southern United States with small deep purple berries
  521. American hazel = nut-bearing shrub of eastern North America
  522. American hellebore = North American plant having large leaves and yellowish green flowers growing in racemes
  523. American holly = an evergreen tree
  524. American hop = native American plant sometimes confused with the European hop
  525. American hornbeam = tree or large shrub with grey bark and blue-green leaves that turn red-orange in autumn
  526. American ivy = common North American vine with compound leaves and bluish-black berrylike fruit
  527. American larch = medium-sized larch of Canada and northern United States including Alaska having a broad conic crown and rust-brown scaly bark
  528. American laurel = a North American evergreen shrub having glossy leaves and white or rose-colored flowers
  529. American licorice = North American plant similar to true licorice and having a root with similar properties
  530. American lime = large American shade tree with large dark green leaves and rounded crown
  531. American liquorice = North American plant similar to true licorice and having a root with similar properties
  532. American lotus = water lily of eastern North America having pale yellow blossoms and edible globular nutlike seeds
  533. American maidenhair fern = hardy palmately branched North American fern with divergent recurved branches borne on lustrous dark reddish stipes
  534. American mistletoe = small herb with scalelike leaves on reddish-brown stems and berrylike fruits
  535. American mountain ash = a variety of mountain ash
  536. American oil palm = palm of Central and South America
  537. American olive = small tree of southern United States having panicles of dull white flowers followed by dark purple fruits
  538. American parasol = an agaric with a pallid cap and a stalk that is enlarged near the base
  539. American parsley fern = rock-inhabiting fern of northern North America growing in massive tufts and having fronds resembling parsley
  540. American pasqueflower = short hairy perennial with early spring blue-violet or lilac flowers
  541. American pennyroyal = erect hairy branching American herb having purple-blue flowers
  542. American persimmon = medium-sized tree of dry woodlands in the southern and eastern United States bearing yellow or orange very astringent fruit that is edible when fully ripe
  543. American plane = very large spreading plane tree of eastern and central North America to Mexico
  544. American pulsatilla = short hairy perennial with early spring blue-violet or lilac flowers
  545. American quaking aspen = slender aspen native to North America
  546. American raspberry = red raspberry of North America
  547. American rattlebox = tropical American annual herb having an inflated pod in which the ripe seeds rattle
  548. American red elder = common North American shrub or small tree
  549. American red plum = wild plum trees of eastern and central North America having red-orange fruit with yellow flesh
  550. American rock brake = rock-inhabiting fern of northern North America growing in massive tufts and having fronds resembling parsley
  551. American smokewood = shrubby tree of southern United States having large plumes of feathery flowers resembling puffs of smoke
  552. American spicebush = deciduous shrub of the eastern United States having highly aromatic leaves and bark and yellow flowers followed by scarlet or yellow berries
  553. American spikenard = unarmed woody rhizomatous perennial plant distinguished from wild sarsaparilla by more aromatic roots and panicled umbels
  554. American star grass = perennial star grass of North America
  555. American sweet chestnut = large tree found from Maine to Alabama
  556. American sweet gum = a North American tree of the genus Liquidambar having prickly spherical fruit clusters and fragrant sap
  557. American sycamore = very large spreading plane tree of eastern and central North America to Mexico
  558. American turkey oak = small slow-growing deciduous shrubby tree of dry sandy barrens of southeastern United States having leaves with bristle-tipped lobes resembling turkey's toes
  559. American twinflower = similar to the twinflower of northern Europe and Asia
  560. American wall fern = chiefly lithophytic or epiphytic fern of North America and east Asia
  561. American watercress = of southwestern Europe
  562. American white birch = small American birch with peeling white bark often worked into e.g. baskets or toy canoes
  563. American white oak = large slow-growing deciduous tree of the eastern United States having stout spreading branches and leaves with usually 7 rounded lobes
  564. American white pine = tall-growing pine of eastern North America; bark is brown with longitudinal fissures when mature
  565. American wistaria = an eastern United States native resembling the cultivated Japanese wisteria having pale purple-lilac flowers
  566. American wisteria = an eastern United States native resembling the cultivated Japanese wisteria having pale purple-lilac flowers
  567. American wormseed = rank-smelling tropical American pigweed
  568. Amianthum = one species: fly poison
  569. Amianthum muscaetoxicum = all parts of plant are highly toxic; bulb pounded and used as a fly poison
  570. Amianthum muscitoxicum = all parts of plant are highly toxic; bulb pounded and used as a fly poison
  571. ammobium = any plant of the genus Ammobium having yellow flowers and silvery foliage
  572. Ammobium alatum = Australian plant widely cultivated for its beautiful silvery-white blooms with bright yellow centers on long winged stems
  573. amorpha = any plant of the genus Amorpha having odd-pinnate leaves and purplish spicate flowers
  574. Amorpha californica = an erect to spreading hairy shrub of the Pacific coast of the United States having racemes of red to indigo flowers
  575. Amorpha canescens = shrub of sandy woodlands and stream banks of western United States having hoary pinnate flowers and dull-colored racemose flowers
  576. Amorpha fruticosa = dense shrub of moist riverbanks and flood plains of the eastern United States having attractive fragrant foliage and dense racemes of dark purple flowers
  577. amorphophallus = any plant of the genus Amorphophallus
  578. Amorphophallus campanulatus = putrid-smelling aroid of southeastern Asia (especially the Philippines) grown for its edible tuber
  579. Amorphophallus paeonifolius = putrid-smelling aroid of southeastern Asia (especially the Philippines) grown for its edible tuber
  580. Amorphophallus rivieri = foul-smelling somewhat fleshy tropical plant of southeastern Asia cultivated for its edible corms or in the greenhouse for its large leaves and showy dark red spathe surrounding a large spadix
  581. Amorphophallus titanum = malodorous tropical plant having a spathe that resembles the corolla of a morning glory and attains a diameter of several feet
  582. Amphicarpa = very small genus of twining vines of North America and Asia: hog peanut
  583. Amphicarpa bracteata = vine widely distributed in eastern North America producing racemes of purple to maroon flowers and abundant (usually subterranean) edible one-seeded pods resembling peanuts
  584. Amphicarpaea = very small genus of twining vines of North America and Asia: hog peanut
  585. Amphicarpaea bracteata = vine widely distributed in eastern North America producing racemes of purple to maroon flowers and abundant (usually subterranean) edible one-seeded pods resembling peanuts
  586. amphitropous ovule = a partly inverted ovule turned back 90 degrees on its stalk
  587. amplexicaul leaf = a leaf with its base clasping the stem
  588. Amsinckia = rough annual herbs of Europe and the Americas: fiddlenecks
  589. Amsinckia grandiflora = annual of the western United States having large coiled flower spikes
  590. Amsinckia intermedia = annual of western United States with coiled spikes of yellow-orange coiled flowers
  591. Amsonia = genus of herbs and subshrubs with milky juice and showy bluish flowers
  592. Amsonia tabernaemontana = subshrubs of southeastern United States forming slow-growing clumps and having blue flowers in short terminal cymes
  593. Amur privet = eastern Asian shrub cultivated especially for its persistent foliage
  594. Amygdalaceae = used in former classifications for plum and peach and almond trees which are now usually classified as members of the genus Prunus
  595. Amygdalus = used in former classifications for peach and almond trees which are now included in genus Prunus
  596. Amygdalus communis = small bushy deciduous tree native to Asia and North Africa having pretty pink blossoms and highly prized edible nuts enclosed in a hard green hull
  597. Amygdalus communis amara = almond trees having white blossoms and poisonous nuts yielding an oil used for flavoring and for medicinal purposes
  598. Anacardiaceae = the cashew family; trees and shrubs and vines having resinous (sometimes poisonous) juice
  599. Anacardium = type genus of the Anacardiaceae: cashew
  600. Anacardium occidentale = tropical American evergreen tree bearing kidney-shaped nuts that are edible only when roasted
  601. Anacyclus = a Spanish pellitory
  602. Anacyclus pyrethrum = a small Mediterranean plant containing a volatile oil once used to relieve toothache
  603. Anadenanthera = 2 species of tropical American shrubs or trees
  604. Anadenanthera colubrina = Brazilian shrub having twice-pinnate leaves and small spicate flowers followed by flat or irregularly torulose pods
  605. Anagallis = chiefly Old World herbs
  606. Anagallis arvensis = herb with scarlet or white or purple blossoms that close at approach of rainy weather
  607. Anagallis tenella = small creeping European herb having delicate pink flowers
  608. Anagyris = very small genus of shrubs of southern Europe having backward curving seed pods
  609. Anagyris foetida = shrub with trifoliate leaves and yellow flowers followed by backward curving seed pods
  610. Ananas = a genus of tropical American plants have sword-shaped leaves and a fleshy compound fruits composed of the fruits of several flowers
  611. Ananas comosus = a tropical American plant bearing a large fleshy edible fruit with a terminal tuft of stiff leaves
  612. Anaphalis = a genus of herbs of north temperate regions having hoary leaves: pearly everlasting
  613. Anaphalis margaritacea = an American everlasting having foliage with soft wooly hairs and corymbose heads with pearly white bracts
  614. Anastatica = one species: rose of Jericho
  615. Anastatica hierochuntica = small grey Asiatic desert plant bearing minute white flowers that rolls up when dry and expands when moist
  616. anatropous ovule = a completely inverted ovule turned back 180 degrees on its stalk
  617. anchovy pear = West Indian tree bearing edible fruit resembling mango
  618. anchovy pear tree = West Indian tree bearing edible fruit resembling mango
  619. anchusa = any of various Old World herbs of the genus Anchusa having one-sided clusters of trumpet-shaped flowers
  620. Anchusa capensis = anchusa of southern Africa having blue flowers with white throats
  621. Anchusa officinalis = perennial or biennial herb cultivated for its delicate usually blue flowers
  622. Anchusa riparia = anchusa of southern Africa having blue to red-purple flowers
  623. ancient pine = small slow-growing pine of western United States similar to the bristlecone pine; chocolate brown bark in plates and short needles in bunches of 5; crown conic but becoming rough and twisted
  624. Andaman marble = large Asiatic tree having hard marbled zebrawood
  625. Andaman redwood = mottled curly-grained wood of Pterocarpus indicus
  626. andelmin = any of several tropical American trees of the genus Andira
  627. Andira = small genus of evergreen trees of tropical America and western Africa
  628. Andira inermis = tree with shaggy unpleasant-smelling toxic bark and yielding strong durable wood
  629. Andreaea = brown or blackish Alpine mosses having a dehiscent capsule with 4 longitudinal slits
  630. Andreaeales = comprises a single genus: Andreaea
  631. Andrew's clintonia = plant with nearly leafless stalk topped by a cluster of red or reddish lavender flowers
  632. androecium = a male gametoecium
  633. andromeda = any of several shrubs of the genus Andromeda having leathery leaves and clusters of small flowers / broad-leaved evergreen Asiatic shrub with glossy leaves and drooping clusters of white flowers
  634. Andromeda glaucophylla = wiry evergreen shrub having pendent clusters of white or pink flowers
  635. Andromeda polifolia = erect to procumbent evergreen shrub having pendent clusters of white or pink flowers
  636. Andropogon = tall annual or perennial grasses with spikelike racemes
  637. Andropogon furcatus = tall grass with smooth bluish leaf sheaths grown for hay in the United States
  638. Andropogon gerardii = tall grass with smooth bluish leaf sheaths grown for hay in the United States
  639. Andropogon scoparius = handsome hardy North American grass with foliage turning pale bronze in autumn
  640. Andropogon virginicus = tall tufted grass of southeastern United States
  641. andryala = any plant of the genus Andryala having milky sap and heads of bright yellow flowers
  642. Anemia = genus of terrestrial or lithophytic ferns having pinnatifid fronds
  643. Anemia adiantifolia = fern of Florida and West Indies and Central America with rhizome densely clad in grown hairs
  644. anemone = any woodland plant of the genus Anemone grown for its beautiful flowers and whorls of dissected leaves
  645. Anemone Canadensis = common summer-flowering woodland herb of Labrador to Colorado
  646. Anemone cylindrica = a common North American anemone with cylindrical fruit clusters resembling thimbles
  647. Anemone ludoviciana = short hairy perennial with early spring blue-violet or lilac flowers
  648. Anemone nemorosa = European anemone with solitary white flowers common in deciduous woodlands
  649. Anemone occidentalis = of western North America
  650. Anemone pulsatilla = European perennial having usually violet or white spring flowers
  651. Anemone quinquefolia = common anemone of eastern North America with solitary pink-tinged white flowers
  652. Anemone riparia = thimbleweed of northern North America
  653. Anemone sylvestris = Eurasian herb with solitary nodding fragrant white flowers
  654. Anemone tetonensis = silky-foliaged herb of the Rocky Mountains with bluish-white flowers
  655. Anemone virginiana = thimbleweed of central and eastern North America
  656. Anemonella = one species: rue anemone
  657. Anemonella thalictroides = woodland flower native to eastern North America having cup-shaped flowers reminiscent of anemone but more delicate
  658. Anemopsis = one species: yerba mansa
  659. Anemopsis californica = stoloniferous herb of southwestern United States and Mexico having a pungent rootstock and small spicate flowers with white bracts suggesting an anemone
  660. Anethum = dill
  661. Anethum graveolens = aromatic Old World herb having aromatic threadlike foliage and seeds used as seasoning
  662. angel's trumpet = a South American plant that is cultivated for its large fragrant trumpet-shaped flowers / South American plant cultivated for its very large nocturnally fragrant trumpet-shaped flowers
  663. angel-wing begonia = South American fibrous-rooted begonias having prominent basal leaf lobes suggesting angels' wings and racemes of coral-red flowers
  664. angelica = any of various tall and stout herbs of the genus Angelica having pinnately compound leaves and small white or greenish flowers in compound umbels
  665. Angelica Archangelica = a biennial cultivated herb
  666. Angelica sylvestris = European herb with compound leaves and white flowers
  667. angelim = any of several tropical American trees of the genus Andira
  668. angelique = any of various tall and stout herbs of the genus Angelica having pinnately compound leaves and small white or greenish flowers in compound umbels
  669. angiocarp = tree bearing fruit enclosed in a shell or involucre or husk
  670. angiopteris = highly variable species of very large primitive ferns of the Pacific tropical areas with high rainfall
  671. Angiopteris evecta = highly variable species of very large primitive ferns of the Pacific tropical areas with high rainfall
  672. angiosperm = plants having seeds in a closed ovary
  673. Angiospermae = comprising flowering plants that produce seeds enclosed in an ovary
  674. angiospermous tree = any tree having seeds and ovules contained in the ovary
  675. angiospermous yellowwood = any of various angiospermous trees having yellow wood
  676. angled loofah = loofah of Pakistan
  677. angostura = the bitter bark of a South American tree
  678. angostura bark = the bitter bark of a South American tree
  679. Angraecum = genus of tropical Old World epiphytic orchids with showy flowers sometimes grotesque
  680. angrecum = any of various spectacular orchids of the genus Angraecum having dark green leathery leaves and usually nocturnally scented white or ivory flowers
  681. Anigozanthus = genus of monocotyledonous plants with curious woolly flowers on sturdy stems above a fan of sword-shaped leaves; includes kangaroo's paw and Australian sword lily
  682. Anigozanthus manglesii = sedgelike spring-flowering herb having clustered flowers covered with woolly hairs
  683. anil = shrub of West Indies and South America that is a source of indigo dye
  684. animated oat = Mediterranean oat held to be progenitor of modern cultivated oat
  685. anise = native to Egypt but cultivated widely for its aromatic seeds and the oil from them used medicinally and as a flavoring in cookery
  686. anise hyssop = much-branched North American herb with an odor like fennel
  687. anise plant = native to Egypt but cultivated widely for its aromatic seeds and the oil from them used medicinally and as a flavoring in cookery
  688. anise tree = any of several evergreen shrubs and small trees of the genus Illicium
  689. Annona = type genus of the Annonaceae
  690. Annona cherimola = small tropical American tree bearing round or oblong fruit
  691. Annona diversifolia = tropical American tree grown in southern United States having a whitish pink-tinged fruit
  692. Annona glabra = small evergreen tree of tropical America with edible fruit
  693. Annona muricata = small tropical American tree bearing large succulent slightly acid fruit
  694. Annona reticulata = small tropical American tree bearing a bristly heart-shaped acid tropical fruit
  695. Annona squamosa = tropical American tree bearing sweet pulpy fruit with thick scaly rind and shiny black seeds
  696. Annonaceae = chiefly tropical trees or shrubs
  697. annual = a plant that completes its entire life cycle within the space of a year
  698. annual fern = small short-lived fern of Central and South America
  699. annual salt-marsh aster = a variety of aster
  700. annulus = a remnant of the partial veil that in mature mushrooms surrounds the stem like a collar
  701. Annunciation lily = lily of eastern Mediterranean and the Balkans with broad funnel-shaped white flowers
  702. Anoectochilus = genus of delicate Asiatic orchids
  703. Anogramma = a genus of ferns belonging to the family Pteridaceae
  704. Anogramma leptophylla = small short-lived fern of Central and South America
  705. Antennaria = small woolly perennial herbs having small whitish discoid flowers surrounded by a ring of club-shaped bristles
  706. Antennaria dioica = low-growing perennial herb having leaves with whitish down and clusters of small white flowers
  707. Antennaria plantaginifolia = North American perennial propagated by means of runners
  708. Anthemis = dog fennel
  709. Anthemis arvensis = European white-flowered weed naturalized in North America
  710. Anthemis cotula = widespread rank-smelling weed having white-rayed flower heads with yellow discs
  711. Anthemis nobilis = Eurasian plant with apple-scented foliage and white-rayed flowers and feathery leaves used medicinally
  712. Anthemis tinctoria = Eurasian perennial herb with hairy divided leaves and yellow flowers
  713. anther = the part of the stamen that contains pollen
  714. Anthericum = genus of Old World (mainly African) perennial herbs
  715. Anthericum liliago = southern European plant commonly cultivated for its spikes of small starry greenish-white flowers
  716. Anthericum torreyi = plant having basal grasslike leaves and a narrow open cluster of starlike yellowish-orange flowers atop a leafless stalk; southwestern United States
  717. antheridiophore = gametophore bearing antheridia as in certain mosses and liverworts
  718. antheridium = the male sex organ of spore-producing plants; produces antherozoids
  719. Antheropeas = small genus of North American herbs often included in genus Eriophyllum
  720. Antheropeas wallacei = tiny grey woolly tufted annual with small golden-yellow flower heads; southeastern California to northwestern Arizona and southwestern Utah
  721. antherozoid = a motile male gamete of a plant such as an alga or fern or gymnosperm
  722. Anthoceropsida = hornworts: in some classification systems included in the class Hepaticopsida
  723. Anthoceros = hornworts
  724. Anthocerotaceae = hornworts
  725. Anthocerotales = hornworts; liverworts having a thalloid gametophyte
  726. Anthophyta = comprising flowering plants that produce seeds enclosed in an ovary
  727. Anthriscus = chervil: of Europe, North Africa and Asia
  728. Anthriscus cereifolium = aromatic annual Old World herb cultivated for its finely divided and often curly leaves for use especially in soups and salads
  729. Anthriscus sylvestris = coarse erect biennial Old World herb introduced as a weed in eastern North America
  730. anthurium = any of various tropical American plants cultivated for their showy foliage and flowers
  731. Anthurium andraeanum = commonly cultivated anthurium having bright scarlet spathe and spadix
  732. Anthurium scherzerianum = commonly cultivated anthurium having bright scarlet spathe and spadix
  733. Anthyllis = genus of Mediterranean herbs and shrubs
  734. Anthyllis barba-jovis = silvery hairy European shrub with evergreen foliage and pale yellow flowers
  735. Anthyllis vulneraria = perennial Eurasian herb having heads of red or yellow flowers and common in meadows and pastures
  736. Antirrhinum = a genus of herbs of the family Scrophulariaceae with brightly colored irregular flowers
  737. Antirrhinum coulterianum = California plant with slender racemes of white flowers
  738. Antirrhinum filipes = southwestern United States plant with yellow flowers on stems that twist and twine through other vegetation
  739. Antirrhinum majus = perennial native to the Mediterranean but widely cultivated for its purple or pink flowers
  740. Apalachicola rosemary = small shrub of Apalachicola River area in southeastern United States having highly aromatic pinkish flowers
  741. apetalous flower = flower having no petals
  742. Aphyllanthaceae = one of many families or subfamilies into which some classification systems subdivide the Liliaceae but not widely accepted
  743. Aphyllanthes = one species; small fibrous-rooted perennial with rushlike foliage and deep blue flowers
  744. Aphyllophorales = includes chiefly saprophytic fungi typically with shelflike bodies
  745. Apiaceae = plants having flowers in umbels: parsley; carrot; anise; caraway; celery
  746. apical placentation = where one or few ovules develop at the top of a simple or compound ovary
  747. Apios = twining perennial North American plants
  748. Apios americana = a North American vine with fragrant blossoms and edible tubers
  749. Apios tuberosa = a North American vine with fragrant blossoms and edible tubers
  750. Apium = celery
  751. Apium graveolens = herb of Europe and temperate Asia
  752. Apium graveolens dulce = widely cultivated herb with aromatic leaf stalks that are eaten raw or cooked
  753. Apium graveolens rapaceum = grown for its thickened edible aromatic root
  754. Aplectrum = a monocotyledonous genus of the family Orchidaceae
  755. Aplectrum hyemale = North American orchid bearing a single leaf and yellowish-brown flowers
  756. Apocynaceae = chiefly tropical trees or shrubs or herbs having milky juice and often showy flowers
  757. Apocynum = perennial herbs with small pink or white flowers
  758. Apocynum androsaemifolium = North American perennial having pinkish flowers in loose cymes
  759. Apocynum cannabinum = Canadian dogbane yielding a tough fiber used as cordage by Native Americans
  760. Apocynum pumilum = North American plant similar to common dogbane
  761. apomict = a plant that reproduces or is reproduced by apomixis
  762. apophysis = a natural swelling or enlargement: at the base of the stalk or seta in certain mosses or on the cone scale of certain conifers
  763. Aporocactus = small genus of epiphytic cacti of Mexico
  764. Aporocactus flagelliformis = commonly cultivated tropical American cactus having slender creeping stems and very large showy crimson flowers that bloom for several days
  765. apothecium = a cuplike ascocarp in many lichens and ascomycetous fungi
  766. apple = native Eurasian tree widely cultivated in many varieties for its firm rounded edible fruits
  767. apple geranium = geranium with round fragrant leaves and small white flowers
  768. apple mint = mint with apple-scented stems of southern and western Europe
  769. apple nut = nutlike seed of a South American palm
  770. apple of Peru = intensely poisonous tall coarse annual tropical weed having rank-smelling foliage, large white or violet trumpet-shaped flowers and prickly fruits / coarse South American herb grown for its blue-and-white flowers followed by a bladderlike fruit enclosing a dry berry
  771. apple rust = rust fungus causing rust spots on apples and pears etc
  772. apple tree = any tree of the genus Malus especially those bearing firm rounded edible fruits
  773. applemint = mint with apple-scented stems of southern and western Europe
  774. applewood = wood of any of various apple trees of the genus Malus
  775. apricot = Asian tree having clusters of usually white blossoms and edible fruit resembling the peach
  776. apricot tree = Asian tree having clusters of usually white blossoms and edible fruit resembling the peach
  777. aquatic = a plant that lives in or on water
  778. aquatic fern = ferns that grow in water
  779. aquatic plant = a plant that grows partly or wholly in water whether rooted in the mud, as a lotus, or floating without anchorage, as the water hyacinth
  780. Aquifoliaceae = widely distributed shrubs and trees
  781. aquilege = a plant of the genus Aquilegia having irregular showy spurred flowers
  782. aquilegia = a plant of the genus Aquilegia having irregular showy spurred flowers
  783. Aquilegia caerulea = columbine of the Rocky Mountains having long-spurred blue flowers
  784. Aquilegia canadensis = columbine of eastern North America having long-spurred red flowers
  785. Aquilegia scopulorum calcarea = columbine of the Rocky Mountains having long-spurred blue flowers
  786. Aquilegia vulgaris = common European columbine having variously colored (white or blue to purple or red) short-spurred flowers
  787. Arabian coffee = shrubby tree of northeastern tropical Africa widely cultivated in tropical or near tropical regions for its seed which form most of the commercial coffee
  788. Arabian jasmine = East Indian evergreen vine cultivated for its profuse fragrant white flowers
  789. Arabidopsis = a genus of the mustard family having white or yellow or purplish flowers
  790. Arabidopsis lyrata = a small noninvasive cross-pollinating plant with white flowers
  791. Arabidopsis thaliana = a small invasive self-pollinating weed with small white flowers; much studied by plant geneticists
  792. Arabis = annual to perennial woody herbs of temperate North America, Europe and Asia: rockcress
  793. Arabis Canadensis = North American rock cress having very long curved pods
  794. Arabis glabra = or genus Arabis: erect cress widely distributed throughout Europe
  795. Arabis turrita = European cress having stiff erect stems
  796. Araceae = anthurium; calla lily; jack-in-the-pulpit
  797. Arachis = a genus of plants with pods that ripen underground
  798. Arachis hypogaea = widely cultivated American plant cultivated in tropical and warm regions
  799. Arales = Araceae
  800. aralia = any of various plants of the genus Aralia
  801. Aralia elata = deciduous clump-forming Asian shrub or small tree
  802. Aralia hispida = bristly herb of eastern and central North America having black fruit and medicinal bark
  803. Aralia nudicaulis = common perennial herb having aromatic roots used as a substitute for sarsaparilla
  804. Aralia racemosa = unarmed woody rhizomatous perennial plant distinguished from wild sarsaparilla by more aromatic roots and panicled umbels
  805. Aralia spinosa = small deciduous clump-forming tree or shrub of eastern United States
  806. Aralia stipulata = similar to American angelica tree but less prickly
  807. Araliaceae = mostly tropical trees and shrubs and lianas: genera Panax and Hedera
  808. arariba = Brazilian tree with handsomely marked wood
  809. araucaria = any of several tall South American or Australian trees with large cones and edible seeds
  810. Araucaria araucana = large Chilean evergreen conifer having intertwined branches and bearing edible nuts
  811. Araucaria bidwillii = Australian conifer bearing two-inch seeds tasting like roasted chestnuts
  812. Araucaria columnaris = very tall evergreen of New Caledonia and the New Hebrides similar to norfolk island pine
  813. Araucaria cunninghamii = pine of Australia and New Guinea
  814. Araucaria excelsa = evergreen of Australia and Norfolk Island in the South Pacific
  815. araucaria family = tall evergreen cone-bearing trees of South America and Australia with broad leathery leaves
  816. Araucaria heterophylla = evergreen of Australia and Norfolk Island in the South Pacific
  817. Araucariaceae = tall evergreen cone-bearing trees of South America and Australia with broad leathery leaves
  818. Araujia = small genus of South American evergreen vines
  819. Araujia sericofera = robust twining shrub having racemes of fragrant white or pink flowers with flat spreading terminal petals that trap nocturnal moths and hold them until dawn
  820. arbor = tree
  821. arborescent plant = having the shape or characteristics of a tree
  822. arborvitae = any of several Asian and North American conifers of the genera Thuja and Thujopsis
  823. arbutus = any of several evergreen shrubs of the genus Arbutus of temperate Europe and America
  824. Arbutus menziesii = evergreen tree of the Pacific coast of North America having glossy leathery leaves and orange-red edible berries
  825. Arbutus unedo = small evergreen European shrubby tree bearing many-seeded scarlet berries that are edible but bland
  826. Arceuthobium = genus of chiefly American plants parasitic on conifers
  827. Arceuthobium pusillum = small herb with scalelike leaves on reddish-brown stems and berrylike fruits
  828. archangel = a biennial cultivated herb
  829. archegonium = a female sex organ occurring in mosses, ferns, and most gymnosperms
  830. archespore = primitive cell or group of cells from which a mother cell develops
  831. archesporium = primitive cell or group of cells from which a mother cell develops
  832. archil = any of various lecanoras that yield the dye archil
  833. arctic moss = an erect greyish branching lichen of Arctic and even some north temperate regions constituting the chief food for reindeer and caribou and sometimes being eaten by humans
  834. Arctic mouse-ear = widespread in the Arctic and on mountains in Europe
  835. arctic poppy = subarctic perennial poppy of both hemispheres having fragrant white or yellow to orange or peach flowers
  836. arctic willow = low creeping shrub of Arctic Europe and America
  837. Arctium = burdock
  838. Arctium lappa = burdock having heart-shaped leaves found in open woodland, hedgerows and rough grassland of Europe (except extreme N) and Asia Minor
  839. Arctium minus = a plant that is ubiquitous in all but very acid soil
  840. Arctostaphylos = bearberry
  841. Arctostaphylos alpina = deciduous creeping shrub bright red in autumn having black or blue-black berries
  842. Arctostaphylos andersonii = erect California shrub having leaves with heart-shaped lobes at the base
  843. Arctostaphylos manzanita = erect treelike shrub forming dense thickets and having drooping panicles of white or pink flowers and red berrylike drupes
  844. Arctostaphylos tomentosa = erect openly branched California shrub whose twigs are woolly when young
  845. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi = evergreen mat-forming shrub of North America and northern Eurasia having small white flowers and red berries
  846. Arctotis = herbs and subshrubs: African daisy
  847. Arctotis stoechadifolia = bushy perennial of South Africa with white or violet flowers
  848. Arctotis venusta = bushy perennial of South Africa with white or violet flowers
  849. Ardisia = tropical evergreen subshrubs (some climbers) to trees of Asia and Australasia to Americas
  850. Ardisia crenata = shrub with coral-red berries
  851. Ardisia escallonoides = tropical American shrub or small tree with brown wood and dark berries
  852. Ardisia paniculata = tropical American shrub or small tree with brown wood and dark berries
  853. areca = any of several tall tropical palms native to southeastern Asia having egg-shaped nuts
  854. Areca catechu = southeastern Asian palm bearing betel nuts
  855. Areca palm = southeastern Asian palm bearing betel nuts
  856. Arecaceae = chiefly tropical trees and shrubs and vines usually having a tall columnar trunk bearing a crown of very large leaves
  857. Arecidae = one of four subclasses or superorder of Monocotyledones; comprises about 6400 species in 5 families of trees and shrubs and terrestrial herbs and a few free-floating aquatics including: Palmae; Araceae
  858. Arenaria = sandworts
  859. Arenaria caroliniana = deep-rooted perennial of southeastern United States
  860. Arenaria groenlandica = boreal or alpine sandwort
  861. Arenaria peploides = perennial succulent herb with small solitary axillary or terminal flowers
  862. Arenaria serpyllifolia = Eurasian annual sprawling plant naturalized throughout North America
  863. Arenaria stricta = low perennial tufted plant of southeastern North America
  864. Arenga = a genus of tropical Asian and Malaysian palm trees
  865. Arenga pinnata = Malaysian feather palm with base densely clothed with fibers
  866. arere = large west African tree having large palmately lobed leaves and axillary cymose panicles of small white flowers and one-winged seeds
  867. arethusa = any of several bog orchids of the genus Arethusa having 1 or 2 showy flowers
  868. Arethusa bulbosa = a bog orchid with usually a solitary fragrant magenta pink blossom with a wide gaping corolla
  869. argemone = any plant of the genus Argemone having large white or yellow flowers and prickly leaves and stems and pods
  870. Argemone mexicana = annual herb with prickly stems and large yellow flowers
  871. Argyranthemum = comprises plants often included in the genus Chrysanthemum
  872. Argyranthemum frutescens = perennial subshrub of the Canary Islands having usually pale yellow daisylike flowers
  873. Argyreia = woody climbers of tropical Asia to Australia
  874. Argyroxiphium = small genus of Hawaiian spreading and rosette-forming shrubs
  875. Argyroxiphium sandwicense = low-growing plant found only in volcanic craters on Hawaii having rosettes of narrow pointed silver-green leaves and clusters of profuse red-purple flowers on a tall stem
  876. aril = fleshy and usually brightly colored cover of some seeds that develops from the ovule stalk and partially or entirely envelops the seed
  877. Ariocarpus = slow-growing geophytic cacti; northern and eastern Mexico
  878. Ariocarpus fissuratus = usually unbranched usually spineless cactus covered with warty tubercles and having magenta flowers and white or green fruit; resembles the related mescal
  879. Arisaema = tuberous or rhizomatous herbaceous perennials
  880. Arisaema atrorubens = common American spring-flowering woodland herb having sheathing leaves and an upright club-shaped spadix with overarching green and purple spathe producing scarlet berries
  881. Arisaema dracontium = early spring-flowering plant of eastern North America resembling the related jack-in-the-pulpit but having digitate leaves, slender greenish yellow spathe and elongated spadix
  882. Arisaema triphyllum = common American spring-flowering woodland herb having sheathing leaves and an upright club-shaped spadix with overarching green and purple spathe producing scarlet berries
  883. Arisarum = tuberous or rhizomatous perennial herbs
  884. Arisarum vulgare = tuberous perennial having a cowl-shaped maroon or violet-black spathe; Mediterranean; Canaries
  885. arishth = large semi-evergreen tree of the East Indies; trunk exudes a tenacious gum; bitter bark used as a tonic; seeds yield an aromatic oil
  886. Aristolochia = birthworts
  887. Aristolochia clematitis = creeping plant having curving flowers thought to resemble fetuses; native to Europe
  888. Aristolochia durior = hardy deciduous vine having large leaves and flowers with the calyx tube curved like the bowl of a pipe
  889. Aristolochia macrophylla = hardy deciduous vine having large leaves and flowers with the calyx tube curved like the bowl of a pipe
  890. Aristolochia serpentaria = birthwort of the eastern United States woodlands
  891. Aristolochiaceae = family of birthworts
  892. Aristolochiales = order of plants distinguished by tubular petaloid perianth and inferior ovary
  893. Aristotelia = small genus of shrubs or small trees of Australia and New Zealand and western South America
  894. Aristotelia racemosa = graceful deciduous shrub or small tree having attractive foliage and small red berries that turn black at maturity and are used for making wine
  895. Aristotelia serrata = graceful deciduous shrub or small tree having attractive foliage and small red berries that turn black at maturity and are used for making wine
  896. Arizona ash = small shrubby ash of southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico
  897. Arizona cypress = Arizona timber tree with bluish silvery foliage
  898. Arizona sycamore = medium-sized tree of Arizona and adjacent regions having deeply lobed leaves and collective fruits in groups of 3 to 5
  899. Arizona white oak = semi-evergreen shrub or small tree of Arizona and New Mexico having acorns with hemispherical cups
  900. Arizona wild cotton = shrub of southern Arizona and Mexico
  901. Armeria = shrubby or herbaceous low-growing evergreen perennials
  902. Armeria maritima = tufted thrift of seacoasts and mountains of north temperate zone
  903. Armillaria = genus of edible mushrooms having white spores an annulus and blue juice; some are edible
  904. Armillaria caligata = fungus with a brown cap and white gills and a membranous ring halfway up the stalk
  905. Armillaria ponderosa = a large white mushroom that develops brown stains as it ages; gills are white; odor is spicy and aromatic
  906. Armillaria zelleri = a large fungus with viscid cap that dries and turns brown with age
  907. Armillariella = a honey-colored diminutive form of genus Armillaria; grows in clusters
  908. Armillariella mellea = a honey-colored edible mushroom commonly associated with the roots of trees in late summer and fall
  909. Armoracia = horseradish
  910. Armoracia rusticana = coarse Eurasian plant cultivated for its thick white pungent root
  911. arnica = any of various rhizomatous usually perennial plants of the genus Arnica / used especially in treating bruises
  912. arnica bud = fall-blooming European herb with a yellow flower
  913. Arnica cordifolia = wildflower with heart-shaped leaves and broad yellow flower heads
  914. Arnica montana = herb of pasture and open woodland throughout most of Europe and western Asia having orange-yellow daisylike flower heads that when dried are used as a stimulant and to treat bruises and swellings
  915. Arnoseris = lamb succory
  916. Arnoseris minima = small European herb with small yellow flowers
  917. aroeira blanca = small resinous tree or shrub of Brazil
  918. aroid = any plant of the family Araceae
  919. arolla pine = large five-needled European pine
  920. aromatic aster = a variety of aster
  921. Arrhenatherum = oat grass
  922. Arrhenatherum elatius = coarse perennial Eurasian grass resembling oat; found on roadside verges and rough grassland and in hay meadows
  923. arrow arum = an aquatic plant of the genus Peltandra
  924. arrow grass = tufted perennial found in shallow water or marshland
  925. arrow leaved aster = a variety of aster
  926. arrow wood = deciduous shrub of eastern North America having blue-black berries and tough pliant wood formerly used to make arrows / closely related to southern arrow wood
  927. arrow-grass family = a family of monocotyledonous bog herbs of order Naiadales
  928. arrowleaf groundsel = perennial with sharply toothed triangular leaves on leafy stems bearing a cluster of yellow flower heads
  929. arrowroot = canna grown especially for its edible rootstock from which arrowroot starch is obtained / white-flowered West Indian plant whose root yields arrowroot starch
  930. arrowroot family = tropical perennial herbs with usually starchy rhizomes
  931. arroyo willow = shrubby willow of the western United States
  932. Artemis pontica = European wormwood
  933. Artemis spinescens = a perennial that is valuable as sheep forage in the United States
  934. artemisia = any of various composite shrubs or herbs of the genus Artemisia having aromatic green or greyish foliage
  935. Artemisia abrotanum = shrubby European wormwood naturalized in North America
  936. Artemisia absinthium = aromatic herb of temperate Eurasia and North Africa having a bitter taste used in making the liqueur absinthe
  937. Artemisia annua = wormwood of southeastern Europe to Iran
  938. Artemisia californica = low ashy-grey California shrub
  939. Artemisia campestris = European wormwood similar to common wormwood in its properties
  940. Artemisia cana = low much-branched perennial of western United States having silvery leaves
  941. Artemisia dracunculus = aromatic perennial of southeastern Russia
  942. Artemisia filifolia = silver-haired shrub of central and southern United States and Mexico
  943. Artemisia frigida = silky-leaved aromatic perennial of dry northern parts of the northern hemisphere
  944. Artemisia gnaphalodes = perennial cottony-white herb of southwestern United States
  945. Artemisia ludoviciana = perennial cottony-white herb of southwestern United States
  946. Artemisia maritima = plants of western and northern European coasts
  947. Artemisia stelleriana = herb with greyish leaves found along the east coast of North America
  948. Artemisia tridentata = aromatic shrub of arid regions of western North America having hoary leaves
  949. Artemisia vulgaris = European tufted aromatic perennial herb having hairy red or purple stems and dark green leaves downy white below and red-brown florets
  950. Arthropteris = tropical and subtropical Old World epiphytic or lithophytic ferns
  951. arthrospore = one of a string of thick walled vegetative resting cells formed by some algae and fungi / a body that resembles a spore but is not an endospore
  952. artichoke = Mediterranean thistlelike plant widely cultivated for its large edible flower head
  953. artichoke plant = Mediterranean thistlelike plant widely cultivated for its large edible flower head
  954. artillery plant = tropical American stingless nettle that discharges its pollen explosively
  955. Artocarpus = evergreen Asiatic trees now grown through the tropics: breadfruit
  956. Artocarpus altilis = native to Pacific islands and having edible fruit with a texture like bread
  957. Artocarpus communis = native to Pacific islands and having edible fruit with a texture like bread
  958. Artocarpus heterophyllus = East Indian tree cultivated for its immense edible fruit and seeds
  959. Artocarpus odoratissima = Philippine tree similar to the breadfruit tree bearing edible fruit
  960. arugula = erect European annual often grown as a salad crop to be harvested when young and tender
  961. arum = any plant of the family Araceae
  962. arum family = anthurium; calla lily; jack-in-the-pulpit
  963. arum lily = South African plant widely cultivated for its showy pure white spathe and yellow spadix
  964. Arum maculatum = common European arum with lanceolate spathe and short purple spadix; emerges in early spring
  965. Arum palaestinum = ornamental plant of Middle East cultivated for its dark purple spathe
  966. Arundinaria = North American bamboo
  967. Arundinaria gigantea = tall grass of southern United States growing in thickets
  968. Arundinaria tecta = small cane of watery or moist areas in southern United States
  969. Arundo = any of several coarse tall perennial grasses of most warm areas: reeds
  970. Arundo conspicua = used by Maoris for thatching
  971. Arundo donax = large rhizomatous perennial grasses found by riversides and in ditches having jointed stems and large grey-white feathery panicles
  972. Arundo richardii = tall grass of New Zealand grown for plumelike flower heads
  973. asarabacca = thick creeping evergreen herb of western Europe
  974. Asarum = wild ginger
  975. Asarum canadense = deciduous low-growing perennial of Canada and eastern and central United States
  976. Asarum europaeum = thick creeping evergreen herb of western Europe
  977. Asarum shuttleworthii = wild ginger having persistent heart-shaped pungent leaves
  978. Asarum virginicum = evergreen low-growing perennial having mottled green and silvery-grey heart-shaped pungent leaves
  979. Asclepia meadii = milkweed of central North America
  980. asclepiad = any plant of the family Asclepiadaceae
  981. Asclepiadaceae = widely distributed family of herbs and shrubs of the order Gentianales
  982. Asclepias = genus of chiefly North American perennial herbs: silkweed
  983. Asclepias albicans = tall herb with leafless white waxy stems and whitish starlike flowers
  984. Asclepias curassavica = tropical herb having orange-red flowers followed by pods suggesting a swallow with outspread wings
  985. Asclepias exaltata = milkweed of the eastern United States with leaves resembling those of pokeweed
  986. Asclepias incarnata = densely branching perennial of the eastern United States with white to crimson or purple flowers
  987. Asclepias meadii = milkweed of central North America
  988. Asclepias purpurascens = perennial of eastern North America having pink-purple flowers
  989. Asclepias speciosa = milkweed of southern North America having large starry purple and pink flowers
  990. Asclepias subverticillata = milkweed of southwestern United States and Mexico
  991. Asclepias tuberosa = erect perennial of eastern and southern United States having showy orange flowers
  992. Asclepias verticillata = milkweed of the eastern United States with narrow leaves in whorls and greenish-white flowers
  993. ascocarp = mature fruiting body of an ascomycetous fungus
  994. ascolichen = a lichen in which the fungus component is an ascomycete
  995. ascoma = an ascocarp having the spore-bearing layer of cells (the hymenium) on a broad disklike receptacle
  996. ascomycete = any fungus of the class Ascomycetes (or subdivision Ascomycota) in which the spores are formed inside an ascus
  997. Ascomycetes = large class of higher fungi coextensive with division Ascomycota: sac fungi
  998. ascomycetous fungus = any fungus of the class Ascomycetes (or subdivision Ascomycota) in which the spores are formed inside an ascus
  999. Ascomycota = a large subdivision of Eumycota including Hemiascomycetes and Plectomycetes and Pyrenomycetes and Discomycetes; sac fungi
  1000. Ascomycotina = a large subdivision of Eumycota including Hemiascomycetes and Plectomycetes and Pyrenomycetes and Discomycetes; sac fungi
  1001. ascospore = sexually produced fungal spore formed within an ascus
  1002. ascus = saclike structure in which ascospores are formed through sexual reproduction of ascomycetes
  1003. ash = any of various deciduous pinnate-leaved ornamental or timber trees of the genus Fraxinus / strong elastic wood of any of various ash trees
  1004. ash tree = any of various deciduous pinnate-leaved ornamental or timber trees of the genus Fraxinus
  1005. ash-key = winged seed of the ash tree
  1006. ash-leaved maple = common shade tree of eastern and central United States
  1007. Asiatic sweetleaf = deciduous shrub of eastern Asia bearing decorative bright blue fruit
  1008. Asimina = pawpaw
  1009. Asimina triloba = small tree native to the eastern United States having oblong leaves and fleshy fruit
  1010. Aspalathus = genus of South African heathlike shrubs
  1011. Aspalathus cedcarbergensis = South African shrub having flat acuminate leaves and yellow flowers
  1012. Aspalathus linearis = South African shrub having flat acuminate leaves and yellow flowers
  1013. Asparagaceae = one of many families or subfamilies into which some classification systems subdivide the Liliaceae: includes genera Asparagus and sometimes Ruscus
  1014. asparagus = plant whose succulent young shoots are cooked and eaten as a vegetable
  1015. Asparagus asparagoides = fragile twining plant of South Africa with bright green flattened stems and glossy foliage popular as a floral decoration
  1016. asparagus bean = South American bean having very long succulent pods
  1017. asparagus fern = a fernlike plant native to South Africa
  1018. Asparagus officinales = plant whose succulent young shoots are cooked and eaten as a vegetable
  1019. asparagus pea = sprawling European annual having a 4-winged edible pod
  1020. Asparagus plumosus = a fernlike plant native to South Africa
  1021. Asparagus setaceous = a fernlike plant native to South Africa
  1022. aspen = any of several trees of the genus Populus having leaves on flattened stalks so that they flutter in the lightest wind
  1023. aspen poplar = a poplar that is widely cultivated in the United States
  1024. Aspergillaceae = family of fungi including some common molds
  1025. Aspergillales = order of fungi having a closed ascocarp (cleistothecium) with the asci scattered rather than gathered in a hymenium
  1026. Aspergillus = genus of common molds causing food spoilage and some pathogenic to plants and animals
  1027. Aspergillus fumigatus = a mold causing aspergillosis in birds and man
  1028. Asperula = woodruff
  1029. Asperula odorata = Old World fragrant stoloniferous perennial having small white flowers and narrow leaves used as flavoring and in sachets; widely cultivated as a ground cover
  1030. Asperula tinctoria = creeping European perennial having red or pinkish-white flowers and red roots sometimes used as a substitute for madder in dyeing
  1031. asphodel = any of various chiefly Mediterranean plants of the genera Asphodeline and Asphodelus having linear leaves and racemes of white or pink or yellow flowers
  1032. Asphodelaceae = one of many subfamilies into which some classification systems subdivide the Liliaceae
  1033. Asphodeline = genus of rhizomatous perennial or biennial herbs with numerous sometimes fragrant flowers in long cylindrical racemes; Mediterranean region to Caucasus
  1034. Asphodeline lutea = asphodel with leafy stem and fragrant yellow flowers
  1035. Asphodelus = small genus of tall striking annuals or perennials with grasslike foliage and flowers in dense racemes or panicles; Mediterranean to Himalayas
  1036. aspidistra = evergreen perennial with large handsome basal leaves
  1037. Aspidistra elatio = evergreen perennial with large handsome basal leaves
  1038. Aspleniaceae = one of a number of families into which Polypodiaceae has been subdivided in some classification systems
  1039. Asplenium = in some classification systems placed in family Polypodiaceae
  1040. Asplenium adiantum-nigrum = spleenwort of Europe and Africa and Asia having pinnate fronds and yielding an astringent
  1041. Asplenium billotii = a spleenwort of western Europe
  1042. Asplenium bradleyi = a spleenwort of eastern to southern United States
  1043. Asplenium ceterach = small European fern with chaffy leathery fronds
  1044. Asplenium montanum = a spleenwort of eastern North America
  1045. Asplenium nidus = tropical Old World or Australian epiphytic fern frequently forming tufts in tree crotches
  1046. Asplenium nigripes = a fern of the genus Schaffneria
  1047. Asplenium pinnatifidum = a spleenwort of eastern and southern United States
  1048. Asplenium platyneuron = common North American fern with polished black stripes
  1049. Asplenium rhizophyllum = ferns having lanceolate fronds that root at the tip
  1050. Asplenium ruta-muraria = small delicate spleenwort found on a steep slope (as a wall or cliff) of Eurasia and North America
  1051. Asplenium scolopendrium = Eurasian fern with simple lanceolate fronds
  1052. Asplenium trichomanes = small rock-inhabiting fern of northern temperate zone and Hawaii with pinnate fronds
  1053. Asplenium viride = a small fern with slim green fronds
  1054. Assam rubber = large tropical Asian tree frequently dwarfed as a houseplant
  1055. aster = any of various chiefly fall-blooming herbs of the genus Aster with showy daisylike flowers
  1056. Aster acuminatus = North American perennial with apparently whorled leaves and showy white purple-tinged flowers
  1057. Aster arenosus = common North American perennial with heathlike foliage and small white flower heads
  1058. Aster cordifolius = perennial wood aster of eastern North America
  1059. Aster divaricatus = rhizomatous perennial wood aster of eastern North America with white flowers
  1060. Aster dumosus = stiff perennial of the eastern United States having small linear leaves and numerous tiny white flower heads
  1061. Aster ericoides = common much-branched North American perennial with heathlike foliage and small starry white flowers
  1062. Aster falcatus = perennial of western North America having white flowers
  1063. aster family = plants with heads composed of many florets: aster; daisy; dandelion; goldenrod; marigold; lettuces; ragweed; sunflower; thistle
  1064. Aster linarifolius = wiry tufted perennial of the eastern United States with stiff erect rough stems, linear leaves and large violet flowers
  1065. Aster linosyris = early-flowering perennial of southern and southeastern Europe with flower heads resembling those of goldenrod
  1066. Aster macrophyllus = tufted perennial wood aster of North America
  1067. Aster novae-angliae = common perennial of eastern North America having showy purplish flowers
  1068. Aster novi-belgii = North American perennial herb having small autumn-blooming purple or pink or white flowers
  1069. Aster ptarmicoides = tufted rigid North American perennial with loose clusters of white flowers
  1070. Aster shortii = perennial of southeastern United States having usually blue flowers
  1071. Aster tripolium = a common European aster that grows in salt marshes
  1072. Aster turbinellis = violet-flowered perennial aster of central United States having solitary heads
  1073. Asteraceae = plants with heads composed of many florets: aster; daisy; dandelion; goldenrod; marigold; lettuces; ragweed; sunflower; thistle
  1074. asterid dicot family = family of more or less advanced dicotyledonous herbs and some trees and shrubs
  1075. asterid dicot genus = genus of more or less advanced dicotyledonous herbs and some trees and shrubs
  1076. Asteridae = a group of mostly sympetalous herbs and some trees and shrubs mostly with 2 fused carpels; contains 43 families including Campanulales; Solanaceae; Scrophulariaceae; Labiatae; Verbenaceae; Rubiaceae; Compositae
  1077. astilbe = any plant of the genus Astilbe having compound leaves and showy panicles of tiny colorful flowers
  1078. Astilbe biternata = North American astilbe with panicles of creamy white flowers
  1079. Astilbe chinensis pumila = mat-forming evergreen Asiatic plant with finely cut leaves and small pink to burgundy flowers
  1080. Astilbe japonica = a Japanese shrub that resembles members of the genus Spiraea; widely cultivated in many varieties for its dense panicles of flowers in many colors
  1081. Astragalus = large genus of annual or perennial herbs or shrubs of north temperate regions
  1082. Astragalus alpinus = perennial of mountainous areas of Eurasia and North America
  1083. Astragalus danicus = perennial of southern and western Europe having dense racemes of purple or violet flowers
  1084. Astragalus glycyphyllos = European perennial
  1085. astrantia = any plant of the genus Astrantia
  1086. Astrantia major = European herb with aromatic roots and leaves in a basal tuft and showy compound umbels of white to rosy flowers
  1087. Astreus = a genus of fungi belonging to the family Geastraceae
  1088. Astreus hygrometricus = a common species of earthstar widely distributed in sandy soil
  1089. Astreus pteridis = the largest earthstar
  1090. Astroloma = evergreen shrubs of Australia and Tasmania
  1091. Astroloma humifusum = small prostrate or ascending shrub having scarlet flowers and succulent fruit resembling cranberries
  1092. Astronium = a genus of dicotyledonous plants of the family Anacardiaceae
  1093. Astronium fraxinifolium = tall tropical American timber tree especially abundant in eastern Brazil; yields hard strong durable zebrawood with straight grain and dark strips on a pinkish to yellowish ground
  1094. Athrotaxis = a genus of gymnosperm
  1095. Athrotaxis selaginoides = evergreen of Tasmanian mountains having sharp-pointed leaves that curve inward
  1096. Athyriaceae = alternative names for one of a number of families into which the family Polypodiaceae has been subdivided in some classification systems
  1097. Athyrium = temperate and tropical lady ferns
  1098. Athyrium distentifolium = a lady fern with deeply cut leaf segments
  1099. Athyrium filix-femina = most widely grown fern of the genus Athyrium for its delicate foliage
  1100. Athyrium pycnocarpon = North American fern with narrow fronds on yellowish leafstalks
  1101. Athyrium thelypteroides = fern with elongate silvery outgrowths enclosing the developing spores
  1102. Atlantic white cedar = slow-growing medium-sized cedar of east coast of the United States
  1103. Atlas cedar = tall Algerian evergreen of Atlas mountains with blue-green leaves
  1104. Atriplex = orach
  1105. Atriplex hortensis = Asiatic plant resembling spinach often used as a potherb
  1106. Atriplex hymenelytra = handsome low saltbush of arid southwestern United States and Mexico having blue-green prickly-edged leaves often used for Christmas decoration
  1107. Atriplex lentiformis = spiny shrub with silvery-scurfy foliage of alkaline plains of southwestern United States and Mexico
  1108. Atriplex mexicana = Eurasian aromatic oak-leaved goosefoot with many yellow-green flowers
  1109. Atropa = belladonna
  1110. Atropa belladonna = perennial Eurasian herb with reddish bell-shaped flowers and shining black berries; extensively grown in United States
  1111. Attalea = unarmed feather palms of central and northern South America
  1112. Attalea funifera = Brazilian palm yielding fibers used in making ropes, mats, and brushes
  1113. aubergine = hairy upright herb native to southeastern Asia but widely cultivated for its large glossy edible fruit commonly used as a vegetable
  1114. Aucuba = hardy evergreen dioecious shrubs and small trees from Japan
  1115. August plum = wild plum trees of eastern and central North America having red-orange fruit with yellow flesh
  1116. Aureolaria = small genus of North American herbs often root-parasitic and bearing golden-yellow flowers
  1117. Aureolaria pedicularia = multi-stemmed North American annual having solitary axillary dark golden-yellow flowers resembling those of the foxglove
  1118. Aureolaria virginica = sparsely branched North American perennial with terminal racemes of bright yellow flowers resembling those of the foxglove
  1119. auricula = yellow-flowered primrose native to Alps
  1120. Auricularia = type genus of the Auriculariaceae
  1121. Auricularia auricula = widely distributed edible fungus shaped like a human ear and growing on decaying wood
  1122. Auriculariaceae = fungi having gelatinous sporophores
  1123. Auriculariales = coextensive with the family Auriculariaceae
  1124. Australian chestnut = Australian tree having pinnate leaves and orange-yellow flowers followed by large woody pods containing 3 or 4 seeds that resemble chestnuts
  1125. Australian grass tree = stout Australian shrub with narrow leaves crowded at ends of branches and terminal clusters of white or pink flowers / any of several Australian evergreen perennials having short thick woody stems crowned by a tuft of grasslike foliage and yielding acaroid resins
  1126. Australian hare's foot = a hare's-foot fern of the genus Davallia
  1127. Australian heath = any heathlike plant of the family Epacridaceae
  1128. Australian honeysuckle = shrubby tree with silky foliage and spikes of cylindrical yellow nectarous flowers
  1129. Australian nettle = any of several tall Australian trees of the genus Laportea
  1130. Australian nettle tree = any of several tall Australian trees of the genus Laportea
  1131. Australian pea = South African evergreen partly woody vine grown for its clusters of rosy purple flowers followed by edible pods like snap beans; also grown as green manure
  1132. Australian pine = common Australian tree widely grown as an ornamental in tropical regions
  1133. Australian pitcher plant = a carnivorous perennial herb having a green pitcher and hinged lid both with red edges
  1134. Australian reed grass = tall Australian reedlike grass sometimes used for hay
  1135. Australian sumac = evergreen of Australia yielding a dark yellow wood
  1136. Australian sword lily = sedgelike spring-flowering herb having clustered flowers covered with woolly hairs
  1137. Austrian winter pea = variety of pea plant native to the Mediterranean region and North Africa and widely grown especially for forage
  1138. Austrocedrus = one species
  1139. Austrocedrus chilensis = a small South American evergreen having coppery bark and pretty foliage
  1140. Austrotaxus = a gymnosperm genus having one species: New Caledonian yew
  1141. Austrotaxus spicata = large yew native to New Caledonia
  1142. autophyte = plant capable of synthesizing its own food from simple organic substances
  1143. autophytic plant = plant capable of synthesizing its own food from simple organic substances
  1144. autotroph = plant capable of synthesizing its own food from simple organic substances
  1145. autotrophic organism = plant capable of synthesizing its own food from simple organic substances
  1146. autumn crocus = bulbous autumn-flowering herb with white, purple or lavender-and-white flowers
  1147. autumn pumpkin = a coarse vine widely cultivated for its large pulpy round orange fruit with firm orange skin and numerous seeds
  1148. autumn sneezeweed = North American perennial with bright yellow late summer flowers
  1149. avalanche lily = perennial herb having large white flowers marked with orange
  1150. avaram = evergreen Indian shrub with vivid yellow flowers whose bark is used in tanning
  1151. Avena = oats
  1152. Avena barbata = oat of southern Europe and southwestern Asia
  1153. Avena fatua = common in meadows and pastures
  1154. Avena sativa = widely cultivated in temperate regions for its edible grains
  1155. Avene sterilis = Mediterranean oat held to be progenitor of modern cultivated oat
  1156. avens = any of various perennials of the genus Geum having usually pinnate basal leaves and variously colored flowers
  1157. Averrhoa = trees native to East Indies having pinnate leaves: carambolas
  1158. Averrhoa bilimbi = East Indian evergreen tree bearing very acid fruit
  1159. Averrhoa carambola = East Indian tree bearing deeply ridged yellow-brown fruit
  1160. Avicennia = small genus of tropical shrubs or trees
  1161. Avicennia marina = a mangrove of the West Indies and the southern Florida coast
  1162. Avicennia officinalis = a small to medium-sized tree growing in brackish water especially along the shores of the southwestern Pacific
  1163. Avicenniaceae = used in some classifications: coextensive with the genus Avicennia
  1164. avocado = tropical American tree bearing large pulpy green fruits
  1165. avocado tree = tropical American tree bearing large pulpy green fruits
  1166. awlwort = small aquatic plant having tufted awl-shaped leaves in a basal rosette and minute white flowers
  1167. awn = slender bristlelike appendage found on the bracts of grasses
  1168. awnless bromegrass = drought-resistant perennial with awns lacking or very short and long creeping rhizomes
  1169. axil = the upper angle between an axis and an offshoot such as a branch or leafstalk
  1170. axile placentation = ovules are borne at or around the center of a compound ovary on an axis formed from joined septa
  1171. axis = the main stem or central part about which plant organs or plant parts such as branches are arranged
  1172. axseed = European herb resembling vetch; naturalized in the eastern United States
  1173. ayapana = low spreading tropical American shrub with long slender leaves used to make a mildly stimulating drink resembling tea
  1174. Ayapana triplinervis = low spreading tropical American shrub with long slender leaves used to make a mildly stimulating drink resembling tea
  1175. Azadirachta = genus of large important East Indian trees: neem trees
  1176. Azadirachta indica = large semi-evergreen tree of the East Indies; trunk exudes a tenacious gum; bitter bark used as a tonic; seeds yield an aromatic oil
  1177. azalea = any of numerous ornamental shrubs grown for their showy flowers of various colors
  1178. Azaleastrum = group of evergreen or deciduous shrubs formerly considered a separate genus
  1179. azedarach = tree of northern India and China having purple blossoms and small inedible yellow fruits
  1180. azederach = tree of northern India and China having purple blossoms and small inedible yellow fruits
  1181. Azolla = a genus of fern sometimes placed in its own family Azollaceae
  1182. Azolla caroliniana = small free-floating aquatic fern from the eastern United States to tropical America
  1183. Azollaceae = used in some classifications for the genus Azolla
  1184. Aztec lily = Mexican bulbous herb cultivated for its handsome bright red solitary flower
  1185. Aztec marigold = a stout branching annual with large yellow to orange flower heads
  1186. azure aster = a variety of aster
  1187. babacu oil = fatty oil from kernels of babassu nuts similar to coconut oil
  1188. babassu = tall feather palm of northern Brazil with hard-shelled nuts yielding valuable oil and a kind of vegetable ivory
  1189. babassu nut = hard-shelled nut of the babassu palm
  1190. babassu oil = fatty oil from kernels of babassu nuts similar to coconut oil
  1191. babassu palm = tall feather palm of northern Brazil with hard-shelled nuts yielding valuable oil and a kind of vegetable ivory
  1192. babies' slippers = European forage plant having claw-shaped pods introduced in America
  1193. babies'-breath = tall plant with small lance-shaped leaves and numerous tiny white or pink flowers
  1194. baby blue-eyes = delicate California annual having blue flowers marked with dark spots
  1195. baby rose = vigorously growing rose having clusters of numerous small flowers
  1196. baby tears = prostrate or creeping Corsican herb with moss-like small round short-stemmed leaves
  1197. baby's breath = tall plant with small lance-shaped leaves and numerous tiny white or pink flowers
  1198. baby's tears = prostrate or creeping Corsican herb with moss-like small round short-stemmed leaves
  1199. Babylonian weeping willow = willow with long drooping branches and slender leaves native to China
  1200. bacca = an indehiscent fruit derived from a single ovary having one or many seeds within a fleshy wall or pericarp: e.g. grape; tomato
  1201. Baccharis = shrubs of western hemisphere often having honey-scented flowers followed by silky thistlelike heads of tiny fruits
  1202. Baccharis halimifolia = a shrub of salt marshes of eastern and south central North America and West Indies
  1203. Baccharis pilularis = widely spreading evergreen shrub of southwestern United States with flower heads in a leafy panicle
  1204. Baccharis viminea = California shrub with slender leafy shoots that are important browse for mule deer
  1205. bachelor's button = tropical American herb having rose to red or purple flowers that can be dried without losing color / an annual Eurasian plant cultivated in North America having showy heads of blue or purple or pink or white flowers
  1206. bacon and eggs = European forage plant having claw-shaped pods introduced in America
  1207. Bahama grass = trailing grass native to Europe now cosmopolitan in warm regions
  1208. bahia coquilla = Brazilian palm yielding fibers used in making ropes, mats, and brushes
  1209. Bahia grass = perennial tropical American grass used as pasture grass in arid areas of the Gulf States
  1210. Bahia piassava = Brazilian palm yielding fibers used in making ropes, mats, and brushes
  1211. bakeapple = creeping raspberry of north temperate regions with yellow or orange berries
  1212. baked-apple berry = creeping raspberry of north temperate regions with yellow or orange berries
  1213. baker's yeast = used as a leaven in baking and brewing
  1214. balata = a tropical hardwood tree yielding balata gum and heavy red timber / when dried yields a hard substance used e.g. in golf balls
  1215. balata tree = a tropical hardwood tree yielding balata gum and heavy red timber
  1216. bald cypress = common cypress of southeastern United States having trunk expanded at base
  1217. balibago = shrubby tree widely distributed along tropical shores; yields a light tough wood used for canoe outriggers and a fiber used for cordage and caulk
  1218. ball fern = feathery fern of tropical Asia and Malaysia
  1219. ball nettle = coarse prickly weed having pale yellow flowers and yellow berrylike fruit
  1220. ball nightshade = coarse prickly weed having pale yellow flowers and yellow berrylike fruit
  1221. balloon flower = fragrant puffed-up white to reddish-pink flowers in long narrow clusters on erect stems
  1222. balloon vine = woody perennial climbing plant with large ornamental seed pods that resemble balloons
  1223. Ballota = perennial herbs or subshrubs of especially Mediterranean area: black horehound
  1224. Ballota nigra = ill-smelling European herb with rugose leaves and whorls of dark purple flowers
  1225. balm of Gilead = medium-sized fir of northeastern North America; leaves smell of balsam when crushed; much used for pulpwood and Christmas trees / small evergreen tree of Africa and Asia
  1226. balsa = forest tree of lowland Central America having a strong very light wood
  1227. balsa wood = strong lightweight wood of the balsa tree used especially for floats
  1228. balsam = any seed plant yielding balsam
  1229. balsam apple = a tropical Old World flowering vine with red or orange warty fruit
  1230. balsam family = distinguished from the family Geraniaceae by the irregular flowers
  1231. balsam fir = medium-sized fir of northeastern North America; leaves smell of balsam when crushed
  1232. balsam herb = tansy-scented Eurasian perennial herb with buttonlike yellow flowers; used as potherb or salad green and sometimes for potpourri or tea or flavoring
  1233. balsam of Peru = dark brown syrupy balsam from the Peruvian balsam tree used especially in dressing wounds and treating certain skin diseases
  1234. balsam of tolu = aromatic yellowish brown balsam from the tolu balsam tree used especially in cough syrups
  1235. balsam pear = tropical Old World vine with yellow-orange fruit
  1236. balsam poplar = poplar of northeastern North America with broad heart-shaped leaves
  1237. balsam willow = small shrubby tree of eastern North America having leaves exuding an odor of balsam when crushed
  1238. Balsaminaceae = distinguished from the family Geraniaceae by the irregular flowers
  1239. Balsamorhiza = genus of coarse western American herbs with large roots containing an aromatic balsam
  1240. balsamroot = a plant of the genus Balsamorhiza having downy leaves in a basal rosette and yellow flowers and long balsam-scented taproots
  1241. bamboo = woody tropical grass having hollow woody stems; mature canes used for construction and furniture / the hard woody stems of bamboo plants
  1242. bamboo fern = fast-growing sturdy Japanese fern
  1243. bamboo palm = a palm of the genus Raffia / small graceful palm with reedlike stems and leaf bases clothed with loose coarse fibers
  1244. Bambusa = tall tender clumping bamboos
  1245. Bambusa vulgaris = extremely vigorous bamboo having thin-walled culms striped green and yellow
  1246. Bambuseae = bamboos
  1247. banana = any of several tropical and subtropical treelike herbs of the genus Musa having a terminal crown of large entire leaves and usually bearing hanging clusters of elongated fruits
  1248. banana family = treelike tropical Asian herbs
  1249. banana passion fruit = cultivated for fruit
  1250. banana tree = any of several tropical and subtropical treelike herbs of the genus Musa having a terminal crown of large entire leaves and usually bearing hanging clusters of elongated fruits
  1251. baneberry = a plant of the genus Actaea having acrid poisonous berries / a poisonous berry of a plant of the genus Actaea
  1252. banian = East Indian tree that puts out aerial shoots that grow down into the soil forming additional trunks
  1253. banian tree = East Indian tree that puts out aerial shoots that grow down into the soil forming additional trunks
  1254. banksia = any shrub or tree of the genus Banksia having alternate leathery leaves apetalous yellow flowers often in showy heads and conelike fruit with winged seeds
  1255. Banksia integrifolia = shrubby tree with silky foliage and spikes of cylindrical yellow nectarous flowers
  1256. banksia rose = Chinese evergreen climbing rose with yellow or white single flowers
  1257. banyan = East Indian tree that puts out aerial shoots that grow down into the soil forming additional trunks
  1258. banyan tree = East Indian tree that puts out aerial shoots that grow down into the soil forming additional trunks
  1259. baobab = African tree having an exceedingly thick trunk and fruit that resembles a gourd and has an edible pulp called monkey bread
  1260. Baphia = small genus of shrubs and lianas and trees of Africa and Madagascar
  1261. Baphia nitida = small shrubby African tree with hard wood used as a dyewood yielding a red dye
  1262. Baptisia = genus of North American plants with showy flowers and an inflated pod
  1263. Baptisia australis = wild indigo of the eastern United States having racemes of blue flowers
  1264. Baptisia lactea = erect or spreading herb having racemes of creamy white flowers
  1265. Baptisia tinctoria = much-branched erect herb with bright yellow flowers
  1266. bar-room plant = evergreen perennial with large handsome basal leaves
  1267. barbados cherry = tropical American shrub bearing edible acid red fruit resembling cherries
  1268. Barbados gooseberry = West Indian woody climber with spiny stems and numerous fragrant white flowers in panicles followed by small yellow to orange fruits
  1269. Barbados maidenhair = named for a country house in Barbados where it was discovered
  1270. Barbados pride = East Indian tree with racemes of yellow-white flowers
  1271. Barbados-gooseberry vine = West Indian woody climber with spiny stems and numerous fragrant white flowers in panicles followed by small yellow to orange fruits
  1272. Barbarea = biennial or perennial herbs of north temperate regions: winter cress
  1273. Barbarea praecox = of southwestern Europe
  1274. Barbarea verna = of southwestern Europe
  1275. Barbarea vulgaris = noxious cress with yellow flowers
  1276. barbasco = West Indian shrub or small tree having leathery saponaceous leaves and extremely hard wood
  1277. barberry = any of numerous plants of the genus Berberis having prickly stems and yellow flowers followed by small red berries
  1278. barberry family = shrubs or herbs
  1279. Barberton daisy = widely cultivated South African perennial having flower heads with orange to flame-colored rays
  1280. barilla = Algerian plant formerly burned to obtain calcium carbonate / bushy plant of Old World salt marshes and sea beaches having prickly leaves
  1281. bark = tough protective covering of the woody stems and roots of trees and other woody plants
  1282. barley = cultivated since prehistoric times
  1283. barley grass = European annual grass often found as a weed in waste ground especially along roadsides and hedgerows
  1284. barleycorn = a grain of barley
  1285. barn grass = a coarse annual panic grass; a cosmopolitan weed
  1286. barn millet = a coarse annual panic grass; a cosmopolitan weed
  1287. Barnaby's thistle = European weed having a winged stem and hairy leaves
  1288. barnyard grass = a coarse annual panic grass; a cosmopolitan weed
  1289. barrel cactus = any cactus of the genus Echinocactus; strongly ribbed and very spiny
  1290. barrenwort = slow-growing creeping plant with semi-evergreen leaves on erect wiry stems
  1291. Bartle Frere = a living fossil or so-called `green dinosaur'; genus or subfamily of primitive nut-bearing trees thought to have died out 50 million years ago; a single specimen found in 1994 on Mount Bartle Frere in eastern Australia
  1292. bartonia = annual grown especially for its fragrant golden nocturnal flowers
  1293. Bartram Juneberry = open-growing shrub of eastern North America having pure white flowers and small waxy almost black fruits
  1294. basal placentation = where one or few ovules develop at the base of a simple or compound ovary
  1295. basidiocarp = the fruiting body of a basidiomycete which bears its spores on special cells
  1296. basidiolichen = a lichen in which the fungus component is a basidiomycete
  1297. basidiomycete = any of various fungi of the subdivision Basidiomycota
  1298. Basidiomycetes = large class of higher fungi coextensive with subdivision Basidiomycota
  1299. basidiomycetous fungi = any of various fungi of the subdivision Basidiomycota
  1300. Basidiomycota = comprises fungi bearing the spores on a basidium; includes Gasteromycetes (puffballs) and Tiliomycetes comprising the orders Ustilaginales (smuts) and Uredinales (rusts) and Hymenomycetes
  1301. Basidiomycotina = comprises fungi bearing the spores on a basidium; includes Gasteromycetes (puffballs) and Tiliomycetes comprising the orders Ustilaginales (smuts) and Uredinales (rusts) and Hymenomycetes
  1302. basidiospore = a sexually produced fungal spore borne on a basidium
  1303. basidium = a small club-shaped structure typically bearing four basidiospores at the ends of minute projections
  1304. basil = any of several Old World tropical aromatic annual or perennial herbs of the genus Ocimum
  1305. basil balm = fragrant European mint having clusters of small violet-and-white flowers
  1306. basil mint = perennial herb of the eastern United States having inconspicuous greenish flowers and narrow leaves that are very aromatic when bruised
  1307. basil thyme = fragrant European mint having clusters of small violet-and-white flowers
  1308. basket ash = vigorous spreading North American tree having dark brown heavy wood
  1309. basket fern = giant epiphytic or lithophytic fern; Asia to Polynesia and Australia / tropical American fern cultivated for its finely divided greyish-green foliage
  1310. basket flower = annual of southwestern United States cultivated for its purple flower heads and its bracts that resemble small baskets
  1311. basket oak = medium to large deciduous tree of the eastern United States
  1312. basket spikemoss = spikemoss forming dense mats
  1313. basket willow = Eurasian osier having reddish or purple twigs and bark rich in tannin
  1314. Bassia = summer cypress
  1315. Bassia scoparia = densely branched Eurasian plant
  1316. bassine = coarse leaf fiber from palmyra palms used in making brushes and brooms
  1317. basswood = any of various deciduous trees of the genus Tilia with heart-shaped leaves and drooping cymose clusters of yellowish often fragrant flowers; several yield valuable timber / soft light-colored wood of any of various linden trees
  1318. bast = tissue that conducts synthesized food substances (e.g., from leaves) to parts where needed
  1319. bast fiber = strong woody fibers obtained especially from the phloem of from various plants
  1320. bastard feverfew = tropical American annual weed with small radiate heads of white flowers
  1321. bastard indigo = an erect to spreading hairy shrub of the Pacific coast of the United States having racemes of red to indigo flowers / dense shrub of moist riverbanks and flood plains of the eastern United States having attractive fragrant foliage and dense racemes of dark purple flowers / East Indian shrub
  1322. bastard lignum vitae = small evergreen tree of the southern United States and West Indies a source of lignum vitae wood
  1323. bastard pennyroyal = aromatic plant of the eastern United States
  1324. bastard pimpernel = weedy plant having short dry chafflike leaves
  1325. bastard toadflax = woody creeping parasite of western North America having numerous thick powdery leaves and panicles of small dull-white flowers
  1326. bastard yellowwood = medium-sized tree of South Africa
  1327. bath asparagus = Old World star of Bethlehem having edible young shoots
  1328. Batidaceae = family coextensive with genus Batis: saltworts
  1329. Batis = small genus of plants constituting the family Batidaceae: low straggling dioecious shrubs
  1330. Batis maritima = low-growing strong-smelling coastal shrub of warm parts of the New World having unisexual flowers in conelike spikes and thick succulent leaves
  1331. batoko palm = small shrubby tree of Madagascar cultivated in tropical regions as a hedge plant and for its deep red acid fruits resembling small plums
  1332. Bauhinia = mountain ebony, orchid tree
  1333. Bauhinia monandra = shrub or small tree of Dutch Guiana having clusters of pink flowers streaked with purple
  1334. Bauhinia variegata = small East Indian tree having orchid-like flowers and hard dark wood
  1335. bay = small Mediterranean evergreen tree with small blackish berries and glossy aromatic leaves used for flavoring in cooking
  1336. bay grass = any of various grasses of the genus Eragrostis
  1337. bay laurel = small Mediterranean evergreen tree with small blackish berries and glossy aromatic leaves used for flavoring in cooking
  1338. bay myrtle = evergreen aromatic shrubby tree of southeastern United States having small hard berries thickly coated with white wax used for candles
  1339. bay tree = small Mediterranean evergreen tree with small blackish berries and glossy aromatic leaves used for flavoring in cooking
  1340. bay willow = European willow tree with shining leathery leaves
  1341. bay-leaved caper = shrub or small tree of southern Florida to Central and South America
  1342. bay-rum tree = West Indian tree
  1343. bayberry = deciduous aromatic shrub of eastern North America with grey-green wax-coated berries / West Indian tree
  1344. bayberry tallow = a fragrant green wax obtained from the wax myrtle and used in making candles
  1345. bayberry wax = a fragrant green wax obtained from the wax myrtle and used in making candles
  1346. beach aster = slightly succulent perennial with basal leaves and hairy sticky stems each bearing a solitary flower head with narrow pink or lavender rays
  1347. beach goldenrod = vigorous showy goldenrod common along eastern coast and Gulf Coast of North America
  1348. beach grass = tough grasses with strong roots that can grow on exposed sandy shores
  1349. beach heather = small heathlike plant covered with white down growing on beaches in northeastern North America
  1350. beach morning glory = a prostrate perennial of coastal sand dunes Florida to Texas
  1351. beach pancake = plant having hemispherical heads of wine-red flowers
  1352. beach pea = wild pea of seashores of north temperate zone having tough roots and purple flowers and useful as a sand binder
  1353. beach plum = seacoast shrub of northeastern North America having showy white blossoms and edible purple fruit
  1354. beach plum bush = seacoast shrub of northeastern North America having showy white blossoms and edible purple fruit
  1355. beach sand verbena = prostrate herb having heads of deep pink to white flowers
  1356. beach strawberry = wild strawberry of western United States and South America
  1357. beach wormwood = herb with greyish leaves found along the east coast of North America
  1358. bead fern = beautiful spreading fern of eastern North America and eastern Asia naturalized in western Europe; pinnately divided fronds show a slight tendency to fold when touched
  1359. bead tree = small tree of West Indies and northeastern Venezuela having large oblong pointed leaflets and panicles of purple flowers
  1360. beak = a beaklike, tapering tip on certain plant structures
  1361. beaked hazelnut = hazel of western United States with conspicuous beaklike involucres on the nuts
  1362. beaked parsley = aromatic annual Old World herb cultivated for its finely divided and often curly leaves for use especially in soups and salads
  1363. bean = any of various leguminous plants grown for their edible seeds and pods / any of various seeds or fruits that are beans or resemble beans
  1364. bean caper = perennial shrub of the eastern Mediterranean region and southwestern Asia having flowers whose buds are used as capers
  1365. bean plant = any of various leguminous plants grown for their edible seeds and pods
  1366. bean tree = any of several trees having seedpods as fruits
  1367. bean trefoil = shrub with trifoliate leaves and yellow flowers followed by backward curving seed pods
  1368. bean-caper family = small trees, shrubs, and herbs of warm arid and saline regions; often resinous
  1369. beanstalk = stem of a bean plant
  1370. bear grass = plant of western North America having woody rhizomes and tufts of stiff grasslike basal leaves and spikes of creamy white flowers / stemless plant with tufts of grasslike leaves and erect panicle of minute creamy white flowers
  1371. bear oak = shrubby oak of southeastern United States usually forming dense thickets
  1372. bear's breech = widely cultivated southern European acanthus with whitish purple-veined flowers
  1373. bear's breeches = widely cultivated southern European acanthus with whitish purple-veined flowers
  1374. bear's ear = yellow-flowered primrose native to Alps
  1375. bear's foot = digitate-leaved hellebore with an offensive odor and irritant qualities when taken internally
  1376. bear's grape = evergreen mat-forming shrub of North America and northern Eurasia having small white flowers and red berries
  1377. bear's-paw fern = epiphytic fern with large fronds
  1378. bearberry = chiefly evergreen subshrubs of northern to Arctic areas / deciduous shrub of southeastern and central United States / shrubby tree of the Pacific coast of the United States
  1379. bearberry willow = dwarf prostrate mat-forming shrub of Arctic and alpine regions of North America and Greenland having deep green elliptic leaves that taper toward the base
  1380. beard = a tuft or growth of hairs or bristles on certain plants such as iris or grasses
  1381. beard lichen = greenish grey pendulous lichen growing on trees
  1382. beard moss = greenish grey pendulous lichen growing on trees
  1383. bearded darnel = weedy annual grass often occurs in grainfields and other cultivated land
  1384. bearded iris = any of numerous wild or cultivated irises with hairlike structures on the falls
  1385. bearded wheatgrass = a wheatgrass with straight terminal awns on the flowering glumes
  1386. beardless iris = any of numerous wild or cultivated irises having no hairs on the drooping sepals
  1387. bearwood = shrubby tree of the Pacific coast of the United States
  1388. Beaumontia = small genus of evergreen woody vines in the East Indies and Asia
  1389. Beaumontia grandiflora = evergreen woody twiner with large glossy leaves and showy corymbs of fragrant white trumpet-shaped flowers
  1390. beauty bush = Chinese deciduous shrub with yellow-throated pinkish flowers and bristly fruit
  1391. Bechtel crab = derived from the Iowa crab and cultivated for its large double pink blossoms
  1392. bedder = an ornamental plant suitable for planting in a flowerbed
  1393. bedding geranium = an upright geranium having scalloped leaves with a broad color zone inside the margin and white or pink or red flowers
  1394. bedding plant = an ornamental plant suitable for planting in a flowerbed
  1395. bedstraw = any of several plants of the genus Galium
  1396. bee balm = bushy perennial Old World mint having small white or yellowish flowers and fragrant lemon-flavored leaves
  1397. bee orchid = European orchid whose flowers resemble bumble bees in shape and color
  1398. beebalm = bushy perennial Old World mint having small white or yellowish flowers and fragrant lemon-flavored leaves
  1399. beech = any of several large deciduous trees with rounded spreading crowns and smooth grey bark and small sweet edible triangular nuts enclosed in burs; north temperate regions / wood of any of various beech trees
  1400. beech family = chiefly monoecious trees and shrubs: beeches; chestnuts; oaks
  1401. beech fern = any fern of the genus Phegopteris having deeply cut triangular fronds
  1402. beech tree = any of several large deciduous trees with rounded spreading crowns and smooth grey bark and small sweet edible triangular nuts enclosed in burs
  1403. beechwood = wood of any of various beech trees
  1404. beef plant = South American plant having green to purple or red branches with green to purple ornamental foliage and spikes of insignificant woolly flowers with dry membranous bracts
  1405. beefsteak begonia = rhizomatous begonia with roundish fleshy leaves reddish colored beneath
  1406. beefsteak fungus = a popular edible fungus with a cap the color of liver or raw meat
  1407. beefsteak geranium = any of numerous usually rhizomatous hybrid begonias derived from an East Indian plant having rough-textured leaves patterned in silver and bronze and purple and red-brown with inconspicuous flowers
  1408. beefsteak morel = a poisonous gyromitra; the surface of the fertile body is smooth at first and becomes progressively undulating and wrinkled
  1409. beefsteak plant = South American plant having green to purple or red branches with green to purple ornamental foliage and spikes of insignificant woolly flowers with dry membranous bracts / plant grown for its ornamental red or purple foliage
  1410. beefwood = tree yielding hard heavy reddish wood / tree or tall shrub with shiny leaves and umbels of fragrant creamy-white flowers; yields hard heavy reddish wood / any of several Australian trees of the genus Casuarina yielding heavy hard red wood used in cabinetwork / any of several heavy hard reddish chiefly tropical woods of the families Casuarinaceae and Proteaceae
  1411. beet = biennial Eurasian plant usually having a swollen edible root
  1412. beetleweed = tufted evergreen perennial herb having spikes of tiny white flowers and glossy green round to heart-shaped leaves that become coppery to maroon or purplish in fall
  1413. beetroot = beet having a massively swollen red root
  1414. beggar lice = any of various tropical and subtropical plants having trifoliate leaves and rough sticky pod sections or loments / Eurasian and North American plants having small prickly nutlets that stick to clothing
  1415. beggar's lice = any of various tropical and subtropical plants having trifoliate leaves and rough sticky pod sections or loments / Eurasian and North American plants having small prickly nutlets that stick to clothing
  1416. beggar's-ticks = any of several plants of the genus Bidens having yellow flowers and prickly fruits that cling to fur and clothing
  1417. beggar-ticks = any of several plants of the genus Bidens having yellow flowers and prickly fruits that cling to fur and clothing / the seed of bur marigolds
  1418. beggarweed = West Indian forage plant cultivated in southern United States as forage and to improve soil
  1419. begonia = any of numerous plants of the genus Begonia grown for their attractive glossy asymmetrical leaves and colorful flowers in usually terminal cymes or racemes
  1420. Begonia cheimantha = hybrid winter-blooming begonia grown for its many large pink flowers
  1421. Begonia cocchinea = South American fibrous-rooted begonias having prominent basal leaf lobes suggesting angels' wings and racemes of coral-red flowers
  1422. Begonia dregei = tuberous or semi-tuberous South African begonia having shallowly lobed ovate leaves and small white flowers
  1423. Begonia erythrophylla = rhizomatous begonia with roundish fleshy leaves reddish colored beneath
  1424. begonia family = monoecious succulent herbs or shrubs of tropical and warm regions especially America
  1425. Begonia feastii = rhizomatous begonia with roundish fleshy leaves reddish colored beneath
  1426. Begonia heracleifolia = rhizomatous begonia having leaves with pointed lobes suggestive of stars and pink flowers
  1427. Begonia rex = any of numerous usually rhizomatous hybrid begonias derived from an East Indian plant having rough-textured leaves patterned in silver and bronze and purple and red-brown with inconspicuous flowers
  1428. Begonia semperflorens = hybrid fibrous-rooted begonia having broad-ovate green to bronze-red leaves and small clusters of white or pink or red flowers
  1429. Begonia socotrana = semi-tuberous begonia having peltate leaves and rose-pink flowers
  1430. Begonia tuberhybrida = any of numerous hybrid begonias having tuberous roots and variously colored flowers
  1431. Begoniaceae = monoecious succulent herbs or shrubs of tropical and warm regions especially America
  1432. Belamcanda = a monocotyledonous genus of the family Iridaceae
  1433. Belamcanda chinensis = garden plant whose capsule discloses when ripe a mass of seeds resembling a blackberry
  1434. bell heather = common low European shrub with purple-red flowers / dwarf European shrub with rose-colored flowers
  1435. bell morel = a morel whose fertile portion resembles a bell and is attached to the stipe only at the top
  1436. bell pepper = plant bearing large mild thick-walled usually bell-shaped fruits
  1437. bella sombra = fast-growing herbaceous evergreen tree of South America having a broad trunk with high water content and dark green oval leaves
  1438. belladonna = perennial Eurasian herb with reddish bell-shaped flowers and shining black berries; extensively grown in United States
  1439. belladonna lily = amaryllis of South Africa often cultivated for its fragrant white or rose flowers
  1440. belladonna plant = perennial Eurasian herb with reddish bell-shaped flowers and shining black berries; extensively grown in United States
  1441. belle de nuit = pantropical climber having white fragrant nocturnal flowers
  1442. Belle Isle cress = of southwestern Europe
  1443. bellflower = any of various plants of the genus Campanula having blue or white bell-shaped flowers
  1444. bellflower family = family of plants of the order Campanulales
  1445. Bellis = daisy
  1446. Bellis perennis = low-growing Eurasian plant with yellow central disc flowers and pinkish-white outer ray flowers
  1447. bells of Ireland = aromatic annual with a tall stems of small whitish flowers enclosed in a greatly enlarged saucer-shaped or bell-shaped calyx
  1448. bellwort = any of various plants of the genus Uvularia having yellowish drooping bell-shaped flowers
  1449. belvedere = densely branched Eurasian plant
  1450. bendy tree = pantropical tree of usually seacoasts sometimes cultivated as an ornamental for its rounded heart-shaped leaves and showy yellow and purple flowers
  1451. Bengal bean = the annual woody vine of Asia having long clusters of purplish flowers and densely hairy pods
  1452. Bengal rose = shrubby Chinese rose
  1453. Benghal bean = the annual woody vine of Asia having long clusters of purplish flowers and densely hairy pods
  1454. Benjamin bush = deciduous shrub of the eastern United States having highly aromatic leaves and bark and yellow flowers followed by scarlet or yellow berries
  1455. benne = East Indian annual erect herb
  1456. bennet = North American white-flowered avens / avens of Virginia having pale or greenish yellow flowers
  1457. Bennettitaceae = a family of fossil gymnospermous plants of the Carboniferous
  1458. Bennettitales = fossil gymnospermous plants of the Carboniferous
  1459. Bennettitis = type of the Bennettitales
  1460. benni = East Indian annual erect herb
  1461. benny = East Indian annual erect herb
  1462. bent = grass for pastures and lawns especially bowling and putting greens
  1463. bent grass = grass for pastures and lawns especially bowling and putting greens
  1464. bent-grass = grass for pastures and lawns especially bowling and putting greens
  1465. benweed = widespread European weed having yellow daisylike flowers
  1466. Benzoin = used in some classifications for the American spicebush and certain other plants often included in the genus Lindera
  1467. Benzoin odoriferum = deciduous shrub of the eastern United States having highly aromatic leaves and bark and yellow flowers followed by scarlet or yellow berries
  1468. Berberidaceae = shrubs or herbs
  1469. Berberis = large genus of shrubs of temperate zones of New and Old Worlds
  1470. Berberis canadensis = deciduous shrub of eastern North America whose leaves turn scarlet in autumn and having racemes of yellow flowers followed by ellipsoid glossy red berries
  1471. Berberis thunbergii = compact deciduous shrub having persistent red berries
  1472. Berberis vulgaris = upright deciduous European shrub widely naturalized in United States having clusters of juicy berries
  1473. bergamot = small tree with pear-shaped fruit whose oil is used in perfumery
  1474. bergamot mint = mint with leaves having perfume like that of the bergamot orange / perennial aromatic herb of eastern North America having variously colored tubular flowers in dense showy heads
  1475. bergamot orange = small tree with pear-shaped fruit whose oil is used in perfumery
  1476. bergenia = any plant of the genus Bergenia
  1477. Bermuda buttercup = South African bulbous wood sorrel with showy yellow flowers
  1478. Bermuda cedar = ornamental densely pyramidal juniper of Bermuda
  1479. Bermuda grass = trailing grass native to Europe now cosmopolitan in warm regions
  1480. Bermuda lily = tall lily have large white trumpet-shaped flowers that bloom in the spring
  1481. Bermuda maidenhair = delicate endemic Bermudian fern with creeping rootstock
  1482. Bermuda maidenhair fern = delicate endemic Bermudian fern with creeping rootstock
  1483. berry = a small fruit having any of various structures, e.g., simple (grape or blueberry) or aggregate
  1484. berry fern = North American fern often bearing bulbils on the leaflets
  1485. Berteroa = hoary alyssum
  1486. Berteroa incana = tall European annual with downy grey-green foliage and dense heads of small white flowers followed by hairy pods; naturalized in North America
  1487. Bertholletia = brazil nut
  1488. Bertholletia excelsa = tall South American tree bearing brazil nuts
  1489. Bessera = small genus of cormous perennials of Mexico
  1490. Bessera elegans = half-hardy Mexican herb cultivated for its drooping terminal umbels of showy red-and-white flowers
  1491. Besseya = genus of North American spring wildflowers
  1492. Besseya alpina = small pale plant with dense spikes of pale bluish-violet flowers
  1493. Beta = beets
  1494. Beta vulgaris = biennial Eurasian plant usually having a swollen edible root
  1495. Beta vulgaris cicla = beet lacking swollen root
  1496. Beta vulgaris rubra = beet having a massively swollen red root
  1497. Beta vulgaris vulgaris = beet with a large yellowish root
  1498. betel = Asian pepper plant whose leaves are chewed with betel nut (seed of the betel palm) by southeast Asians / a leaf of a vine from the betel pepper
  1499. betel leaf = a leaf of a vine from the betel pepper
  1500. betel palm = southeastern Asian palm bearing betel nuts
  1501. betel pepper = Asian pepper plant whose leaves are chewed with betel nut (seed of the betel palm) by southeast Asians
  1502. Betula = a genus of trees of the family Betulaceae
  1503. Betula alleghaniensis = tree of eastern North America with thin lustrous yellow or grey bark
  1504. Betula cordifolia = small American birch with peeling white bark often worked into e.g. baskets or toy canoes
  1505. Betula fontinalis = birch of western United States resembling the paper birch but having brownish bark
  1506. Betula glandulosa = small shrub of colder parts of North America and Greenland
  1507. Betula lenta = common birch of the eastern United States having spicy brown bark yielding a volatile oil and hard dark wood used for furniture
  1508. Betula leutea = tree of eastern North America with thin lustrous yellow or grey bark
  1509. Betula neoalaskana = Alaskan birch with white to pale brown bark
  1510. Betula nigra = birch of swamps and river bottoms throughout the eastern United States having reddish-brown bark
  1511. Betula papyrifera = small American birch with peeling white bark often worked into e.g. baskets or toy canoes
  1512. Betula pendula = European birch with silvery white peeling bark and markedly drooping branches
  1513. Betula populifolia = medium-sized birch of eastern North America having white or pale grey bark and valueless wood
  1514. Betula pubescens = European birch with dull white to pale brown bark and somewhat drooping hairy branches
  1515. Betulaceae = monoecious trees and shrubs
  1516. bible leaf = tansy-scented Eurasian perennial herb with buttonlike yellow flowers; used as potherb or salad green and sometimes for potpourri or tea or flavoring
  1517. bicolor lespediza = Asian shrub having conspicuous racemose rose-purple flowers widely used as an ornamental and in erosion control and as a source of feed for wild birds
  1518. Bidens = bur marigolds
  1519. Bidens bipinnata = common bur marigold of the eastern United States
  1520. Bidens connata = bur marigold of eastern and northern United States and Canada common in wet pastures and meadows
  1521. Bidens coronata = North American bur marigold with large flowers
  1522. Bidens trichosperma = North American bur marigold with large flowers
  1523. Bidens tripartita = bur marigold of temperate Eurasia
  1524. biennial = a plant having a life cycle that normally takes two seasons from germination to death to complete
  1525. big marigold = a stout branching annual with large yellow to orange flower heads
  1526. big sagebrush = aromatic shrub of arid regions of western North America having hoary leaves
  1527. big shagbark = hickory of the eastern United States resembling the shagbark but having a much larger nut
  1528. big shellbark = hickory of the eastern United States resembling the shagbark but having a much larger nut
  1529. big shellbark hickory = hickory of the eastern United States resembling the shagbark but having a much larger nut
  1530. big tree = extremely lofty evergreen of southern end of western foothills of Sierra Nevada in California
  1531. big-bud hickory = smooth-barked North American hickory with 7 to 9 leaflets bearing a hard-shelled edible nut
  1532. big-cone douglas fir = douglas fir of California having cones 4-8 inches long
  1533. big-cone spruce = douglas fir of California having cones 4-8 inches long
  1534. big-leaf maple = maple of western North America having large 5-lobed leaves orange in autumn
  1535. big-toothed aspen = aspen with a narrow crown
  1536. big-tree plum = small tree of southwestern United States having purplish-red fruit sometimes cultivated as an ornamental for its large leaves
  1537. bigarade = any of various common orange trees yielding sour or bitter fruit
  1538. Bignonia = one species: cross vine
  1539. Bignonia capreolata = woody flowering vine of southern United States
  1540. Bignoniaceae = trees or shrubs or woody vines or herbs having fruit resembling gourds or capsules
  1541. bignoniad = any woody plant of the family Bignoniaceae
  1542. bigtooth aspen = aspen with a narrow crown
  1543. bigtoothed aspen = aspen with a narrow crown
  1544. bijugate leaf = a pinnate leaf having two pairs of leaflets
  1545. bijugous leaf = a pinnate leaf having two pairs of leaflets
  1546. bilberry = erect blueberry of western United States having solitary flowers and somewhat sour berries / erect European blueberry having solitary flowers and blue-black berries
  1547. bilimbi = East Indian evergreen tree bearing very acid fruit
  1548. billion-dollar grass = coarse annual grass cultivated in Japan and southeastern Asia for its edible seeds and for forage
  1549. billy buttons = any of various plants of the genus Craspedia grown for their downy foliage and globose heads of golden flowers
  1550. bilocular capsule = a capsule divided into two cells or compartments
  1551. bilsted = a North American tree of the genus Liquidambar having prickly spherical fruit clusters and fragrant sap
  1552. bimli = valuable fiber plant of East Indies now widespread in cultivation
  1553. bimli hemp = valuable fiber plant of East Indies now widespread in cultivation
  1554. bindweed = any of several vines of the genera Convolvulus and Calystegia having a twining habit
  1555. bine = European twining plant whose flowers are used chiefly to flavor malt liquors
  1556. bipinnate leaf = a leaf having pinnate leaflets
  1557. birch = any betulaceous tree or shrub of the genus Betula having a thin peeling bark / hard close-grained wood of any of various birch trees
  1558. birch family = monoecious trees and shrubs
  1559. birch tree = any betulaceous tree or shrub of the genus Betula having a thin peeling bark
  1560. bird cherry = any of several small-fruited cherry trees frequented or fed on by birds
  1561. bird cherry tree = any of several small-fruited cherry trees frequented or fed on by birds
  1562. bird of paradise = ornamental plant of tropical South Africa and South America having stalks of orange and purplish-blue flowers resembling a bird / a tropical flowering shrub having bright orange or red flowers
  1563. bird pepper = plant bearing very small and very hot oblong red fruits; includes wild forms native to tropical America
  1564. bird vetch = common perennial climber of temperate regions of Eurasia and North America having dense elongate clusters of flowers
  1565. bird's eye = Old World plant with axillary racemes of blue-and-white flowers
  1566. bird's foot clover = European forage plant having claw-shaped pods introduced in America
  1567. bird's foot trefoil = European forage plant having claw-shaped pods introduced in America / Old World herb related to fenugreek
  1568. bird's nest fern = tropical Old World or Australian epiphytic fern frequently forming tufts in tree crotches
  1569. bird's-eye bush = shrub with narrow-elliptic glossy evergreen leaves and yellow flowers with leathery petaloid sepals
  1570. bird's-eye maple = maple wood having a wavy grain with eyelike markings
  1571. bird's-foot fern = cliff brake of California and Baja California having purple-brown leafstalks
  1572. bird's-foot violet = common violet of the eastern United States with large pale blue or purple flowers resembling pansies
  1573. bird's-nest fungus = any of various fungi of the family Nidulariaceae having a cup-shaped body containing several egg-shaped structure enclosing the spores
  1574. bird-on-the-wing = common trailing perennial milkwort of eastern North America having leaves like wintergreen and usually rosy-purple flowers with winged sepals
  1575. birdseed grass = Canary Islands grass
  1576. birthroot = trillium of eastern North America having malodorous pink to purple flowers and an astringent root used in folk medicine especially to ease childbirth
  1577. birthwort = creeping plant having curving flowers thought to resemble fetuses; native to Europe
  1578. birthwort family = family of birthworts
  1579. Biscutalla laevigata = plant of southeastern Europe having yellow flowers like those of mustard and pods with open valves resembling bucklers
  1580. Biscutella = genus of Eurasian herbs and small shrubs: buckler mustard
  1581. bishop pine = two-needled or three-needled pinon mostly of northwestern California coast
  1582. bishop's cap = any of various rhizomatous perennial herbs of the genus Mitella having a capsule resembling a bishop's miter
  1583. bishop's hat = slow-growing creeping plant with semi-evergreen leaves on erect wiry stems
  1584. bishop's pine = two-needled or three-needled pinon mostly of northwestern California coast
  1585. bitter almond = almond trees having white blossoms and poisonous nuts yielding an oil used for flavoring and for medicinal purposes
  1586. bitter almond oil = pale yellow essential oil obtained from bitter almonds by distillation from almond cake or meal
  1587. bitter betch = European perennial toxic vetch
  1588. bitter cassava = cassava with long tuberous edible roots and soft brittle stems
  1589. bitter cress = any of various herbs of the genus Cardamine, having usually pinnate leaves and racemes of white, pink or purple flowers
  1590. bitter dock = European dock with broad obtuse leaves and bitter rootstock common as a weed in North America
  1591. bitter floom = any of several pink-flowered marsh plant of the eastern United States resembling a true centaury
  1592. bitter hickory = hickory of the eastern United States having a leaves with 7 or 9 leaflets and thin-shelled very bitter nuts
  1593. bitter orange = any of various common orange trees yielding sour or bitter fruit
  1594. bitter orange tree = any of various common orange trees yielding sour or bitter fruit
  1595. bitter pea = any of several spiny shrubs of the genus Daviesia having yellow flowers and triangular seeds
  1596. bitter pecan = hickory of southern United States having many narrow leaflets and rather bitter nuts
  1597. bitter pignut = hickory of the eastern United States having a leaves with 7 or 9 leaflets and thin-shelled very bitter nuts
  1598. bitter-bark = ornamental shrub or small tree of swampy areas in southwestern United States having large pink or white sepals and yielding Georgia bark for treating fever
  1599. bittercress = any of various herbs of the genus Cardamine, having usually pinnate leaves and racemes of white, pink or purple flowers
  1600. bitternut = hickory of the eastern United States having a leaves with 7 or 9 leaflets and thin-shelled very bitter nuts
  1601. bitternut hickory = hickory of the eastern United States having a leaves with 7 or 9 leaflets and thin-shelled very bitter nuts
  1602. bitterroot = showy succulent ground-hugging plant of Rocky Mountains regions having deep to pale pink flowers and fleshy farinaceous roots
  1603. bittersweet = twining shrub of North America having yellow capsules enclosing scarlet seeds / poisonous perennial Old World vine having violet flowers and oval coral-red berries
  1604. bittersweet nightshade = poisonous perennial Old World vine having violet flowers and oval coral-red berries
  1605. bitterweed = any of numerous chiefly North American weedy plants constituting the genus Ambrosia that produce highly allergenic pollen responsible for much hay fever and asthma / widespread European weed with spiny tongue-shaped leaves and yellow flowers
  1606. bitterwood = medium to large tree of tropical North and South America having odd-pinnate leaves and long panicles of small pale yellow flowers followed by scarlet fruits / West Indian tree yielding the drug Jamaica quassia / handsome South American shrub or small tree having bright scarlet flowers and yielding a valuable fine-grained yellowish wood
  1607. bitterwood tree = any of various trees or shrubs of the family Simaroubaceae having wood and bark with a bitter taste
  1608. black apricot = small hybrid apricot of Asia and Asia Minor having purplish twigs and white flowers following by inferior purple fruit
  1609. black archangel = ill-smelling European herb with rugose leaves and whorls of dark purple flowers
  1610. black ash = vigorous spreading North American tree having dark brown heavy wood
  1611. black bamboo = small bamboo having thin green culms turning shining black
  1612. black bead = erect shrub with small if any spines having racemes of white to yellow flowers followed by curved pointed pods and black shiny seeds
  1613. black bearberry = deciduous creeping shrub bright red in autumn having black or blue-black berries
  1614. black beech = New Zealand forest tree
  1615. black bindweed = common European twining vine with tuberous roots and cordate leaves and red berries
  1616. black birch = birch of swamps and river bottoms throughout the eastern United States having reddish-brown bark / common birch of the eastern United States having spicy brown bark yielding a volatile oil and hard dark wood used for furniture
  1617. black bryony = common European twining vine with tuberous roots and cordate leaves and red berries
  1618. black calla = ornamental plant of Middle East cultivated for its dark purple spathe
  1619. black caraway = herb of the Mediterranean region having pungent seeds used like those of caraway
  1620. black catechu = extract of the heartwood of Acacia catechu used for dyeing and tanning and preserving fishnets and sails
  1621. black cherry = large North American wild cherry with round black sour edible fruit
  1622. black cherry tree = large North American wild cherry with round black sour edible fruit
  1623. black cohosh = North American bugbane found from Maine and Ontario to Wisconsin and south to Georgia
  1624. black cottonwood = cottonwood of western North America with dark green leaves shining above and rusty or silvery beneath / North American poplar with large rounded scalloped leaves and brownish bark and wood
  1625. black currant = widely cultivated current bearing edible black aromatic berries
  1626. black cypress pine = Australian tree with small flattened scales as leaves and numerous dark brown seed
  1627. black elder = a common shrub with black fruit or a small tree of Europe and Asia
  1628. black elderberry = common elder of central and eastern North America bearing purple-black berries
  1629. black felt cup = a common name for a variety of Sarcosomataceae
  1630. black fritillary = herb of southwestern United States having dark purple bell-shaped flowers mottled with green
  1631. black grama = a pasture grass
  1632. black greasewood = low hardy much-branched spiny shrub common in alkaline soils of western America
  1633. black gum = a small mallee with rough dark-colored bark toward the butt
  1634. black haw = upright deciduous shrub having frosted dark-blue fruit
  1635. black hellebore = European evergreen plant with white or purplish rose-like winter-blooming flowers / slightly hairy perennial having deep green leathery leaves and flowers that are ultimately purplish-green
  1636. black hemlock = large evergreen of western United States
  1637. black henbane = poisonous fetid Old World herb having sticky hairy leaves and yellow-brown flowers
  1638. black hickory = North American walnut tree with hard dark wood and edible nut / an American hickory tree having bitter nuts / smooth-barked North American hickory with 7 to 9 leaflets bearing a hard-shelled edible nut
  1639. black Hollander = Old World willow with light green leaves cultivated for use in basketry
  1640. black horehound = ill-smelling European herb with rugose leaves and whorls of dark purple flowers
  1641. black huckleberry = low shrub of the eastern United States bearing shiny black edible fruit
  1642. black knapweed = a weedy perennial with tough wiry stems and purple flowers
  1643. black larch = medium-sized larch of Canada and northern United States including Alaska having a broad conic crown and rust-brown scaly bark
  1644. black locust = large thorny tree of eastern and central United States having pinnately compound leaves and drooping racemes of white flowers; widely naturalized in many varieties in temperate regions / strong stiff wood of a black-locust tree
  1645. black lovage = European herb somewhat resembling celery widely naturalized in Britain coastal regions and often cultivated as a potherb
  1646. black maire = northern Zealand tree having dense hard light-brown wood
  1647. black mallee = a small mallee with rough dark-colored bark toward the butt
  1648. black mangrove = a mangrove of the West Indies and the southern Florida coast
  1649. black medick = prostrate European herb with small yellow flowers and curved black pods
  1650. black morel = a morel whose pitted fertile body is attached to the stalk with little free skirt around it
  1651. black moss = dense festoons of greenish-grey hairlike flexuous strands anchored to tree trunks and branches by sparse wiry roots
  1652. black mulberry = European mulberry having dark foliage and fruit
  1653. black mustard = widespread Eurasian annual plant cultivated for its pungent seeds
  1654. black nightshade = Eurasian herb naturalized in America having white flowers and poisonous hairy foliage and bearing black berries that are sometimes poisonous but sometimes edible
  1655. black oak = medium to large deciduous timber tree of the eastern United States and southeastern Canada having dark outer bark and yellow inner bark used for tanning
  1656. black pea = perennial of Europe and North Africa
  1657. black pepper = climber having dark red berries (peppercorns) when fully ripe; southern India and Sri Lanka
  1658. black pine = large two-needled timber pine of southeastern Europe / tall symmetrical pine of western North America having long blue-green needles in bunches of 3 and elongated cones on spreading somewhat pendulous branches; sometimes classified as a variety of ponderosa pine / large Japanese ornamental having long needles in bunches of 2; widely planted in United States because of its resistance to salt and smog / New Zealand conifer used for lumber
  1659. black poplar = large European poplar
  1660. black raspberry = raspberry native to eastern North America having black thimble-shaped fruit
  1661. black root rot fungus = fungus causing black root rot in apples
  1662. black sage = an aromatic plant with wooly leaves found in southern California and Mexico
  1663. black sally = a small mallee with rough dark-colored bark toward the butt
  1664. black salsify = perennial south European herb having narrow entire leaves and solitary yellow flower heads and long black edible roots shaped like carrots
  1665. black saltwort = a small fleshy herb common along North American seashores and in brackish marshes having pink or white flowers
  1666. black snakeroot = North American bugbane found from Maine and Ontario to Wisconsin and south to Georgia / deciduous low-growing perennial of Canada and eastern and central United States
  1667. black spleenwort = spleenwort of Europe and Africa and Asia having pinnate fronds and yielding an astringent
  1668. black spruce = small spruce of boggy areas of northeastern North America having spreading branches with dense foliage
  1669. black sumac = common nonpoisonous shrub of eastern North America with compound leaves and green paniculate flowers followed by red berries
  1670. black tree fern = a showy tree fern of New Zealand and Australia having a crown of pinnated fronds with whitish undersides
  1671. black walnut = North American walnut tree with hard dark wood and edible nut
  1672. black walnut tree = North American walnut tree with hard dark wood and edible nut
  1673. black wattle = Australian tree that yields tanning materials
  1674. black willow = North American shrubby willow having dark bark and linear leaves growing close to streams and lakes
  1675. black-eyed pea = sprawling Old World annual cultivated especially in southern United States for food and forage and green manure / fruit or seed of the cowpea plant
  1676. black-eyed Susan = the state flower of Maryland; of central and southeastern United States; having daisylike flowers with dark centers and yellow to orange rays / annual weedy herb with ephemeral yellow purple-eyed flowers; Old World tropics
  1677. black-eyed Susan vine = tropical African climbing plant having yellow flowers with a dark purple center
  1678. black-stem spleenwort = fern of tropical America: from southern United States to West Indies and Mexico to Brazil
  1679. black-stemmed spleenwort = fern of tropical America: from southern United States to West Indies and Mexico to Brazil
  1680. blackberry = bramble with sweet edible black or dark purple berries that usually do not separate from the receptacle
  1681. blackberry bush = bramble with sweet edible black or dark purple berries that usually do not separate from the receptacle
  1682. blackberry-lily = garden plant whose capsule discloses when ripe a mass of seeds resembling a blackberry
  1683. blackcap = raspberry native to eastern North America having black thimble-shaped fruit
  1684. blackcap raspberry = raspberry native to eastern North America having black thimble-shaped fruit
  1685. blackfoot daisy = bushy subshrub having flower heads that resemble asters with broad white rays
  1686. blackjack = a common scrubby deciduous tree of central and southeastern United States having dark bark and broad three-lobed (club-shaped) leaves
  1687. blackjack oak = a common scrubby deciduous tree of central and southeastern United States having dark bark and broad three-lobed (club-shaped) leaves
  1688. blackseed = grass native to West Indies but common in southern United States having tufted wiry stems often infested with a dark fungus
  1689. blackthorn = erect and almost thornless American hawthorn with somewhat pear-shaped berries / a thorny Eurasian bush with plumlike fruits
  1690. blackwood = any of several hardwood trees yielding very dark-colored wood / very dark wood of any of several blackwood trees
  1691. blackwood tree = any of several hardwood trees yielding very dark-colored wood
  1692. bladder campion = bluish-green herb having sticky stems and clusters of large evening-opening white flowers with much-inflated calyx
  1693. bladder cherry = Old World perennial cultivated for its ornamental inflated papery orange-red calyx
  1694. bladder fern = any fern of the genus Cystopteris characterized by a hooded indusium or bladderlike membrane covering the sori
  1695. bladder ketmia = annual weedy herb with ephemeral yellow purple-eyed flowers; Old World tropics
  1696. bladder senna = yellow-flowered European shrub cultivated for its succession of yellow flowers and very inflated bladdery pods and as a source of wildlife food
  1697. bladdernut family = a family of dicotyledonous plants of order Sapindales found mostly in the north temperate zone
  1698. bladderpod = any of several hairy North American herbs having yellow racemose flowers and inflated pods / any of several plants of the genus Physaria having racemose yellow flowers and inflated pods / annual or perennial herbs with inflated seed pods
  1699. bladderwort = any of numerous aquatic carnivorous plants of the genus Utricularia some of whose leaves are modified as small urn-shaped bladders that trap minute aquatic animals
  1700. bladderwort family = carnivorous aquatic or bog plants: genera Utricularia, Pinguicula, and Genlisea
  1701. blade = especially a leaf of grass or the broad portion of a leaf as distinct from the petiole
  1702. blaeberry = erect European blueberry having solitary flowers and blue-black berries
  1703. Blandfordia = small genus of tuberous Australian perennial herbs
  1704. blanket flower = annual of central United States having showy long-stalked yellow flower heads marked with scarlet or purple in the center
  1705. Blastocladia = a genus of fungi of the family Blastodiaceae
  1706. Blastocladiales = fungi that carry out asexual reproduction by thick-walled resting spores that produce zoospores upon germination
  1707. Blastodiaceae = a family of saprobic fungi of order Blastocladiales
  1708. Blastomyces = genus of pathogenic yeastlike fungi
  1709. blastomycete = any of various yeastlike budding fungi of the genus Blastomyces
  1710. blazing star = any of various North American plants of the genus Liatris having racemes or panicles of small discoid flower heads / biennial of southwestern United States having white stems and toothed leaves that is grown for its large pale yellow flowers that open in early morning
  1711. Blechnaceae = one of a number of families into which the family Polypodiaceae has been subdivided in some classification systems
  1712. Blechnum = in some classification systems placed in family Polypodiaceae
  1713. Blechnum spicant = fern with erect fronds of Europe and western North America
  1714. bleeding heart = garden plant having deep-pink drooping heart-shaped flowers
  1715. Blephilia = small genus of North American herbs: wood mints
  1716. Blephilia celiata = a variety of wood mint
  1717. Blephilia hirsuta = a variety of wood mint
  1718. blessed thistle = annual of Mediterranean to Portugal having hairy stems and minutely spiny-toothed leaves and large heads of yellow flowers / tall Old World biennial thistle with large clasping white-blotched leaves and purple flower heads
  1719. bletia = any of various orchids of the genus Bletia having pseudobulbs and erect leafless racemes of large purple or pink flowers
  1720. Bletia striata = Japanese orchid with white-striped leaves and slender erect racemes of rose to magenta flowers; often cultivated
  1721. Bletilla = small genus of chiefly east Asiatic hardy terrestrial orchids similar to genus Bletia
  1722. Bletilla striata = Japanese orchid with white-striped leaves and slender erect racemes of rose to magenta flowers; often cultivated
  1723. blewits = edible agaric that is pale lilac when young
  1724. Blighia = small genus of western African evergreen trees and shrubs bearing fleshy capsular three-seeded fruits edible when neither unripe nor overripe
  1725. Blighia sapida = widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions for its fragrant flowers and colorful fruits
  1726. blind gentian = gentian of eastern North America having tubular blue or white flowers that open little if at all / similar to Gentiana andrewsii but with larger flowers
  1727. blinking chickweed = small Indian lettuce of northern regions
  1728. blinks = small Indian lettuce of northern regions
  1729. blister = a swelling on a plant similar to that on the skin
  1730. blister rust = fungus causing white pine blister rust and having a complex life cycle requiring a plant of genus Ribes as alternate host
  1731. blolly = evergreen climbing shrub of southern Florida and West Indies grown for its racemes of fragrant white to creamy flowers followed by globose white succulent berries
  1732. blonde lilian = North American dogtooth having solitary white flowers with yellow centers and blue or pink exteriors
  1733. blood berry = bushy houseplant having white to pale pink flowers followed by racemes of scarlet berries
  1734. blood cup = a scarlet European fungus with cup-shaped ascocarp
  1735. blood flower = tropical herb having orange-red flowers followed by pods suggesting a swallow with outspread wings
  1736. blood lily = any of various deciduous or evergreen herbs of the genus Haemanthus
  1737. blood-twig = European deciduous shrub turning red in autumn having dull white flowers
  1738. bloodberry = bushy houseplant having white to pale pink flowers followed by racemes of scarlet berries
  1739. bloodleaf = any plant of the genus Iresine having colored foliage
  1740. bloodroot = perennial woodland native of North America having a red root and red sap and bearing a solitary lobed leaf and white flower in early spring and having acrid emetic properties
  1741. bloodwood tree = spiny shrub or small tree of Central America and West Indies having bipinnate leaves and racemes of small bright yellow flowers and yielding a hard brown or brownish-red heartwood used in preparing a black dye / deciduous South African tree having large odd-pinnate leaves and profuse fragrant orange-yellow flowers
  1742. bloodwort = any of various plants of the family Haemodoraceae
  1743. bloodwort family = some genera placed in family Liliaceae
  1744. bloom = reproductive organ of angiosperm plants especially one having showy or colorful parts
  1745. bloomer = a flower that blooms in a particular way
  1746. Bloomeria = small genus of bulbous perennial herbs of southwestern United States and Mexico
  1747. Bloomeria crocea = California plant having grasslike leaves and showy orange flowers
  1748. blooming-fool begonia = hybrid winter-blooming begonia grown for its many large pink flowers
  1749. blossom = reproductive organ of angiosperm plants especially one having showy or colorful parts
  1750. blowball = any of several herbs of the genus Taraxacum having long tap roots and deeply notched leaves and bright yellow flowers followed by fluffy seed balls
  1751. blue African lily = African plant with bright green evergreen leaves and umbels of many usually deep violet-blue flowers
  1752. blue ash = ash of central and southern United States with bluish-green foliage and hard brown wood
  1753. blue bugle = upright rhizomatous perennial with bright blue flowers
  1754. blue cardinal flower = tall erect and very leafy perennial herb of eastern North America having dense spikes of blue flowers
  1755. blue cohosh = tall herb of eastern North America and Asia having blue berrylike fruit and a thick knotty rootstock formerly used medicinally
  1756. blue columbine = columbine of the Rocky Mountains having long-spurred blue flowers
  1757. blue curls = any of several plants of the genus Trichostema having whorls of small blue flowers
  1758. blue daisy = hairy South African or Australian subshrub that has daisylike flowers with blue rays
  1759. blue devil = a coarse prickly European weed with spikes of blue flowers
  1760. blue elder = shrub or small tree of western United States having white flowers and blue berries
  1761. blue elderberry = shrub or small tree of western United States having white flowers and blue berries
  1762. blue false indigo = wild indigo of the eastern United States having racemes of blue flowers
  1763. blue fig = Australian tree having hard white timber and glossy green leaves with white flowers followed by one-seeded glossy blue fruit / the fruit of the Brisbane quandong tree
  1764. blue flag = a common iris of the eastern United States having blue or blue-violet flowers
  1765. blue fleabane = widespread weed with pale purple-blue flowers
  1766. blue grama = a pasture grass of western North America
  1767. blue grass = any of various grasses of the genus Poa
  1768. blue gum = tall fast-growing timber tree with leaves containing a medicinal oil
  1769. blue jasmine = climber of southern United States having bluish-purple flowers
  1770. blue jessamine = climber of southern United States having bluish-purple flowers
  1771. blue lotus = blue Egyptian lotus: held sacred by the Egyptians / blue lotus of India and southeastern Asia
  1772. blue mahoe = erect forest tree of Cuba and Jamaica having variably hairy leaves and orange-yellow or orange-red flowers
  1773. blue marguerite = hairy South African or Australian subshrub that has daisylike flowers with blue rays
  1774. blue mold fungus = fungus causing a serious disease in tobacco plants characterized by bluish-grey mildew on undersides of leaves
  1775. Blue Mountain tea = goldenrod of eastern America having aromatic leaves from which a medicinal tea is made
  1776. blue orchid = famous orchid of northern India having large pale to deep lilac-blue flowers
  1777. blue pea = vine of tropical Asia having pinnate leaves and bright blue flowers with yellow centers
  1778. blue pimpernel = an American mint that yields a resinous exudate used especially formerly as an antispasmodic
  1779. blue poppy = Chinese perennial having mauve-pink to bright sky blue flowers in drooping cymes
  1780. blue sage = aromatic shrub of arid regions of western North America having hoary leaves / blue-flowered sage of dry prairies of the eastern United States / Texas sage having intensely blue flowers / sage of western North America to Central America having violet-blue flowers
  1781. blue skullcap = an American mint that yields a resinous exudate used especially formerly as an antispasmodic
  1782. blue star = subshrubs of southeastern United States forming slow-growing clumps and having blue flowers in short terminal cymes
  1783. blue stem = tall grass with smooth bluish leaf sheaths grown for hay in the United States
  1784. blue succory = south European plant having dark-eyed flowers with flat blue rays
  1785. blue thistle = a coarse prickly European weed with spikes of blue flowers
  1786. blue toadflax = North American plant having racemes of blue-violet flowers
  1787. blue tulip = short hairy perennial with early spring blue-violet or lilac flowers
  1788. blue-eyed African daisy = bushy perennial of South Africa with white or violet flowers
  1789. blue-eyed grass = plant with grasslike foliage and delicate blue flowers
  1790. blue-eyed Mary = eastern United States plant with whorls of blue-and-white flowers
  1791. bluebell = perennial of northern hemisphere with slender stems and bell-shaped blue flowers / one of the most handsome prairie wildflowers having large erect bell-shaped bluish flowers
  1792. blueberry = any of numerous shrubs of the genus Vaccinium bearing blueberries
  1793. blueberry bush = any of numerous shrubs of the genus Vaccinium bearing blueberries
  1794. blueberry root = tall herb of eastern North America and Asia having blue berrylike fruit and a thick knotty rootstock formerly used medicinally
  1795. bluebonnet = low-growing annual herb of southwestern United States (Texas) having silky foliage and blue flowers
  1796. bluebottle = an annual Eurasian plant cultivated in North America having showy heads of blue or purple or pink or white flowers
  1797. bluegrass = any of various grasses of the genus Poa
  1798. bluejack oak = small semi-evergreen shrubby tree of southeastern United States having hairy young branchlets and leaves narrowing to a slender bristly point
  1799. bluestem = tall grass with smooth bluish leaf sheaths grown for hay in the United States
  1800. bluestem wheatgrass = valuable forage grass of western United States
  1801. blueweed = a coarse prickly European weed with spikes of blue flowers
  1802. blunt-leaf heath = small erect shrub of Australia and Tasmania with fragrant ivory flowers
  1803. blusher = yellowish edible agaric that usually turns red when touched
  1804. blushing mushroom = yellowish edible agaric that usually turns red when touched
  1805. bo tree = fig tree of India noted for great size and longevity; lacks the prop roots of the banyan
  1806. boar thistle = European thistle with rather large heads and prickly leaves
  1807. bocconia = small Central American tree having loose racemes of purple-tinted green flowers / herb of China and Japan widely cultivated for its plumelike panicles of creamy white flowers
  1808. Bocconia frutescens = small Central American tree having loose racemes of purple-tinted green flowers
  1809. Boehmeria = false nettle
  1810. Boehmeria nivea = tall perennial herb of tropical Asia with dark green leaves
  1811. bog asphodel = either of two herbaceous rushlike bog plants having small yellow flowers and grasslike leaves
  1812. bog aster = a variety of aster
  1813. bog bilberry = an evergreen shrub with leathery leaves
  1814. bog candles = orchid with spikes of many fragrant white flowers on erect leafy stems
  1815. bog hemp = any of several flowering weeds of the genus Boehmeria lacking stinging hairs
  1816. bog kalmia = laurel of bogs of northwestern United States having small purple flowers and pale leaves that are glaucous beneath
  1817. bog laurel = laurel of bogs of northwestern United States having small purple flowers and pale leaves that are glaucous beneath
  1818. bog moss = any of various pale or ashy mosses of the genus Sphagnum whose decomposed remains form peat
  1819. bog myrtle = perennial plant of Europe and America having racemes of white or purplish flowers and intensely bitter trifoliate leaves
  1820. bog pimpernel = small creeping European herb having delicate pink flowers
  1821. bog plant = a semiaquatic plant that grows in soft wet land; most are monocots: sedge, sphagnum, grasses, cattails, etc
  1822. bog rein orchid = orchid with spikes of many fragrant white flowers on erect leafy stems
  1823. bog rhubarb = small Eurasian herb having broad leaves and lilac-pink rayless flowers
  1824. bog rose = a bog orchid with usually a solitary fragrant magenta pink blossom with a wide gaping corolla
  1825. bog rosemary = wiry evergreen shrub having pendent clusters of white or pink flowers
  1826. bog star = plant having ovate leaves in a basal rosette and white starlike flowers netted with green
  1827. bog whortleberry = an evergreen shrub with leathery leaves
  1828. bogbean = perennial plant of Europe and America having racemes of white or purplish flowers and intensely bitter trifoliate leaves
  1829. bogmat = having narrow flat sickle-shaped submerged fronds
  1830. boil smut = a common smut attacking Indian corn causing greyish white swellings that rupture to expose a black spore mass
  1831. bok choi = Asiatic plant grown for its cluster of edible white stalks with dark green leaves
  1832. bok choy = Asiatic plant grown for its cluster of edible white stalks with dark green leaves
  1833. Bolbitis = terrestrial or less than normally scandent ferns of tropical regions of northern hemisphere
  1834. bole = the main stem of a tree; usually covered with bark
  1835. Boletaceae = family of fleshy fungi having the germ pores easily separating from the cup and often from each other
  1836. bolete = any fungus of the family Boletaceae
  1837. Boletellus = a genus of fungi belonging to the family Boletaceae
  1838. Boletellus russellii = a fungus with a long coarsely shaggy reticulate stalk and a rimose areolate cap surface
  1839. Boletus = type genus of Boletaceae; genus of soft early-decaying pore fungi
  1840. Boletus chrysenteron = a fungus convex cap and a dingy yellow under surface and a dry stalk
  1841. Boletus edulis = an edible and choice fungus
  1842. Boletus frostii = a fungus with a red cap and a red coarsely reticulate stalk
  1843. Boletus luridus = a poisonous fungus with a dingy yellow cap and orange red undersurface and a cylindrical reticulate stalk
  1844. Boletus mirabilis = a fungus that is edible when young and fresh
  1845. Boletus pallidus = a fungus that has an off-white cap when it is young but later becomes dingy brown and a stalk of the same color
  1846. Boletus pulcherrimus = a beautiful but poisonous bolete
  1847. Boletus pulverulentus = an edible fungus with a broadly convex blackish brown cap and a pore surface that is yellow when young and darkens with age
  1848. Boletus roxanae = a fungus with a rusty red cap and a white pore surface that becomes yellow with age and a pale yellow stalk
  1849. Boletus subvelutipes = a fungus with a velvety stalk and usually a dingy brown cap
  1850. Boletus variipes = an edible (but not choice) fungus found on soil under hardwoods
  1851. Boletus zelleri = an edible and choice fungus that has a brown cap with greenish yellow under surface and a stalk that become dull red with age
  1852. boll = the rounded seed-bearing capsule of a cotton or flax plant
  1853. Boltonia = genus of tall leafy perennial herbs of eastern America and eastern Asia having flowers that resemble asters
  1854. Bomarea = large genus of tropical American vines having showy often spotted umbellate flowers
  1855. Bomarea edulis = tropical vine having pink-and-yellow flowers spotted purple and edible roots sometimes boiled as a potato substitute
  1856. Bomarea salsilla = tropical vine having umbels of small purple flowers and edible roots sometimes boiled as a potato substitute
  1857. Bombacaceae = tropical trees with large dry or fleshy fruit containing usually woolly seeds
  1858. Bombax = trees of chiefly South America
  1859. Bombax ceiba = East Indian silk cotton tree yielding fibers inferior to kapok
  1860. Bombax malabarica = East Indian silk cotton tree yielding fibers inferior to kapok
  1861. Bombay ceiba = massive tropical tree with deep ridges on its massive trunk and bearing large pods of seeds covered with silky floss
  1862. Bombay hemp = valuable fiber plant of East Indies now widespread in cultivation
  1863. bonavist = perennial twining vine of Old World tropics having trifoliate leaves and racemes of fragrant purple pea-like flowers followed by maroon pods of edible seeds; grown as an ornamental and as a vegetable on the Indian subcontinent
  1864. bonduc = tropical tree with large prickly pods of seeds that resemble beans and are used for jewelry and rosaries / handsome tree of central and eastern North America having large bipinnate leaves and green-white flowers followed by large woody brown pods whose seeds are used as a coffee substitute
  1865. bonduc nut = hard shiny grey seed of a bonduc tree
  1866. bonduc tree = tropical tree with large prickly pods of seeds that resemble beans and are used for jewelry and rosaries
  1867. boneset = perennial herb of southeastern United States having white-rayed flower heads; formerly used as in folk medicine / European herb having small white, pink or purple flowers
  1868. bonsai = a dwarfed ornamental tree or shrub grown in a tray or shallow pot
  1869. boojum tree = candlewood of Mexico and southwestern California having tall columnar stems and bearing honey-scented creamy yellow flowers
  1870. booted armillaria = fungus with a brown cap and white gills and a membranous ring halfway up the stalk
  1871. Boott's goldenrod = a variety of goldenrod
  1872. booyong = large tree of Australasia
  1873. borage = hairy blue-flowered European annual herb long used in herbal medicine and eaten raw as salad greens or cooked like spinach
  1874. borage family = a widely distributed family of plants distinguished by circinate flowers and nutlike fruit
  1875. Boraginaceae = a widely distributed family of plants distinguished by circinate flowers and nutlike fruit
  1876. Borago = perennial herbs of the Mediterranean region
  1877. Borago officinalis = hairy blue-flowered European annual herb long used in herbal medicine and eaten raw as salad greens or cooked like spinach
  1878. Borassus = palmyra
  1879. Borassus flabellifer = tall fan palm of Africa and India and Malaysia yielding a hard wood and sweet sap that is a source of palm wine and sugar
  1880. borecole = a hardy cabbage with coarse curly leaves that do not form a head
  1881. Boston fern = a sword fern with arching or drooping pinnate fronds
  1882. Boston ivy = Asiatic vine with three-lobed leaves and purple berries
  1883. Boswellia = genus of trees of North Africa and India that yield incense
  1884. Boswellia carteri = tree yielding an aromatic gum resin burned as incense
  1885. Boswellia serrata = East Indian tree yielding a resin used medicinally and burned as incense
  1886. Botany Bay fig = Australian tree resembling the banyan often planted for ornament
  1887. Botrychium = grape fern
  1888. Botrychium lunaria = of America and Eurasia and Australia
  1889. Botrychium matricariifolium = of North America and Eurasia
  1890. Botrychium multifidum = European fern with leathery and sparsely hairy fronds
  1891. Botrychium virginianum = American fern whose clustered sporangia resemble a snake's rattle
  1892. bottle gentian = gentian of eastern North America having tubular blue or white flowers that open little if at all
  1893. bottle gourd = Old World climbing plant with hard-shelled bottle-shaped gourds as fruits
  1894. bottle grass = European foxtail naturalized in North America
  1895. bottle tree = an Australian tree of the genus Brachychiton
  1896. bottle-grass = European foxtail naturalized in North America
  1897. bottle-tree = an Australian tree of the genus Brachychiton
  1898. bottlebrush buckeye = a spreading shrub with pink flowers
  1899. bottom rot fungus = fungus causing bottom rot in lettuce
  1900. Bougainvillaea = ornamental tropical woody vines
  1901. bougainvillea = any of several South American ornamental woody vines of the genus Bougainvillea having brilliant red or purple flower bracts
  1902. Bougainvillea glabra = Brazilian vine that tends to flower continuously
  1903. bough = any of the larger branches of a tree
  1904. boulder fern = fern of eastern North America with pale green fronds and an aroma like hay
  1905. bouncing Bess = plant of European origin having pink or white flowers and leaves yielding a detergent when bruised
  1906. bouncing Bet = plant of European origin having pink or white flowers and leaves yielding a detergent when bruised
  1907. bourtree = a common shrub with black fruit or a small tree of Europe and Asia
  1908. Bouteloua = forage grasses
  1909. Bouteloua eriopoda = a pasture grass
  1910. Bouteloua gracilis = a pasture grass of western North America
  1911. bow wood = small shrubby deciduous yellowwood tree of south central United States having spines, glossy dark green leaves and an inedible fruit that resembles an orange; its hard orange-colored wood used for bows by Native Americans
  1912. bower actinidia = climbing Asiatic vine having long finely serrate leaves and racemes of white flowers followed by greenish-yellow edible fruit
  1913. Bowiea = small genus of tropical African perennial bulbous herbs with deciduous twining stems
  1914. Bowiea volubilis = much-branched leafless twining South African herb cultivated as an ornamental for its bright green stems growing from large aboveground bulbs
  1915. bowstring hemp = grown as a houseplant for its mottled fleshy sword-shaped leaves or as a source of fiber / strong fiber that resembles hemp
  1916. box = evergreen shrubs or small trees
  1917. box elder = common shade tree of eastern and central United States
  1918. box family = widely distributed evergreen shrubs and trees
  1919. box huckleberry = creeping evergreen shrub of southeastern United States having small shiny boxlike leaves and flavorless berries
  1920. box white oak = small deciduous tree of eastern and central United States having dark green lyrate pinnatifid leaves and tough moisture-resistant wood used especially for fence posts
  1921. boxberry = creeping woody plant of eastern North America with shiny evergreen leaves and scarlet berries
  1922. boxthorn = any of various shrubs or vines of the genus Lycium with showy flowers and bright berries
  1923. boxwood = evergreen shrubs or small trees / very hard tough close-grained light yellow wood of the box
  1924. Boykinia = genus of perennial rhizomatous herbs with flowers in panicles; North America
  1925. Boykinia elata = plant with leaves mostly at the base and openly branched clusters of small white flowers
  1926. Boykinia occidentalis = plant with leaves mostly at the base and openly branched clusters of small white flowers
  1927. boys-and-girls = Eurafrican annual naturalized in America as a weed
  1928. boysenberry = cultivated hybrid bramble of California having large dark wine-red fruit with a flavor resembling raspberries
  1929. boysenberry bush = cultivated hybrid bramble of California having large dark wine-red fruit with a flavor resembling raspberries
  1930. bracelet wood = small West Indian shrub or tree with hard glossy seeds patterned yellow and brown that are used to make bracelets
  1931. Brachychiton = Australian trees
  1932. Brachychiton acerifolius = south Australian tree having panicles of brilliant scarlet flowers
  1933. Brachychiton australis = north Australian tree having white flowers and broad leaves
  1934. Brachychiton populneus = widely distributed tree of eastern Australia yielding a tough durable fiber and soft light attractively grained wood
  1935. Brachychiton rupestris = large tree of Queensland having cream-colored flowers blotched with red inside
  1936. Brachycome = mostly Australian herbs having basal or alternate leaves and loosely corymbose flower heads
  1937. Brachycome Iberidifolia = western Australian annual much cultivated for its flower heads with white or bluish to violet or variegated rays
  1938. Brachystegia = small genus of tropical African timber trees having pale golden heartwood uniformly striped with dark brown or black:
  1939. Brachystegia speciformis = small shrubby African tree having compound leaves and racemes of small fragrant green flowers
  1940. bracken = large coarse fern often several feet high; essentially weed ferns; cosmopolitan / fern of southeastern Asia
  1941. bracket fungus = a woody fungus that forms shelflike sporophores on tree trunks and wood structures
  1942. bract = a modified leaf or leaflike part just below and protecting an inflorescence
  1943. bracteole = a small bract
  1944. bractlet = a small bract
  1945. Bradley's spleenwort = a spleenwort of eastern to southern United States
  1946. brain mushroom = a poisonous gyromitra; the surface of the fertile body is smooth at first and becomes progressively undulating and wrinkled
  1947. brake = large coarse fern often several feet high; essentially weed ferns
  1948. bramble = any of various rough thorny shrubs or vines
  1949. bramble bush = any prickly shrub of the genus Rubus bearing edible aggregate fruits
  1950. branch = a division of a stem, or secondary stem arising from the main stem of a plant
  1951. branchlet = a small branch or division of a branch
  1952. Brasenia = alternatively, a member of the family Nymphaeaceae
  1953. Brasenia schreberi = aquatic plant with floating oval leaves and purple flowers; in lakes and slow-moving streams
  1954. brash oak = small deciduous tree of eastern and central United States having dark green lyrate pinnatifid leaves and tough moisture-resistant wood used especially for fence posts
  1955. brass buttons = South African herb with golden-yellow globose flower heads; naturalized in moist areas along coast of California
  1956. Brassaia actinophylla = erect evergreen shrub or small tree of Australia and northern New Guinea having palmately compound leaves
  1957. brassavola = any of various tropical American orchids with usually solitary fleshy leaves and showy white to green nocturnally fragrant blossoms solitary or in racemes of up to 7
  1958. Brassia = genus of tropical American epiphytic orchids having striking axillary racemes of yellow to green spiderlike flowers with long slender sepals and warty lips: spider orchids
  1959. Brassia lawrenceana = South American orchid with spiderlike pale-yellow to pale-green flowers
  1960. Brassia verrucosa = Central American orchid having spiderlike flowers with prominent green warts
  1961. Brassica = mustards: cabbages; cauliflowers; turnips
  1962. Brassica hirta = Eurasian mustard cultivated for its pungent seeds
  1963. Brassica juncea = Asiatic mustard used as a potherb
  1964. Brassica kaber = weedy Eurasian plant often a pest in grain fields
  1965. Brassica napus = Eurasian plant cultivated for its seed and as a forage crop
  1966. Brassica napus napobrassica = a cruciferous plant with a thick bulbous edible yellow root
  1967. Brassica nigra = widespread Eurasian annual plant cultivated for its pungent seeds
  1968. Brassica oleracea = wild original of cultivated cabbages
  1969. Brassica oleracea acephala = a hardy cabbage with coarse curly leaves that do not form a head
  1970. Brassica oleracea botrytis = a plant having a large edible head of crowded white flower buds
  1971. Brassica oleracea capitata = any of various cultivated cabbage plants having a short thick stalk and large compact head of edible usually green leaves
  1972. Brassica oleracea gemmifera = plant grown for its stout stalks of edible small green heads resembling diminutive cabbages
  1973. Brassica oleracea gongylodes = plant cultivated for its enlarged fleshy turnip-shaped edible stem
  1974. Brassica oleracea italica = plant with dense clusters of tight green flower buds
  1975. Brassica perviridis = Asiatic plant cultivated for its swollen root crown and edible foliage
  1976. Brassica rapa = widely cultivated plant having a large fleshy edible white or yellow root
  1977. Brassica rapa chinensis = Asiatic plant grown for its cluster of edible white stalks with dark green leaves
  1978. Brassica rapa pekinensis = plant with an elongated head of broad stalked leaves resembling celery
  1979. Brassica rapa perviridis = Asiatic plant cultivated for its swollen root crown and edible foliage
  1980. Brassica rapa ruvo = plant grown for its pungent edible leafy shoots
  1981. Brassicaceae = a large family of plants with four-petaled flowers
  1982. Braun's holly fern = North American fern whose more or less evergreen leathery fronds are covered with pale brown chafflike scales
  1983. brazil nut = tall South American tree bearing brazil nuts
  1984. brazil-nut tree = tall South American tree bearing brazil nuts
  1985. Brazilian guava = South American tree having fruit similar to the true guava
  1986. brazilian ironwood = thornless tree yielding heavy wood
  1987. Brazilian pepper tree = small Brazilian evergreen resinous tree or shrub having dark green leaflets and white flowers followed by bright red fruit
  1988. Brazilian potato tree = South American shrub or small tree widely cultivated in the tropics
  1989. Brazilian rosewood = an important Brazilian timber tree yielding a heavy hard dark-colored wood streaked with black
  1990. brazilwood = tropical tree with prickly trunk; its heavy red wood yields a red dye and is used for cabinetry / heavy wood of various brazilwood trees
  1991. bread mold = a mold of the genus Rhizopus
  1992. breadfruit = native to Pacific islands and having edible fruit with a texture like bread
  1993. breadfruit tree = native to Pacific islands and having edible fruit with a texture like bread
  1994. breadroot = densely hairy perennial of central North America having edible tuberous roots
  1995. break-axe = West Indian timber tree having very hard wood
  1996. breakax = West Indian timber tree having very hard wood
  1997. breakaxe = West Indian timber tree having very hard wood
  1998. breakstone = any of various plants of the genus Saxifraga
  1999. Brewer's mountain heather = semi-prostrate evergreen herb of western United States
  2000. Brewer's spruce = medium-sized spruce of California and Oregon having pendulous branches
  2001. brewer's yeast = used as a leaven in baking and brewing
  2002. briar = evergreen treelike Mediterranean shrub having fragrant white flowers in large terminal panicles and hard woody roots used to make tobacco pipes / a very prickly woody vine of the eastern United States growing in tangled masses having tough round stems with shiny leathery leaves and small greenish flowers followed by clusters of inedible shiny black berries / Eurasian rose with prickly stems and fragrant leaves and bright pink flowers followed by scarlet hips
  2003. briarroot = hard woody root of the briar Erica arborea
  2004. briarwood = wood from the hard woody root of the briar Erica arborea
  2005. Brickellia = genus of herbs of southwestern America having usually creamy florets followed by one-seeded fruits in a prominent bristly sheath
  2006. bridal wreath = shrub having copious small white flowers in spring / Chilean evergreen shrub having delicate spikes of small white flowers
  2007. bridal-wreath = shrub having copious small white flowers in spring / Chilean evergreen shrub having delicate spikes of small white flowers
  2008. bride's bonnet = plant with 1 or 2 white starlike flowers on short leafless stalks
  2009. brier = evergreen treelike Mediterranean shrub having fragrant white flowers in large terminal panicles and hard woody roots used to make tobacco pipes / a very prickly woody vine of the eastern United States growing in tangled masses having tough round stems with shiny leathery leaves and small greenish flowers followed by clusters of inedible shiny black berries / Eurasian rose with prickly stems and fragrant leaves and bright pink flowers followed by scarlet hips / tangled mass of prickly plants / a thorny stem or twig
  2010. brier patch = tangled mass of prickly plants
  2011. brier-wood = wood from the hard woody root of the briar Erica arborea
  2012. brierpatch = tangled mass of prickly plants
  2013. brierwood = wood from the hard woody root of the briar Erica arborea
  2014. brinjal = hairy upright herb native to southeastern Asia but widely cultivated for its large glossy edible fruit commonly used as a vegetable
  2015. briony = a vine of the genus Bryonia having large leaves and small flowers and yielding acrid juice with emetic and purgative properties
  2016. Brisbane quandong = Australian tree having hard white timber and glossy green leaves with white flowers followed by one-seeded glossy blue fruit
  2017. bristle fern = any fern of the genus Trichomanes having large pinnatifid often translucent fronds
  2018. bristle grass = grasses of grasslands and woodlands having large gracefully arching spikes with long bristles beneath each spikelet
  2019. bristlecone fir = a pyramidal fir of southwestern California having spiny pointed leaves and cone scales with long spines
  2020. bristlecone pine = small slow-growing upland pine of western United States (Rocky Mountains) having dense branches with fissured rust-brown bark and short needles in bunches of 5 and thorn-tipped cone scales
  2021. bristlegrass = grasses of grasslands and woodlands having large gracefully arching spikes with long bristles beneath each spikelet
  2022. bristly locust = large shrub or small tree of the eastern United States having bristly stems and large clusters of pink flowers
  2023. bristly oxtongue = widespread European weed with spiny tongue-shaped leaves and yellow flowers
  2024. bristly sarsaparilla = bristly herb of eastern and central North America having black fruit and medicinal bark
  2025. bristly sarsparilla = bristly herb of eastern and central North America having black fruit and medicinal bark
  2026. brittle bladder fern = delicate fern widely distributed in North America and European having thin pinnatifid fronds with brittle stems
  2027. brittle bush = fragrant rounded shrub of southwestern United States and adjacent Mexico having brittle stems and small crowded blue-green leaves and yellow flowers
  2028. brittle fern = delicate fern widely distributed in North America and European having thin pinnatifid fronds with brittle stems
  2029. brittle maidenhair = tropical American fern with broad pinnae
  2030. brittle maidenhair fern = tropical American fern with broad pinnae
  2031. brittle willow = large willow tree with stiff branches that are easily broken
  2032. brittlebush = fragrant rounded shrub of southwestern United States and adjacent Mexico having brittle stems and small crowded blue-green leaves and yellow flowers
  2033. broad bean = Old World upright plant grown especially for its large flat edible seeds but also as fodder / seed of the broad-bean plant
  2034. broad beech fern = beech fern of North American woodlands having straw-colored stripes
  2035. broad buckler-fern = European shield fern
  2036. broad leaved centaury = a variety of centaury with broad leaves
  2037. broad leaved goldenrod = a variety of goldenrod
  2038. broad-bean = Old World upright plant grown especially for its large flat edible seeds but also as fodder
  2039. broad-bean plant = Old World upright plant grown especially for its large flat edible seeds but also as fodder
  2040. broad-leaved bottletree = north Australian tree having white flowers and broad leaves
  2041. broad-leaved dock = European dock with broad obtuse leaves and bitter rootstock common as a weed in North America
  2042. broad-leaved everlasting pea = perennial climber of central and southern Europe having purple or pink or white flowers
  2043. broad-leaved montia = succulent plant with mostly basal leaves; stem bears 1 pair of broadly ovate or heart-shaped leaves and a loose raceme of 3-10 white flowers
  2044. broad-leaved plantain = common European perennial naturalized worldwide
  2045. broad-leaved twayblade = small orchid with two elliptic leaves and a slender raceme of small green flowers
  2046. broccoli = plant with dense clusters of tight green flower buds
  2047. broccoli raab = plant grown for its pungent edible leafy shoots
  2048. broccoli rabe = plant grown for its pungent edible leafy shoots
  2049. brodiaea = any of several plants of the genus Brodiaea having basal grasslike leaves and globose flower heads on leafless stems resembling those of genus Allium
  2050. Brodiaea elegans = brodiaea having an umbel of violet or blue-violet flowers atop a leafless stalk
  2051. brome = any of various woodland and meadow grasses of the genus Bromus
  2052. bromegrass = any of various woodland and meadow grasses of the genus Bromus
  2053. Bromelia = the type genus of the family Bromeliaceae which includes tropical American plants with deeply cleft calyx
  2054. Bromeliaceae = a family of tropical American plants of order Xyridales including several (as the pineapple) of economic importance
  2055. brompton stock = European plant with racemes of sweet-scented flowers
  2056. Bromus = a genus of grasses of the family Gramineae
  2057. Bromus arvensis = annual grass of Europe and temperate Asia
  2058. Bromus inermis = drought-resistant perennial with awns lacking or very short and long creeping rhizomes
  2059. Bromus japonicus = grass of Mediterranean and temperate Asia
  2060. Bromus secalinus = weedy annual native to Europe but widely distributed as a weed especially in wheat
  2061. Bromus tectorum = annual or winter annual grass with softly hairy leaves of the Mediterranean
  2062. brook thistle = of central and southwestern Europe
  2063. brooklime = plant of western North America and northeastern Asia having prostrate stems with dense racemes of pale violet to lilac flowers / European plant having low-lying stems with blue flowers
  2064. brookweed = water pimpernel of Europe to China / American water pimpernel
  2065. broom = common Old World heath represented by many varieties
  2066. broom beard grass = handsome hardy North American grass with foliage turning pale bronze in autumn
  2067. broom grass = any of several grasses of the genus Andropogon
  2068. broom palm = small palm of southern Florida and West Indies closely resembling the silvertop palmetto
  2069. broom sedge = tall tufted grass of southeastern United States
  2070. broom snakeroot = low-growing sticky subshrub of southwestern United States having narrow linear leaves on many slender branches and hundreds of tiny yellow flower heads
  2071. broom snakeweed = low-growing sticky subshrub of southwestern United States having narrow linear leaves on many slender branches and hundreds of tiny yellow flower heads
  2072. broom tree = prickly yellow-flowered shrub of the moors of New England and Europe
  2073. broom-weed = annual of southwestern United States having rigid woody branches with sticky foliage and yellow flowers
  2074. broomcorn = tall grasses grown for the elongated stiff-branched panicle used for brooms and brushes
  2075. broomcorn millet = extensively cultivated in Europe and Asia for its grain and in United States sometimes for forage
  2076. broomrape family = brown or yellow leafless herbs
  2077. broomweed = annual of southwestern United States having rigid woody branches with sticky foliage and yellow flowers
  2078. Broussonetia = paper mulberry
  2079. Broussonetia papyrifera = shrubby Asiatic tree having bark (tapa) that resembles cloth; grown as a shade tree in Europe and America
  2080. browallia = any of several herbs of the genus Browallia cultivated for their blue or violet or white flowers
  2081. brown ash = vigorous spreading North American tree having dark brown heavy wood
  2082. brown bells = California herb with brownish-purple or greenish bell-shaped flowers
  2083. brown bent = common grass with slender stems and narrow leaves
  2084. brown cup = a variety of sclerotinia
  2085. brown hickory = an American hickory tree having bitter nuts
  2086. brown oak = large tree of Australasia
  2087. brown pine = large Australian tree with straight-grained yellow wood that turns brown on exposure
  2088. brown root rot fungus = fungus causing brown root rot in plants of the pea and potato and cucumber families
  2089. Bruckenthalia = a genus containing only one species: spike heath
  2090. Bruckenthalia spiculifolia = small evergreen mat-forming shrub of southern Europe and Asia Minor having stiff stems and terminal clusters of small bell-shaped flowers
  2091. Brugmansia = includes some plants often placed in the genus Datura: angel's trumpets
  2092. Brugmansia arborea = a South American plant that is cultivated for its large fragrant trumpet-shaped flowers
  2093. Brugmansia sanguinea = arborescent South American shrub having very large orange-red flowers
  2094. Brugmansia suaveolens = South American plant cultivated for its very large nocturnally fragrant trumpet-shaped flowers
  2095. Brunfelsia = genus of tropical American shrubs grown for their flowers followed by fleshy berrylike fruits
  2096. Brunfelsia americana = West Indian shrub with fragrant showy yellowish-white flowers
  2097. brussels sprout = plant grown for its stout stalks of edible small green heads resembling diminutive cabbages
  2098. Brya = genus of prickly shrubs and small trees of the Caribbean region
  2099. Brya ebenus = West Indian tree yielding a fine grade of green ebony
  2100. Bryaceae = a family of acrocarpous mosses
  2101. Bryales = category used in some classification systems for mosses having the spore case separated from the capsule wall by a hollow intercellular space
  2102. bryanthus = procumbent Old World mat-forming evergreen shrub with racemes of pinkish-white flowers
  2103. Bryanthus taxifolius = small shrub with tiny evergreen leaves and pink or purple flowers
  2104. Bryonia alba = white-flowered vine having thick roots and bearing small black berries
  2105. Bryonia dioica = bryony having fleshy roots pale green flowers and very small red berries; Europe; North Africa
  2106. bryony = a vine of the genus Bryonia having large leaves and small flowers and yielding acrid juice with emetic and purgative properties
  2107. Bryophyta = a division of nonflowering plants characterized by rhizoids rather than true roots and having little or no organized vascular tissue and showing alternation of generations between gamete-bearing forms and spore-bearing forms
  2108. bryophyte = any of numerous plants of the division Bryophyta
  2109. Bryopsida = true mosses: bryophytes having leafy rather than thalloid gametophytes: comprises orders Andreaeales; Bryales; Dicranales; Eubryales
  2110. Bryum = type genus of the Bryaceae: mosses distinguished by mostly erect and tufted gametophytes and symmetrical short-necked capsules
  2111. Buchloe = buffalo grass
  2112. Buchloe dactyloides = short grass growing on dry plains of central United States
  2113. buckbean = perennial plant of Europe and America having racemes of white or purplish flowers and intensely bitter trifoliate leaves
  2114. buckbean family = a dicotyledonous family of marsh plants of order Gentianales
  2115. buckeye = tree having palmate leaves and large clusters of white to red flowers followed by brown shiny inedible seeds / the inedible nutlike seed of the horse chestnut
  2116. buckler fern = any of various ferns of the genera Dryopteris or Polystichum or Lastreopsis having somewhat shield-shaped coverings on the sori
  2117. buckler mustard = plant of southeastern Europe having yellow flowers like those of mustard and pods with open valves resembling bucklers
  2118. buckleya = parasitic shrub of the eastern United States having opposite leaves and insignificant greenish flowers followed by oily dull green olivelike fruits
  2119. Buckleya distichophylla = parasitic shrub of the eastern United States having opposite leaves and insignificant greenish flowers followed by oily dull green olivelike fruits
  2120. buckthorn = an Old World plantain with long narrow ribbed leaves widely established in temperate regions / any shrub or small tree of the genus Bumelia / a shrub or shrubby tree of the genus Rhamnus
  2121. buckthorn berry = fruit of various buckthorns yielding dyes or pigments
  2122. buckthorn family = trees and shrubs usually thorny bearing drupaceous fruit many having medicinal value
  2123. buckwheat = a member of the genus Fagopyrum
  2124. buckwheat family = a family of plants of order Polygonales chiefly of the north temperate zone
  2125. buckwheat tree = tree of low-lying coastal areas of southeastern United States having glossy leaves and racemes of fragrant white flowers
  2126. bud = a partially opened flower / a swelling on a plant stem consisting of overlapping immature leaves or petals
  2127. bud brush = a perennial that is valuable as sheep forage in the United States
  2128. bud sagebrush = a perennial that is valuable as sheep forage in the United States
  2129. buddleia = tropical shrub having clusters of white or violet or yellow flowers
  2130. buffalo bur = North American nightshade with prickly foliage and racemose yellow flowers
  2131. buffalo clover = clover of western United States / low-growing annual herb of southwestern United States (Texas) having silky foliage and blue flowers
  2132. buffalo gourd = perennial vine of dry parts of central and southwestern United States and Mexico having small hard mottled green inedible fruit
  2133. buffalo grass = short grass growing on dry plains of central United States (where buffalo roam) / low mat-forming grass of southern United States and tropical America
  2134. buffalo nut = shrub of southeastern United States parasitic on roots of hemlocks having sparse spikes of greenish flowers and pulpy drupes / oily drupaceous fruit of rabbitwood
  2135. buffel grass = erect tussock-forming perennial bur grass used particularly in South Africa and Australia for pasture and forage
  2136. bugbane = a plant of the genus Cimicifuga having flowers in long racemes or panicles reported to be distasteful to insects / North American plant having large leaves and yellowish green flowers growing in racemes
  2137. bugle = any of various low-growing annual or perennial evergreen herbs native to Eurasia
  2138. bugleweed = any of various low-growing annual or perennial evergreen herbs native to Eurasia; used for ground cover / a mildly narcotic and astringent aromatic herb having small whitish flowers
  2139. bugloss = widespread European weed with spiny tongue-shaped leaves and yellow flowers
  2140. bulb = a modified bud consisting of a thickened globular underground stem serving as a reproductive structure
  2141. bulbil = small bulb or bulb-shaped growth arising from the leaf axil or in the place of flowers
  2142. bulblet = small bulb or bulb-shaped growth arising from the leaf axil or in the place of flowers
  2143. bulblet bladder fern = North American fern often bearing bulbils on the leaflets
  2144. bulblet fern = North American fern often bearing bulbils on the leaflets
  2145. bulbous iris = any of various irises having a rootstock formed like a bulb
  2146. bulbous plant = plant growing from a bulb
  2147. bull bay = evergreen tree of southern United States having large stiff glossy leaves and huge white sweet-smelling flowers
  2148. bull nettle = coarse prickly weed having pale yellow flowers and yellow berrylike fruit
  2149. bull pine = common and widely distributed tall timber pine of western North America having dark green needles in bunches of 2 to 5 and thick bark with dark brown plates when mature
  2150. bull thistle = European thistle with rather large heads and prickly leaves
  2151. bullace = small wild or half-domesticated Eurasian plum bearing small ovoid fruit in clusters
  2152. bullbrier = a very prickly woody vine of the eastern United States growing in tangled masses having tough round stems with shiny leathery leaves and small greenish flowers followed by clusters of inedible shiny black berries
  2153. bullock heart = small tropical American tree bearing a bristly heart-shaped acid tropical fruit
  2154. bullock's heart = small tropical American tree bearing a bristly heart-shaped acid tropical fruit
  2155. bullock's heart tree = small tropical American tree bearing a bristly heart-shaped acid tropical fruit
  2156. bullrush = tall rush with soft erect or arching stems found in Eurasia, Australia, New Zealand, and common in North America / tall marsh plant with cylindrical seed heads that explode when mature shedding large quantities of down; its long flat leaves are used for making mats and chair seats
  2157. bully tree = a tropical hardwood tree yielding balata gum and heavy red timber
  2158. Bulnesia = palo santo
  2159. Bulnesia sarmienti = South American tree of dry interior regions of Argentina and Paraguay having resinous heartwood used for incense
  2160. bulrush = tall rush with soft erect or arching stems found in Eurasia, Australia, New Zealand, and common in North America / tall marsh plant with cylindrical seed heads that explode when mature shedding large quantities of down; its long flat leaves are used for making mats and chair seats
  2161. bulrush millet = tall grass having cattail like spikes; grown in Africa and Asia for its grain and in the United States chiefly for forage
  2162. Bumelia = deciduous or evergreen American shrubs small trees having very hard wood and milky latex
  2163. Bumelia lanuginosa = deciduous tree of southeastern United States and Mexico
  2164. Bumelia lycioides = shrubby thorny deciduous tree of southeastern United States with white flowers and small black drupaceous fruit
  2165. bunch grass = any of various grasses of many genera that grow in tufts or clumps rather than forming a sod or mat
  2166. bunchberry = creeping perennial herb distinguished by red berries and clustered leaf whorls at the tips of shoots
  2167. bunchgrass = any of various grasses of many genera that grow in tufts or clumps rather than forming a sod or mat
  2168. bunji-bunji = Australian timber tree whose bark yields a poison
  2169. bunt = fungus that destroys kernels of wheat by replacing them with greasy masses of smelly spores / similar to Tilletia caries
  2170. bunya bunya = Australian conifer bearing two-inch seeds tasting like roasted chestnuts
  2171. bunya bunya tree = Australian conifer bearing two-inch seeds tasting like roasted chestnuts
  2172. Buphthalmum = oxeye
  2173. Buphthalmum salicifolium = hairy Eurasian perennial having deep yellow daisies on lax willowy stems
  2174. bur = seed vessel having hooks or prickles
  2175. bur grass = a grass of the genus Cenchrus
  2176. bur marigold = any of several plants of the genus Bidens having yellow flowers and prickly fruits that cling to fur and clothing
  2177. bur oak = medium to large deciduous oak of central and eastern North America with ovoid acorns deeply immersed in large fringed cups
  2178. bur reed = marsh plant having elongated linear leaves and round prickly fruit
  2179. bur-reed family = coextensive with the genus Sparganium
  2180. burdock = any of several erect biennial herbs of temperate Eurasia having stout taproots and producing burs
  2181. burgrass = a grass of the genus Cenchrus
  2182. burl = a large rounded outgrowth on the trunk or branch of a tree / the wood cut from a tree burl or outgrowth
  2183. Burma padauk = tree of India and Burma yielding a wood resembling mahogany
  2184. Burmannia = type genus of the Burmanniaceae
  2185. Burmanniaceae = family of chiefly tropical herbs with basal leaves like bracts and small flowers
  2186. Burmese rosewood = tree of India and Burma yielding a wood resembling mahogany
  2187. burn plant = very short-stemmed plant with thick leaves with soothing mucilaginous juice; leaves develop spiny margins with maturity; native to Mediterranean region
  2188. burnet bloodwort = European garden herb with purple-tinged flowers and leaves that are sometimes used for salads
  2189. burning bush = densely branched Eurasian plant
  2190. burr = seed vessel having hooks or prickles
  2191. burr marigold = any of several plants of the genus Bidens having yellow flowers and prickly fruits that cling to fur and clothing
  2192. burr oak = medium to large deciduous oak of central and eastern North America with ovoid acorns deeply immersed in large fringed cups
  2193. burrawong = large attractive palmlike evergreen cycad of New South Wales
  2194. Bursera = type genus of Burseraceae
  2195. Bursera microphylla = small tree or shrub of the southwestern United States having a spicy odor and odd-pinnate leaves and small clusters of white flowers
  2196. Bursera simaruba = tropical American tree yielding a reddish resin used in cements and varnishes
  2197. Burseraceae = resinous or aromatic chiefly tropical shrubs or trees
  2198. burweed marsh elder = tall annual marsh elder common in moist rich soil in central North America that can cause contact dermatitis
  2199. bush = a low woody perennial plant usually having several major stems
  2200. bush bean = a bean plant whose bushy growth needs no supports
  2201. bush clover = shrubby or herbaceous plants widely used for forage, soil improvement, and especially hay in southern United States
  2202. bush hibiscus = southern and western Australian shrub with unlobed or shallowly lobed toothed leaves and purple flowers
  2203. bush honeysuckle = spreading bush of northeastern United States having small clusters of fragrant green and yellow flowers / bush honeysuckle of southeastern United States having large crowded clusters of sulfur-yellow flowers / a honeysuckle shrub of southern Russia to central Asia
  2204. bush lawyer = stout-stemmed trailing shrub of New Zealand that scrambles over other growth
  2205. bush nasturtium = annual with deep yellow flowers smaller than the common garden nasturtium
  2206. bush pea = any of various plants of the genus Thermopsis having trifoliate leaves and yellow or purple racemose flowers
  2207. bush poppy = evergreen shrub of southwestern United States and Mexico often cultivated for its fragrant golden yellow flowers
  2208. bush vetch = European purple-flowered with slender stems
  2209. bush violet = any of several herbs of the genus Browallia cultivated for their blue or violet or white flowers
  2210. bush willow = small deciduous tree of the Transvaal having spikes of yellow flowers / small South African tree having creamy yellow fragrant flowers usually growing on stream banks
  2211. bushman's poison = evergreen shrub or tree of South Africa
  2212. bushy aster = stiff perennial of the eastern United States having small linear leaves and numerous tiny white flower heads
  2213. butcher's broom = shrub with stiff flattened stems resembling leaves
  2214. Butea = genus of East Indian trees or shrubs: dhak
  2215. Butea frondosa = East Indian tree bearing a profusion of intense vermilion velvet-textured blooms and yielding a yellow dye
  2216. Butea monosperma = East Indian tree bearing a profusion of intense vermilion velvet-textured blooms and yielding a yellow dye
  2217. butt = the part of a plant from which the roots spring or the part of a stalk or trunk nearest the roots
  2218. butter bean = bush bean plant cultivated especially in southern United States having small flat edible seeds
  2219. butter daisy = coarse greyish-green annual yellow-flowered herb
  2220. butter-and-eggs = common European perennial having showy yellow and orange flowers
  2221. butter-bean plant = bush bean plant cultivated especially in southern United States having small flat edible seeds
  2222. butter-flower = any of various plants of the genus Ranunculus
  2223. butter-print = tall annual herb or subshrub of tropical Asia having velvety leaves and yellow flowers and yielding a strong fiber
  2224. butterbur = small Eurasian herb having broad leaves and lilac-pink rayless flowers
  2225. buttercup = any of various plants of the genus Ranunculus
  2226. buttercup family = a family of Ranunculaceae
  2227. buttercup squash = plant bearing somewhat drum-shaped fruit having dark green rind with greyish markings
  2228. butterflower = any of various plants of the genus Ranunculus
  2229. butterfly bush = tropical shrub having clusters of white or violet or yellow flowers
  2230. butterfly flower = shrub or small tree of Dutch Guiana having clusters of pink flowers streaked with purple / any plant of the genus Schizanthus having finely divided leaves and showy variegated flowers
  2231. butterfly orchid = Mediterranean orchid having usually purple flowers with a fan-shaped spotted or striped rose-red lip / orchid of Florida and the Bahamas having showy brightly colored flowers; sometimes placed in genus Epidendrum / Mexican epiphytic orchid having pale green or yellow-green flowers with white purple-veined lip / any orchid of the genus Oncidium: characterized by slender branching sprays of small yellow and brown flowers
  2232. butterfly orchis = Mediterranean orchid having usually purple flowers with a fan-shaped spotted or striped rose-red lip / Mexican epiphytic orchid having pale green or yellow-green flowers with white purple-veined lip
  2233. butterfly pea = large-flowered weakly twining or prostrate vine of New Jersey to tropical eastern North America, sometimes cultivated for its purple and white flowers / large-flowered wild twining vine of southeastern and central United States having pale blue flowers / vine of tropical Asia having pinnate leaves and bright blue flowers with yellow centers
  2234. butterfly plant = any orchid of the genus Oncidium: characterized by slender branching sprays of small yellow and brown flowers
  2235. butterfly weed = erect perennial of eastern and southern United States having showy orange flowers
  2236. butternut = North American walnut tree having light-brown wood and edible nuts
  2237. butternut squash = plant bearing buff-colored squash having somewhat bottle-shaped fruit with fine-textured edible flesh and a smooth thin rind
  2238. butternut tree = North American walnut tree having light-brown wood and edible nuts
  2239. butterweed = any of several yellow-flowered plants of the genus Packera
  2240. butterwort = any of numerous carnivorous bog plants of the genus Pinguicula having showy purple or yellow or white flowers and a rosette of basal leaves coated with a sticky secretion to trap small insects
  2241. button = any of various plant parts that resemble buttons
  2242. button fern = Jamaican fern having round buttonlike bulbils / fern of New Zealand and Australia having trailing fronds with dark green buttonlike leaflets
  2243. button mangrove = evergreen tree or shrub with fruit resembling buttons and yielding heavy hard compact wood
  2244. button pink = much-branched pink with flowers in clusters
  2245. button snakeroot = any of various North American plants of the genus Liatris having racemes or panicles of small discoid flower heads / coarse prickly perennial eryngo with aromatic roots; southeastern United States
  2246. button tree = evergreen tree or shrub with fruit resembling buttons and yielding heavy hard compact wood
  2247. buttonwood = very large spreading plane tree of eastern and central North America to Mexico
  2248. Buxaceae = widely distributed evergreen shrubs and trees
  2249. Buxus = type genus of the Buxaceae
  2250. Buxus sempervirens = large slow-growing evergreen shrub or small tree with multiple stems
  2251. cabbage = any of various cultivars of the genus Brassica oleracea grown for their edible leaves or flowers
  2252. cabbage bark = tree with shaggy unpleasant-smelling toxic bark and yielding strong durable wood
  2253. cabbage palm = Brazilian palm of genus Euterpe whose leaf buds are eaten like cabbage when young / Australian palm with leaf buds that are edible when young / West Indian palm with leaf buds that are edible when young / low-growing fan-leaved palm of coastal southern United States having edible leaf buds
  2254. cabbage palmetto = low-growing fan-leaved palm of coastal southern United States having edible leaf buds
  2255. cabbage tree = elegant tree having either a single trunk or a branching trunk each with terminal clusters of long narrow leaves and large panicles of fragrant white, yellow or red flowers; New Zealand / tree with shaggy unpleasant-smelling toxic bark and yielding strong durable wood
  2256. cabbage-bark tree = tree with shaggy unpleasant-smelling toxic bark and yielding strong durable wood
  2257. Cabernet Sauvignon grape = superior red wine grapes grown especially in the Bordeaux region of France and northern California
  2258. Cabomba = alternatively, a member of the family Nymphaeaceae
  2259. Cabomba caroliniana = common aquatic plant of eastern North America having floating and submerged leaves and white yellow-spotted flowers
  2260. Cabombaceae = in some classifications considered an independent family of water lilies
  2261. Cacalia = genus of tall smooth herbs of forested mountains of Europe and Asia minor
  2262. Cacalia javanica = tropical African annual having scarlet tassel-shaped flower heads
  2263. Cacalia lutea = tropical African annual having scarlet tassel-shaped flower heads
  2264. cacao = tropical American tree producing cacao beans
  2265. cacao tree = tropical American tree producing cacao beans
  2266. Cactaceae = constituting the order Opuntiales
  2267. cactus = any succulent plant of the family Cactaceae native chiefly to arid regions of the New World and usually having spines
  2268. cactus euphorbia = small tree of dry open parts of southern Africa having erect angled branches suggesting candelabra
  2269. cactus family = constituting the order Opuntiales
  2270. Caesalpinia = small spiny tropical trees or shrubs
  2271. Caesalpinia bonduc = tropical tree with large prickly pods of seeds that resemble beans and are used for jewelry and rosaries
  2272. Caesalpinia bonducella = tropical tree with large prickly pods of seeds that resemble beans and are used for jewelry and rosaries
  2273. Caesalpinia coriaria = small thornless tree or shrub of tropical America whose seed pods are a source of tannin
  2274. Caesalpinia decapetala = spreading thorny shrub of tropical Asia bearing large erect racemes of red-marked yellow flowers
  2275. Caesalpinia echinata = tropical tree with prickly trunk
  2276. Caesalpinia ferrea = thornless tree yielding heavy wood
  2277. Caesalpinia gilliesii = a tropical flowering shrub having bright orange or red flowers
  2278. Caesalpinia pulcherrima = tropical shrub or small tree having showy yellow to orange-red flowers
  2279. Caesalpinia sepiaria = spreading thorny shrub of tropical Asia bearing large erect racemes of red-marked yellow flowers
  2280. Caesalpiniaceae = spiny trees, shrubs, or perennial herbs, including the genera Caesalpinia, Cassia, Ceratonia, Bauhinia
  2281. Caesalpinioideae = alternative name in some classification systems for the family Caesalpiniaceae
  2282. Caesar's agaric = widely distributed edible mushroom resembling the fly agaric
  2283. caimitillo = tropical American timber tree with dark hard heavy wood and small plumlike purple fruit
  2284. caimito = evergreen tree of West Indies and Central America having edible purple fruit star-shaped in cross section and dark green leaves with golden silky undersides
  2285. cajan pea = tropical woody herb with showy yellow flowers and flat pods
  2286. Cajanus = erect densely branched shrubby perennials of Old World tropics
  2287. Cajanus cajan = tropical woody herb with showy yellow flowers and flat pods
  2288. Cakile = small genus of succulent annual herbs found on sandy shores of North America and Europe
  2289. Cakile maritima = salt-tolerant seashore annual grown for its fragrant rose or violet flowers and fleshy grey-green foliage
  2290. calaba = West Indian tree having racemes of fragrant white flowers and yielding a durable timber and resinous juice
  2291. calabar bean = dark brown highly poisonous seed of the calabar-bean vine
  2292. calabar-bean vine = tropical African woody vine yielding calabar beans
  2293. calabash = Old World climbing plant with hard-shelled bottle-shaped gourds as fruits / tropical American evergreen that produces large round gourds / round gourd of the calabash tree
  2294. calabash tree = tropical American evergreen that produces large round gourds
  2295. calabazilla = perennial vine of dry parts of central and southwestern United States and Mexico having small hard mottled green inedible fruit
  2296. calabur tree = a fast-growing tropical American evergreen having white flowers and white fleshy edible fruit
  2297. calabura = a fast-growing tropical American evergreen having white flowers and white fleshy edible fruit
  2298. caladenia = any of various orchids of the genus Caladenia
  2299. Caladenia cairnsiana = orchid with reddish linear leaves and panicle of purple-marked pale-yellow flowers with deep red or purple lip
  2300. caladium = any plant of the genus Caladium cultivated for their ornamental foliage variously patterned in white or pink or red
  2301. Caladium bicolor = most popular caladium
  2302. Calamagrostic quadriseta = tall Australian reedlike grass sometimes used for hay
  2303. Calamagrostis = reed grass
  2304. Calamagrostis acutiflora = a variety of reed grass
  2305. calamint = perennial aromatic herbs growing in hedgerows or scrub or open woodlands from western Europe to central Asia and in North America
  2306. Calamintha = calamint
  2307. Calamintha grandiflora = aromatic herb with large pink flowers; southern and southeastern Europe; Anatolia
  2308. Calamintha nepeta = low-growing strongly aromatic perennial herb of southern Europe to Great Britain
  2309. Calamintha nepeta glantulosa = low-growing strongly aromatic perennial herb of southern Europe to Great Britain
  2310. Calamintha sylvatica = mint-scented perennial of central and southern Europe
  2311. calamus = perennial marsh plant having swordlike leaves and aromatic roots / the aromatic root of the sweet flag used medicinally / any tropical Asian palm of the genus Calamus
  2312. Calamus australis = tall scrambling spiny palm of northeastern Queensland, Australia
  2313. calamus oil = carcinogenic oil from calamus root used as a perfume
  2314. Calamus rotang = climbing palm of Sri Lanka and southern India remarkable for the great length of the stems which are used for malacca canes
  2315. Calandrinia = large genus of low-growing herbs
  2316. Calandrinia ciliata = succulent carpet-forming plant having small brilliant reddish-pink flowers
  2317. calanthe = any of various showy orchids of the genus Calanthe having white or yellow or rose-colored flowers and broad leaves folded lengthwise
  2318. calathian violet = perennial Eurasian gentian with sky-blue funnel-shaped flowers of damp open heaths
  2319. calceolaria = any garden plant of the genus Calceolaria having flowers with large inflated slipper-shaped lower lip
  2320. calendula = any of numerous chiefly annual herbs of the genus Calendula widely cultivated for their yellow or orange flowers
  2321. Calendula officinalis = the common European annual marigold
  2322. Caley pea = a weak-stemmed winter annual native to Mediterranean region for long established in southern United States
  2323. calico aster = a variety of aster
  2324. calico bush = a North American evergreen shrub having glossy leaves and white or rose-colored flowers
  2325. California allspice = straggling aromatic shrub of southwestern United States having fragrant brown flowers
  2326. California bay tree = Pacific coast tree having aromatic foliage and small umbellate flowers followed by olivelike fruit
  2327. California beauty = any of several handsome evergreen shrubs of California and northern Mexico having downy lobed leaves and showy yellow flowers
  2328. California black oak = large deciduous tree of the Pacific coast having deeply parted bristle-tipped leaves
  2329. California black walnut = medium-sized tree with somewhat aromatic compound leaves and edible nuts
  2330. California bluebell = annual of southern California with intricately branched stems and lax cymes of aromatic deep blue bell-shaped flowers / desert plant of southern California with blue or violet tubular flowers in terminal racemes
  2331. California box elder = maple of the Pacific coast of the United States
  2332. California buckthorn = evergreen shrub of western United States bearing small red or black fruits
  2333. California buckwheat = low-growing shrub with spreading branches and flowers in loose heads
  2334. California coffee = evergreen shrub of western United States bearing small red or black fruits
  2335. California dandelion = European weed widely naturalized in North America having yellow flower heads and leaves resembling a cat's ears
  2336. California false morel = a gyromitra with a brown puffed up fertile part and a thick fluted stalk
  2337. California fern = large branching biennial herb native to Eurasia and Africa and adventive in North America having large fernlike leaves and white flowers; usually found in damp habitats
  2338. California four o'clock = California four o'clock with purple-red flowers
  2339. California fuchsia = shrublet of southwestern United States to Mexico having brilliant scarlet flowers
  2340. California lady's slipper = often having many yellow-green orchids with white pouches growing along streams and seeps of southwestern Oregon and northern California
  2341. California laurel = Pacific coast tree having aromatic foliage and small umbellate flowers followed by olivelike fruit
  2342. California live oak = highly variable often shrubby evergreen oak of coastal zone of western North America having small thick usually spiny-toothed dark-green leaves
  2343. California nutmeg = California evergreen having a fruit resembling a nutmeg but with a strong turpentine flavor
  2344. California olive = Pacific coast tree having aromatic foliage and small umbellate flowers followed by olivelike fruit
  2345. California pitcher plant = marsh or bog herb having solitary pendulous yellow-green flowers and somewhat twisted pitchers with broad wings below
  2346. California poppy = of Pacific coast of North America
  2347. California privet = semi-evergreen Japanese shrub having malodorous flowers
  2348. California redbud = shrub of western United States having pink or crimson flowers
  2349. California redwood = lofty evergreen of United States coastal foothills from Oregon to Big Sur
  2350. California romero = an aromatic plant with wooly leaves found in southern California and Mexico
  2351. California sage = low ashy-grey California shrub
  2352. California sagebrush = low ashy-grey California shrub
  2353. California single-leaf pinyon = very small tree similar to Rocky mountain pinon but having a single needle per fascicle
  2354. California sycamore = tall tree of Baja California having deciduous bark and large alternate palmately lobed leaves and ball-shaped clusters of flowers
  2355. California tree poppy = tall branching subshrub of California and Mexico often cultivated for its silvery-blue foliage and large fragrant white flowers
  2356. California white fir = medium to tall fir of central to western United States having a narrow erect crown and soft wood
  2357. California white oak = tall graceful deciduous California oak having leathery leaves and slender pointed acorns
  2358. California yellow bells = viscid herb of arid or desert habitats of southwestern United States having pendulous yellow flowers
  2359. California yew = small or medium irregularly branched tree of the Pacific coast of North America
  2360. calisaya = Peruvian shrub or small tree having large glossy leaves and cymes of fragrant yellow to green or red flowers
  2361. Calla = water arum / South African plant widely cultivated for its showy pure white spathe and yellow spadix
  2362. calla lily = South African plant widely cultivated for its showy pure white spathe and yellow spadix
  2363. Calla palustris = plant of wetlands and bogs of temperate regions having small greenish flowers partly enclosed in a white spathe and red berries
  2364. calliandra = any of various shrubs and small trees valued for their fine foliage and attractive spreading habit and clustered white to deep pink or red flowers
  2365. calliopsis = North American annual widely cultivated for its yellow flowers with purple-red to brownish centers
  2366. Callirhoe = small genus of North American herbs having usually red or purple flowers
  2367. Callirhoe digitata = perennial poppy mallow of United States southern plains states having rose-red or rose-purple flowers
  2368. Callirhoe involucrata = hairy perennial of central United States having round deeply lobed leaves and loose panicles of large crimson-purple or cherry-red flowers
  2369. Callirhoe triangulata = densely hairy perennial having mostly triangular basal leaves and rose-purple flowers in panicled clusters
  2370. Callistephus = one species: erect Asiatic herb with large flowers
  2371. Callistephus chinensis = valued for their beautiful flowers in a wide range of clear bright colors
  2372. Callitrichaceae = dicot aquatic herbs
  2373. Callitriche = water starworts
  2374. Callitris = evergreen monoecious coniferous trees or shrubs: cypress pines
  2375. Callitris calcarata = Australian tree with small flattened scales as leaves and numerous dark brown seed
  2376. Callitris cupressiformis = Australian cypress pine having globular cones
  2377. Callitris endlicheri = Australian tree with small flattened scales as leaves and numerous dark brown seed
  2378. Callitris glauca = small tree or shrub of southern Australia
  2379. Callitris glaucophylla = small tree or shrub of southern Australia
  2380. Callitris parlatorei = Australian cypress pine with fibrous inner bark
  2381. Callitris quadrivalvis = large coniferous evergreen tree of North Africa and Spain having flattened branches and scalelike leaves yielding a hard fragrant wood
  2382. Calluna = one species
  2383. Calluna vulgaris = common Old World heath represented by many varieties
  2384. callus = an isolated thickening of tissue, especially a stiff protuberance on the lip of an orchid
  2385. Calnada pea = common perennial climber of temperate regions of Eurasia and North America having dense elongate clusters of flowers
  2386. Calocarpum = a genus of tropical American trees of the family Sapotaceae
  2387. Calocarpum zapota = tropical American tree having wood like mahogany and sweet edible egg-shaped fruit
  2388. Calocedrus = tall evergreens of western North America and eastern Asia
  2389. Calocedrus decurrens = tall tree of the Pacific coast of North America having foliage like cypress and cinnamon-red bark
  2390. Calochortus = large genus of western North American leafy-stemmed bulbous herbs
  2391. Calochortus albus = globe lily having open branched clusters of egg-shaped white flowers
  2392. Calochortus amabilis = globe lily having open branched clusters of clear yellow egg-shaped flowers
  2393. Calochortus amoenus = globe lily with deep rose-pink or purple egg-shaped flowers on flexuous stems
  2394. Calochortus elegans = small plant with slender bent stems bearing branched clusters of a few white star-shaped flowers with petals shaped like cat's ears
  2395. Calochortus kennedyi = mariposa with clusters of bell-shaped vermilion or orange or yellow flowers atop short stems
  2396. Calochortus luteus = mariposa having clusters of a few large deep yellow bell-shaped flowers atop slender stems
  2397. Calochortus macrocarpus = mariposa having loose clusters of one to three handsome lilac flowers resembling umbels atop stout erect stems
  2398. Calochortus nuttallii = perennial plant having clusters of one to four showy white bell-shaped flowers atop erect unbranched stems; edible bulbs useful in times of scarcity
  2399. Calophyllum = genus of tropical evergreen trees
  2400. Calophyllum calaba = West Indian tree having racemes of fragrant white flowers and yielding a durable timber and resinous juice
  2401. Calophyllum candidissimum = tropical American tree
  2402. Calophyllum inophyllum = East Indian tree having racemes of fragrant white flowers
  2403. Calophyllum longifolium = valuable timber tree of Panama
  2404. Calopogon = terrestrial orchids of North America
  2405. Calopogon pulchellum = an orchid
  2406. Calopogon tuberosum = an orchid
  2407. Caloscypha fulgens = an early spring variety of discomycete with yellow to orange yellow lining of the cup
  2408. Calostoma cinnabarina = a gasteromycete with a leathery stalk and a fruiting body this globose and has a red spore case
  2409. Calostoma lutescens = a gasteromycete with a leathery stalk and a fruiting body that is globose and has a pale yellow spore case
  2410. Calostoma ravenelii = a gasteromycete with a leathery stalk and a fruiting body with a thin gelatinous spore case and elliptical spores
  2411. Calostomataceae = a family of fungi belonging to the order Tulostomatales
  2412. Caltha = a genus of Caltha
  2413. Caltha palustris = swamp plant of Europe and North America having bright yellow flowers resembling buttercups
  2414. caltrop = Mediterranean annual or biennial herb having pinkish to purple flowers surrounded by spine-tipped scales; naturalized in America / a plant of the genus Trapa bearing spiny four-pronged edible nutlike fruits / tropical annual procumbent poisonous subshrub having fruit that splits into five spiny nutlets
  2415. Calvary clover = an annual of the Mediterranean area having spiny seed pods and leaves with dark spots
  2416. Calvatia = genus of puffballs having outer casings whose upper parts break at maturity into angular pieces to expose the spores
  2417. Calvatia gigantea = huge edible puffball up to 2 feet diameter and 25 pounds in weight
  2418. Calycanthaceae = shrubs or small trees having aromatic bark
  2419. Calycanthus = a magnoliid dicot genus of the family Calycanthaceae including: allspice
  2420. calycanthus family = shrubs or small trees having aromatic bark
  2421. Calycanthus floridus = hardy shrub of southeastern United States having clove-scented wood and fragrant red-brown flowers
  2422. Calycanthus occidentalis = straggling aromatic shrub of southwestern United States having fragrant brown flowers
  2423. calycle = a group of bracts simulating a calyx as in a carnation or hibiscus
  2424. Calycophyllum = medium to large tropical American trees having shiny reddish-brown shredding bark
  2425. Calycophyllum candidissimum = source of a tough elastic wood
  2426. calyculus = a group of bracts simulating a calyx as in a carnation or hibiscus
  2427. calypso = rare north temperate bog orchid bearing a solitary white to pink flower marked with purple at the tip of an erect reddish stalk above 1 basal leaf
  2428. Calypso bulbosa = rare north temperate bog orchid bearing a solitary white to pink flower marked with purple at the tip of an erect reddish stalk above 1 basal leaf
  2429. calyptra = the hood or cap covering the calyx of certain plants: e.g., the California poppy
  2430. Calyptridium umbellatum = pink clusters of densely packed flowers on prostrate stems resemble upturned pads of cats' feet
  2431. Calystegia = climbing or scrambling herbs: bindweed
  2432. Calystegia sepium = common Eurasian and American wild climber with pink flowers
  2433. calyx = the whorl of sepals of a flower collectively forming the outer floral envelope or layer of the perianth enclosing and supporting the developing bud
  2434. calyx tube = the cuplike or ringlike or tubular structure of a flower which bears the sepals and stamens and calyx
  2435. camachile = common thorny tropical American tree having terminal racemes of yellow flowers followed by sickle-shaped or circinate edible pods and yielding good timber and a yellow dye and mucilaginous gum
  2436. camas = any of several plants of the genus Camassia
  2437. camash = any of several plants of the genus Camassia
  2438. camass = any of several plants of the genus Camassia
  2439. Camassia = genus of scapose herbs of North and South America having large edible bulbs
  2440. Camassia leichtlinii = camas found to the west of Cascade Mountains
  2441. Camassia quamash = plant having a large edible bulb and linear basal leaves and racemes of light to deep violet-blue star-shaped flowers on tall green scapes
  2442. Camassia scilloides = eastern camas
  2443. cambium = a formative one-cell layer of tissue between xylem and phloem in most vascular plants that is responsible for secondary growth
  2444. camelia = any of several shrubs or small evergreen trees having solitary white or pink or reddish flowers
  2445. Camelina = annual and biennial herbs of Mediterranean to central Asia
  2446. Camelina sativa = annual European false flax having small white flowers; cultivated since Neolithic times as a source of fiber and for its oil-rich seeds
  2447. camellia = any of several shrubs or small evergreen trees having solitary white or pink or reddish flowers
  2448. Camellia japonica = greenhouse shrub with glossy green leaves and showy fragrant rose-like flowers
  2449. Camellia sinensis = a tropical evergreen shrub or small tree extensively cultivated in e.g. China and Japan and India
  2450. camomile = Eurasian plant with apple-scented foliage and white-rayed flowers and feathery leaves used medicinally
  2451. camosh = any of several plants of the genus Camassia
  2452. campanula = any of various plants of the genus Campanula having blue or white bell-shaped flowers
  2453. Campanula americana = annual or perennial of eastern North America with long spikes of blue or white flowers
  2454. Campanula aparinoides = bellflower common in marshes of eastern North America having lanceolate linear leaves and small whitish flowers
  2455. Campanula carpatica = European perennial bellflower that grows in clumps with spreading stems and blue or white flowers
  2456. Campanula divaricata = bellflower of southeastern United States (Maryland to Georgia) having pale blue flowers
  2457. Campanula glomerata = bellflower of Europe to temperate Asia having dense spikes of violet-blue to white flowers
  2458. Campanula medium = European biennial widely cultivated for its blue or violet or white flowers
  2459. Campanula persicifolia = perennial European bellflower with racemose white or blue flowers
  2460. Campanula pyramidalis = bellflower of southeastern Europe
  2461. Campanula rapunculoides = erect European herb with creeping rootstocks and nodding spikelike racemes of blue to violet flowers
  2462. Campanula rapunculus = bellflower of Europe and Asia and North Africa having bluish flowers and an edible tuberous root used with the leaves in salad
  2463. Campanula rotundifolia = perennial of northern hemisphere with slender stems and bell-shaped blue flowers
  2464. Campanula trachelium = European bellflower with blue-purple to lilac flowers formerly used to treat sore throat
  2465. Campanulaceae = family of plants of the order Campanulales
  2466. Campanulales = an order of plants of the subclass Asteridae including: Campanulaceae; Lobeliaceae; Cucurbitaceae; Goodeniaceae
  2467. campeachy = spiny shrub or small tree of Central America and West Indies having bipinnate leaves and racemes of small bright yellow flowers and yielding a hard brown or brownish-red heartwood used in preparing a black dye
  2468. camphor daisy = annual of southern United States and Mexico having bristly leaves and pale yellow flowers
  2469. camphor dune tansy = densely hairy plant with rayless flowers
  2470. camphor tree = large evergreen tree of warm regions whose aromatic wood yields camphor
  2471. camphorweed = aromatic plant of western United States
  2472. campion = any plant of the genus Silene
  2473. Campsis radicans = a North American woody vine having pinnate leaves and large red trumpet-shaped flowers
  2474. Camptosorus = classification used in some especially former systems for plants usually placed in genus Asplenium
  2475. Camptosorus rhizophyllus = ferns having lanceolate fronds that root at the tip
  2476. Campyloneurum = epiphytic ferns of tropical America
  2477. Campyloneurum augustifolium = fern with shorter and narrower leaves than Florida strap fern
  2478. campylotropous ovule = a curved ovule with the micropyle almost touching the funiculus
  2479. camwood = small shrubby African tree with hard wood used as a dyewood yielding a red dye
  2480. Canada anemone = common summer-flowering woodland herb of Labrador to Colorado
  2481. Canada balsam = medium-sized fir of northeastern North America; leaves smell of balsam when crushed
  2482. Canada garlic = North American bulbous plant
  2483. Canada ginger = deciduous low-growing perennial of Canada and eastern and central United States
  2484. Canada lily = common lily of the eastern United States having nodding yellow or reddish flowers spotted with brown
  2485. Canada moonseed = a woody vine of eastern North America having large oval leaves and small white flowers and purple to blue-black fruits
  2486. Canada plum = small tree native to northeastern North America having oblong orange-red fruit
  2487. Canada thistle = European thistle naturalized in United States and Canada where it is a pernicious weed
  2488. Canada violet = tall North American perennial with heart-shaped leaves and white flowers with purple streaks
  2489. Canada wild rye = North American wild rye
  2490. Canadian aspen = aspen with a narrow crown
  2491. Canadian fleabane = common North American weed with linear leaves and small discoid heads of yellowish flowers; widely naturalized throughout temperate regions
  2492. Canadian goldenrod = large North American goldenrod having showy clusters of yellow flowers on arching branches
  2493. Canadian hemlock = common forest tree of the eastern United States and Canada
  2494. Canadian pondweed = North American waterweed
  2495. Canadian red pine = pine of eastern North America having long needles in bunches of two and reddish bark
  2496. canafistola = deciduous or semi-evergreen tree having scented sepia to yellow flowers in drooping racemes and pods whose pulp is used medicinally
  2497. canafistula = deciduous or semi-evergreen tree having scented sepia to yellow flowers in drooping racemes and pods whose pulp is used medicinally
  2498. Cananga = a genus of Malayan tree
  2499. Cananga odorata = evergreen Asian tree with aromatic greenish-yellow flowers yielding a volatile oil
  2500. Canangium = a genus of Malayan tree
  2501. canary creeper = a climber having flowers that are the color of canaries
  2502. canary grass = Canary Islands grass
  2503. Canary Island hare's foot fern = fern of the Canary Islands and Madeira
  2504. canary whitewood = tall North American deciduous timber tree having large tulip-shaped greenish yellow flowers and conelike fruit
  2505. canarybird flower = a climber having flowers that are the color of canaries
  2506. canarybird vine = a climber having flowers that are the color of canaries
  2507. Canavalia = herbs or woody vines of mainly American tropics and subtropics
  2508. Canavalia ensiformis = annual semi-erect bushy plant of tropical South America bearing long pods with white seeds grown especially for forage
  2509. Canavalia gladiata = twining tropical Old World plant bearing long pods usually with red or brown beans
  2510. cancer weed = sage of eastern United States
  2511. cancerweed = sage of eastern United States
  2512. candelilla = wax-coated shrub of northern Mexico and southwestern United States / wax-coated Mexican shrub related to Euphorbia antisyphilitica
  2513. candida = any of the yeastlike imperfect fungi of the genus Candida
  2514. Candida albicans = a parasitic fungus that can infect the mouth or the skin or the intestines or the vagina
  2515. candleberry = deciduous aromatic shrub of eastern North America with grey-green wax-coated berries
  2516. candlenut = seed of candlenut tree; source of soil used in varnishes / large tree native to southeastern Asia; the nuts yield oil used in varnishes
  2517. candlestick tulip = Eurasian tulip with small flowers blotched at the base
  2518. candlewood = any of several resinous trees or shrubs often burned for light
  2519. candytuft = any of various flowering plants of the genus Iberis cultivated for their showy clusters of white to red or purple flowers
  2520. candyweed = bog plant of pine barrens of southeastern United States having spikes of irregular yellow-orange flowers
  2521. cane = a strong slender often flexible stem as of bamboos, reeds, rattans, or sugar cane
  2522. cane reed = tall grass of southern United States growing in thickets
  2523. canella = highly aromatic inner bark of the Canella winterana used as a condiment and a tonic
  2524. canella bark = highly aromatic inner bark of the Canella winterana used as a condiment and a tonic
  2525. canella family = one genus: aromatic tropical trees of eastern Africa and Florida to West Indies
  2526. Canella winterana = large evergreen shrub or small tree having white aromatic bark and leathery leaves and small purple to red flowers in terminal cymes
  2527. Canella-alba = large evergreen shrub or small tree having white aromatic bark and leathery leaves and small purple to red flowers in terminal cymes
  2528. Canellaceae = one genus: aromatic tropical trees of eastern Africa and Florida to West Indies
  2529. canistel = tropical tree of Florida and West Indies yielding edible fruit
  2530. canistel tree = tropical tree of Florida and West Indies yielding edible fruit
  2531. canker brake = North American evergreen fern having pinnate leaves and dense clusters of lance-shaped fronds
  2532. cankerweed = herb of northeastern North America having drooping clusters of yellowish-white flowers
  2533. canna = any plant of the genus Canna having large sheathing leaves and clusters of large showy flowers
  2534. Canna edulis = canna grown especially for its edible rootstock from which arrowroot starch is obtained
  2535. Canna generalis = plants grown for their large bright yellow to red flowers
  2536. Canna indica = canna grown especially for its edible rootstock from which arrowroot starch is obtained
  2537. canna lily = plants grown for their large bright yellow to red flowers
  2538. Cannabidaceae = two genera of erect or twining herbs that are pollinated by the wind, including the genera Cannabis and Humulus; term not used in all classifications
  2539. cannabis = any plant of the genus Cannabis; a coarse bushy annual with palmate leaves and clusters of small green flowers
  2540. Cannabis indica = source of e.g. bhang and hashish as well as fiber
  2541. Cannabis sativa = a strong-smelling plant whose dried leaves can be smoked for a pleasant effect or pain reduction
  2542. Cannaceae = coextensive with the genus Canna
  2543. canoe birch = small American birch with peeling white bark often worked into e.g. baskets or toy canoes
  2544. canoe cedar = large valuable arborvitae of northwestern United States
  2545. cantala = Philippine plant yielding a hard fibre used in making coarse twine / hard fiber used in making coarse twine
  2546. cantaloup = a variety of muskmelon vine having fruit with a tan rind and orange flesh
  2547. cantaloup vine = a variety of muskmelon vine having fruit with a tan rind and orange flesh
  2548. cantaloupe = a variety of muskmelon vine having fruit with a tan rind and orange flesh
  2549. cantaloupe vine = a variety of muskmelon vine having fruit with a tan rind and orange flesh
  2550. Canterbury bell = European biennial widely cultivated for its blue or violet or white flowers / herb of Colombia to Peru having pale purple flowers
  2551. Cantharellus = a well-known genus of fungus; has funnel-shaped fruiting body
  2552. Cantharellus cibarius = widely distributed edible mushroom rich yellow in color with a smooth cap and a pleasant apricot aroma
  2553. Cantharellus cinnabarinus = mushroom with a distinctive pink to vermillion fruiting body
  2554. Cantharellus clavatus = an edible agaric with a brown fruiting body that is often compound
  2555. Cantharellus floccosus = a mildly poisonous fungus with a fruiting body shaped like a hollow trumpet
  2556. Canton ginger = tropical Asian plant widely cultivated for its pungent root
  2557. canyon live oak = medium-sized evergreen of southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico with oblong leathery often spiny-edged leaves
  2558. canyon oak = medium-sized evergreen of southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico with oblong leathery often spiny-edged leaves
  2559. caoutchouc tree = deciduous tree of the Amazon and Orinoco Rivers having leathery leaves and fragrant yellow-white flowers
  2560. cap = a fruiting structure resembling an umbrella or a cone that forms the top of a stalked fleshy fungus such as a mushroom
  2561. cape aloe = much-branched South African plant with reddish prickly succulent leaves
  2562. Cape dagga = relatively nontoxic South African herb smoked like tobacco
  2563. cape forget-me-not = anchusa of southern Africa having blue flowers with white throats / anchusa of southern Africa having blue to red-purple flowers
  2564. cape gooseberry = annual of tropical South America having edible purple fruits
  2565. cape hyacinth = southern African herb with white bell-shaped flowers
  2566. cape jasmine = evergreen shrub widely cultivated for its large fragrant waxlike white flowers and glossy leaves
  2567. cape jessamine = evergreen shrub widely cultivated for its large fragrant waxlike white flowers and glossy leaves
  2568. Cape kafferboom = small semi-evergreen broad-spreading tree of eastern South Africa with orange-scarlet flowers and small coral-red seeds
  2569. cape marigold = any of several South African plants grown for the profusion of usually yellow daisylike flowers and mounds of aromatic foliage
  2570. Cape periwinkle = commonly cultivated Old World woody herb having large pinkish to red flowers
  2571. Cape primrose = any of various African plants of the genus Streptocarpus widely cultivated especially as houseplants for their showy blue or purple flowers
  2572. Cape tulip = spectacular plant having large prostrate leaves barred in reddish-purple and flowers with a clump of long yellow stamens in a coral-red cup of fleshy bracts
  2573. cape yellowwood = South African tree or shrub having a rounded crown
  2574. caper = any of numerous plants of the genus Capparis
  2575. caper family = a dilleniid dicot family of the order Rhoeadales that includes: genera Capparis, Cleome, Crateva, and Polanisia
  2576. caper spurge = poisonous Old World spurge; adventive in America
  2577. caper tree = shrub of southern Florida to West Indies / shrub or small tree of southern Florida to Central and South America
  2578. capeweed = European weed widely naturalized in North America having yellow flower heads and leaves resembling a cat's ears
  2579. capitulum = an arrangement of leafy branches forming the top or head of a tree / fruiting spike of a cereal plant especially corn / a dense cluster of flowers or foliage
  2580. Capparidaceae = a dilleniid dicot family of the order Rhoeadales that includes: genera Capparis, Cleome, Crateva, and Polanisia
  2581. Capparis = tropical or subtropical evergreen shrubs or small trees
  2582. Capparis arborea = small Australian tree bearing edible fruit resembling the pomegranate
  2583. Capparis cynophallophora = shrub of southern Florida to West Indies
  2584. Capparis flexuosa = shrub or small tree of southern Florida to Central and South America
  2585. Capparis mitchellii = small Australian tree bearing edible dark purple fruit
  2586. Capparis spinosa = prostrate spiny shrub of the Mediterranean region cultivated for its greenish flower buds which are pickled
  2587. caprifig = wild variety of the common fig used to facilitate pollination of certain figs
  2588. Caprifoliaceae = shrubs and small trees and woody vines
  2589. Capsella = shepherd's purse
  2590. Capsella bursa-pastoris = white-flowered annual European herb bearing triangular notched pods
  2591. Capsicum = chiefly tropical perennial shrubby plants having many-seeded fruits: sweet and hot peppers / any of various tropical plants of the genus Capsicum bearing peppers
  2592. Capsicum annuum cerasiforme = plant bearing small rounded usually pungent fruits
  2593. Capsicum annuum conoides = plant bearing erect pungent conical red or yellow or purple fruits
  2594. Capsicum annuum grossum = plant bearing large mild thick-walled usually bell-shaped fruits
  2595. Capsicum annuum longum = plant bearing very hot and finely tapering long peppers
  2596. Capsicum baccatum = plant bearing very small and very hot oblong red fruits; includes wild forms native to tropical America
  2597. Capsicum frutescens = plant bearing very hot medium-sized oblong red peppers
  2598. Capsicum frutescens baccatum = plant bearing very small and very hot oblong red fruits; includes wild forms native to tropical America
  2599. capsicum pepper plant = any of various tropical plants of the genus Capsicum bearing peppers
  2600. capsule = a dry dehiscent seed vessel or the spore-containing structure of e.g. mosses
  2601. capulin = Mexican black cherry tree having edible fruit
  2602. capulin tree = Mexican black cherry tree having edible fruit
  2603. caracolito = large Costa Rican tree having light-colored wood suitable for cabinetry; similar to the African lepidobotrys in wood structure as well as in fruit and flowers and leaves and seeds
  2604. caragana = any plant of the genus Caragana having even-pinnate leaves and mostly yellow flowers followed by seeds in a linear pod
  2605. Caragana arborescens = large spiny shrub of eastern Asia having clusters of yellow flowers
  2606. Caragana sinica = shrub with dark-green glossy foliage and solitary pale yellow flowers
  2607. carambola = East Indian tree bearing deeply ridged yellow-brown fruit
  2608. carambola tree = East Indian tree bearing deeply ridged yellow-brown fruit
  2609. caranda = South American palm yielding a wax similar to carnauba wax
  2610. caranda palm = South American palm yielding a wax similar to carnauba wax
  2611. caranday = South American palm yielding a wax similar to carnauba wax
  2612. caraway = a Eurasian plant with small white flowers yielding caraway seed
  2613. Cardamine = bittercress, bitter cress
  2614. Cardamine bulbifera = European bittercress having a knotted white rootstock
  2615. Cardamine bulbosa = small white-flowered cress common in wet places in eastern North America
  2616. Cardamine diphylla = North American herb with pungent scaly or toothed roots
  2617. Cardamine douglasii = small perennial herb of cooler regions of North America with racemose purple flowers
  2618. Cardamine pratensis = a bitter cress of Europe and America
  2619. Cardamine rotundifolia = mat-forming perennial found in cold springs of the eastern United States
  2620. cardamom = rhizomatous herb of India having aromatic seeds used as seasoning
  2621. cardamon = rhizomatous herb of India having aromatic seeds used as seasoning
  2622. cardinal flower = North American lobelia having brilliant red flowers
  2623. Cardiospermum = tendril-climbing herbs or shrubs whose seeds have a white heart-shaped spot
  2624. Cardiospermum grandiflorum = herbaceous vine of tropical America and Africa
  2625. Cardiospermum halicacabum = woody perennial climbing plant with large ornamental seed pods that resemble balloons
  2626. cardoon = southern European plant having spiny leaves and purple flowers cultivated for its edible leafstalks and roots
  2627. Carduus = genus of annual or perennial Old World prickly thistles
  2628. Carduus crispus = European biennial introduced in North America having flower heads in crowded clusters at ends of branches
  2629. Carduus nutans = Eurasian perennial naturalized in eastern North America having very spiny white cottony foliage and nodding musky crimson flower heads
  2630. Carex = large genus of plants found in damp woodlands and bogs and ditches or at water margins: sedges
  2631. Carex arenaria = European maritime sedge naturalized along Atlantic coast of United States
  2632. Carex pseudocyperus = tufted sedge of temperate regions
  2633. carib wood = small Dominican tree bearing masses of large crimson flowers before the fine pinnate foliage emerges
  2634. Carica = type genus of the Caricaceae
  2635. Carica papaya = tropical American shrub or small tree having huge deeply palmately cleft leaves and large oblong yellow fruit
  2636. Caricaceae = trees native to tropical America and Africa with milky juice and large palmately lobed leaves
  2637. caricature plant = tropical Old World shrub having purple or red tubular flowers and leaf markings resembling the profile of a human face
  2638. carissa = a shrub of the genus Carissa having fragrant white flowers and plumlike red to purple-black fruits
  2639. Carissa bispinosa = South African shrub having forked spines and plumlike fruit
  2640. Carissa grandiflora = very large closely branched South African shrub having forked bright green spines and shiny leaves
  2641. Carissa macrocarpa = very large closely branched South African shrub having forked bright green spines and shiny leaves
  2642. Carlina = genus of Mediterranean thistles
  2643. Carlina acaulis = stemless perennial having large flowers with white or purple-brown florets nestled in a rosette of long spiny leaves hairy beneath
  2644. Carlina vulgaris = Eurasian thistle growing in sand dunes and dry chalky soils
  2645. carline thistle = a thistle of the genus Carlina
  2646. carnation = Eurasian plant with pink to purple-red spice-scented usually double flowers
  2647. carnation family = large family of herbs or subshrubs
  2648. carnauba = Brazilian fan palm having an edible root
  2649. carnauba palm = Brazilian fan palm having an edible root
  2650. carnauba wax = hard yellowish to brownish wax from leaves of the carnauba palm used especially in floor waxes and polishes
  2651. Carnegiea = caryophylloid dicot genus with only one species: saguaro
  2652. Carnegiea gigantea = extremely large treelike cactus of desert regions of southwestern United States having a thick columnar sparsely branched trunk bearing white flowers and edible red pulpy fruit
  2653. carnivorous plant = plants adapted to attract and capture and digest primarily insects but also other small animals
  2654. carob = evergreen Mediterranean tree with edible pods; the biblical carob / long pod containing small beans and sweetish edible pulp
  2655. carob bean = long pod containing small beans and sweetish edible pulp
  2656. carob bean tree = evergreen Mediterranean tree with edible pods
  2657. carob tree = evergreen Mediterranean tree with edible pods
  2658. Carolina allspice = hardy shrub of southeastern United States having clove-scented wood and fragrant red-brown flowers
  2659. Carolina buckthorn = deciduous shrub of eastern and central United States having black berrylike fruit
  2660. Carolina hemlock = medium-sized evergreen of southeastern United States having spreading branches and widely diverging cone scales
  2661. Carolina jasmine = poisonous woody evergreen vine of southeastern United States having fragrant yellow funnel-shaped flowers
  2662. Carolina lupine = eastern United States bush pea
  2663. Carolina moonseed = woody vine of southeastern United States resembling the common moonseed but having red fruits
  2664. Carolina pond fern = small free-floating aquatic fern from the eastern United States to tropical America
  2665. Carolina spring beauty = similar to Claytonia virginica but having usually pink flowers
  2666. carpel = a simple pistil or one element of a compound pistil
  2667. carpenteria = California evergreen shrub having glossy opposite leaves and terminal clusters of a few fragrant white flowers
  2668. Carpenteria californica = California evergreen shrub having glossy opposite leaves and terminal clusters of a few fragrant white flowers
  2669. carpet grass = grass native to West Indies but common in southern United States having tufted wiry stems often infested with a dark fungus
  2670. carpetweed = annual prostrate mat-forming weed having whorled leaves and small greenish-white flowers
  2671. carpetweed family = succulent herbs or small shrubs mostly of South Africa but also New Zealand and North America: carpetweeds
  2672. Carpinaceae = used in some classification systems for the genera Carpinus, Ostryopsis, and Ostryopsis
  2673. Carpinus = mostly deciduous monoecious trees or shrubs: hornbeams
  2674. Carpinus betulus = medium-sized Old World tree with smooth grey bark and leaves like beech that turn yellow-orange in autumn
  2675. Carpinus caroliniana = tree or large shrub with grey bark and blue-green leaves that turn red-orange in autumn
  2676. Carpobrotus = a caryophyllaceous genus of Carpobrotus
  2677. Carpobrotus edulis = low-growing South African succulent plant having a capsular fruit containing edible pulp
  2678. carpophore = a slender stalk that furnishes an axis for a carpel
  2679. carpospore = a nonmotile spore of red algae
  2680. carrion flower = any of various plants of the genus Stapelia having succulent leafless toothed stems resembling cacti and large foul-smelling (often star-shaped) flowers
  2681. carrion fungus = any of various ill-smelling brown-capped fungi of the order Phallales
  2682. carrizo = tall North American reed having relative wide leaves and large plumelike panicles; widely distributed in moist areas
  2683. carrot = perennial plant widely cultivated as an annual in many varieties for its long conical orange edible roots
  2684. carrot family = plants having flowers in umbels: parsley; carrot; anise; caraway; celery
  2685. cart-track plant = common European perennial naturalized worldwide
  2686. Cartagena bark = Colombian tree
  2687. Carthamus = safflower
  2688. Carthamus tinctorius = thistlelike Eurasian plant widely grown for its red or orange flower heads and seeds that yield a valuable oil
  2689. Carum = caraway
  2690. Carum carvi = a Eurasian plant with small white flowers yielding caraway seed
  2691. Carya = genus of large deciduous nut-bearing trees
  2692. Carya aquatica = hickory of southern United States having many narrow leaflets and rather bitter nuts
  2693. Carya cordiformis = hickory of the eastern United States having a leaves with 7 or 9 leaflets and thin-shelled very bitter nuts
  2694. Carya glabra = an American hickory tree having bitter nuts
  2695. Carya illinoensis = tree of southern United States and Mexico cultivated for its nuts
  2696. Carya illinoinsis = tree of southern United States and Mexico cultivated for its nuts
  2697. Carya laciniosa = hickory of the eastern United States resembling the shagbark but having a much larger nut
  2698. Carya myristicaeformis = hickory of southern United States and Mexico having hard nutmeg-shaped nuts
  2699. Carya myristiciformis = hickory of southern United States and Mexico having hard nutmeg-shaped nuts
  2700. Carya ovata = North American hickory having loose grey shaggy bark and edible nuts
  2701. Carya tomentosa = smooth-barked North American hickory with 7 to 9 leaflets bearing a hard-shelled edible nut
  2702. Caryocar = type genus of the Caryocaraceae
  2703. Caryocar nuciferum = large South American evergreen tree trifoliate leaves and drupes with nutlike seeds used as food and a source of cooking oil
  2704. Caryocaraceae = small genus of tropical South American trees
  2705. Caryophyllaceae = large family of herbs or subshrubs
  2706. caryophyllaceous plant = a plant of the family Caryophyllaceae
  2707. Caryophyllales = corresponds approximately to the older group Centrospermae
  2708. Caryophyllidae = a group of families of mostly flowers having basal or central placentation and trinucleate pollen (binucleate pollen is commoner in flowering plants); contains 14 families including: Caryophyllaceae (carnations and pinks); Aizoaceae; Amaranthaceae; Batidaceae; Chenopodiaceae; Cactaceae (order Opuntiales); Nyctaginaceae; Phytolaccaceae; corresponds approximately to order Caryophyllales
  2709. caryophylloid dicot family = family of relatively early dicotyledonous plants including mostly flowers
  2710. caryophylloid dicot genus = genus of relatively early dicotyledonous plants including mostly flowers
  2711. caryopsis = dry seed-like fruit produced by the cereal grasses: e.g. wheat, barley, Indian corn
  2712. Caryota = fishtail palms
  2713. Caryota urens = fishtail palm of India to Malay Peninsula
  2714. casava = any of several plants of the genus Manihot having fleshy roots yielding a nutritious starch
  2715. cascade everlasting = shrub with white woolly branches and woolly leaves having fragrant flowers forming long sprays; flowers suitable for drying
  2716. cascade penstemon = whorls of deep blue to dark purple flowers at tips of erect leafy stems
  2717. cascara = dried bark of the cascara buckthorn used as a laxative
  2718. cascara buckthorn = shrubby tree of the Pacific coast of the United States
  2719. cascara sagrada = dried bark of the cascara buckthorn used as a laxative
  2720. cascarilla = West Indian shrub with aromatic bark
  2721. cascarilla bark = aromatic bark of cascarilla
  2722. cash crop = a readily salable crop that is grown and gathered for the market
  2723. cashew = tropical American evergreen tree bearing kidney-shaped nuts that are edible only when roasted
  2724. cashew tree = tropical American evergreen tree bearing kidney-shaped nuts that are edible only when roasted
  2725. cassava = any of several plants of the genus Manihot having fleshy roots yielding a nutritious starch / cassava root eaten as a staple food after drying and leaching
  2726. cassia = Chinese tree with aromatic bark
  2727. Cassia acutifolia = erect shrub having racemes of tawny yellow flowers; the dried leaves are used medicinally as a cathartic
  2728. Cassia alata = tropical shrub (especially of Americas) having yellow flowers and large leaves whose juice is used as a cure for ringworm and poisonous bites
  2729. Cassia augustifolia = erect shrub having racemes of tawny yellow flowers; the dried leaves are used medicinally as a cathartic
  2730. Cassia auriculata = evergreen Indian shrub with vivid yellow flowers whose bark is used in tanning
  2731. cassia bark = aromatic bark of the cassia-bark tree
  2732. Cassia fasciculata = tropical American plant having leaflets somewhat sensitive to the touch
  2733. Cassia fistula = deciduous or semi-evergreen tree having scented sepia to yellow flowers in drooping racemes and pods whose pulp is used medicinally
  2734. Cassia grandis = tropical American semi-evergreen tree having erect racemes of pink or rose-colored flowers
  2735. Cassia javonica = deciduous ornamental hybrid of southeastern Asia and Hawaii having racemes of flowers ranging in color from cream-colored to orange and red
  2736. Cassia marginata = East Indian tree having long pods containing a black cathartic pulp used as a horse medicine
  2737. Cassia marilandica = North American perennial herb; leaves are used medicinally
  2738. Cassia occidentalis = very leafy malodorous tropical weedy shrub whose seeds have been used as an adulterant for coffee
  2739. Cassia roxburghii = East Indian tree having long pods containing a black cathartic pulp used as a horse medicine
  2740. Cassia tora = cosmopolitan tropical herb or subshrub with yellow flowers and slender curved pods; a weed
  2741. cassia-bark tree = Chinese tree with aromatic bark
  2742. cassie = tropical American thorny shrub or small tree
  2743. Cassiope = low tufted evergreen shrubs of colder parts of north temperate regions having moss-like foliage and nodding white or pink flowers
  2744. Cassiope mertensiana = heath of mountains of western United States having bell-shaped white flowers
  2745. cast-iron plant = evergreen perennial with large handsome basal leaves
  2746. Castanea = chestnuts
  2747. Castanea chrysophylla = small ornamental evergreen tree of Pacific Coast whose glossy yellow-green leaves are yellow beneath
  2748. Castanea crenata = a spreading tree of Japan that has a short trunk
  2749. Castanea dentata = large tree found from Maine to Alabama
  2750. Castanea mollissima = a small tree with small sweet nuts
  2751. Castanea ozarkensis = shrubby tree closely related to the Allegheny chinkapin but with larger leaves
  2752. Castanea pumila = shrubby chestnut tree of southeastern United States having small edible nuts
  2753. Castanea sativa = wild or cultivated throughout southern Europe, northwestern Africa and southwestern Asia
  2754. Castanopsis = evergreen trees and shrubs of warm regions valued for their foliage
  2755. Castanopsis chrysophylla = small ornamental evergreen tree of Pacific Coast whose glossy yellow-green leaves are yellow beneath
  2756. Castanospermum = a rosid dicot genus of the subfamily Papilionoideae having one species: Moreton Bay chestnut
  2757. Castilleia = genus of western North and South American perennials often partially parasitic on roots of grasses
  2758. Castilleja = genus of western North and South American perennials often partially parasitic on roots of grasses
  2759. Castilleja chromosa = most common paintbrush of western United States dry lands
  2760. Castilleja miniata = wildflower of western North America having ragged clusters of crimson or scarlet flowers
  2761. Castilleja sessiliflora = hairy plant with pinkish flowers
  2762. Castilleja sulphurea = plant of moist highland meadows having ragged clusters of pale yellow flowers
  2763. castor bean = the toxic seed of the castor-oil plant
  2764. castor bean plant = large shrub of tropical Africa and Asia having large palmate leaves and spiny capsules containing seeds that are the source of castor oil and ricin
  2765. castor-oil plant = large shrub of tropical Africa and Asia having large palmate leaves and spiny capsules containing seeds that are the source of castor oil and ricin
  2766. casuarina = any of various trees and shrubs of the genus Casuarina having jointed stems and whorls of scalelike leaves
  2767. Casuarina equisetfolia = common Australian tree widely grown as an ornamental in tropical regions
  2768. Casuarinaceae = one genus: genus Casuarina
  2769. Casuarinales = order of chiefly Australian trees and shrubs comprising the casuarinas
  2770. cat thyme = Mediterranean germander having small hairy leaves and reddish purple flowers
  2771. cat's feet = low-growing perennial herb having leaves with whitish down and clusters of small white flowers
  2772. cat's foot = low-growing perennial herb having leaves with whitish down and clusters of small white flowers
  2773. cat's-claw = erect shrub with small if any spines having racemes of white to yellow flowers followed by curved pointed pods and black shiny seeds
  2774. cat's-ear = European weed widely naturalized in North America having yellow flower heads and leaves resembling a cat's ears / any of several plants of the genus Calochortus having flowers with petals shaped like cat's ears
  2775. cat's-tail = tall marsh plant with cylindrical seed heads that explode when mature shedding large quantities of down; its long flat leaves are used for making mats and chair seats
  2776. Catalina cherry = evergreen shrub or small tree found on Catalina Island
  2777. catalpa = tree of the genus Catalpa with large leaves and white flowers followed by long slender pods
  2778. Catalpa bignioides = catalpa tree of southern United States
  2779. Catalpa speciosa = catalpa tree of central United States
  2780. catananche = any of several plants of the genus Catananche having long-stalked heads of blue or yellow flowers
  2781. Catananche caerulea = south European plant having dark-eyed flowers with flat blue rays
  2782. cataphyll = a reduced or scarcely developed leaf at the start of a plant's life (i.e., cotyledons) or in the early stages of leaf development
  2783. Catasetum = genus of tropical American orchids having showy male and female flowers usually on separate inflorescences
  2784. Catasetum macrocarpum = orchid having both male and female flowers in the same raceme
  2785. catbrier = a very prickly woody vine of the eastern United States growing in tangled masses having tough round stems with shiny leathery leaves and small greenish flowers followed by clusters of inedible shiny black berries
  2786. catch crop = a crop that grows quickly (e.g. lettuce) and can be planted between two regular crops grown in successive seasons or between two rows of crops in the same season
  2787. catchfly = mostly perennial herbs with sticky stems that catch insects
  2788. catchweed = annual having the stem beset with curved prickles
  2789. catclaw = erect shrub with small if any spines having racemes of white to yellow flowers followed by curved pointed pods and black shiny seeds
  2790. catechu = East Indian spiny tree having twice-pinnate leaves and yellow flowers followed by flat pods; source of black catechu / extract of the heartwood of Acacia catechu used for dyeing and tanning and preserving fishnets and sails
  2791. catgut = perennial subshrub of eastern North America having downy leaves yellowish and rose flowers and
  2792. Catha = a genus of African evergreen shrubs characterized by thick leaves and white flowers
  2793. Catha edulis = a shrub that is cultivated by Arabs for its leaves which are chewed or used to make tea
  2794. Catharanthus = small genus of erect annual or perennial herbs native to Madagascar; widely naturalized in the tropics
  2795. Catharanthus roseus = commonly cultivated Old World woody herb having large pinkish to red flowers
  2796. Cathaya = Chinese evergreen conifer discovered in 1955
  2797. catjang pea = tropical woody herb with showy yellow flowers and flat pods
  2798. catkin = a cylindrical spikelike inflorescence
  2799. catmint = hairy aromatic perennial herb having whorls of small white purple-spotted flowers in a terminal spike; used in the past as a domestic remedy
  2800. catnip = hairy aromatic perennial herb having whorls of small white purple-spotted flowers in a terminal spike; used in the past as a domestic remedy
  2801. cattail = tall erect herbs with sword-shaped leaves
  2802. cattail family = perennial marsh plants with creeping rootstocks and long linear leaves
  2803. cattail millet = tall grass having cattail like spikes; grown in Africa and Asia for its grain and in the United States chiefly for forage
  2804. cattley guava = small tropical shrubby tree bearing deep red oval fruit
  2805. cattleya = any orchid of the genus Cattleya characterized by a three-lobed lip enclosing the column
  2806. Cattleya citrina = Mexican epiphytic orchid with glaucous grey-green leaves and lemon- to golden-yellow flowers appearing only partially opened
  2807. Caucasian walnut = medium-sized Caucasian much-branched tree distinguished from other walnut trees by its winged fruit
  2808. caudex = woody stem of palms and tree ferns / persistent thickened stem of a herbaceous perennial plant
  2809. cauliflower = a plant having a large edible head of crowded white flower buds
  2810. Caulophyllum = blue cohosh
  2811. Caulophyllum thalictrioides = tall herb of eastern North America and Asia having blue berrylike fruit and a thick knotty rootstock formerly used medicinally
  2812. Caulophyllum thalictroides = tall herb of eastern North America and Asia having blue berrylike fruit and a thick knotty rootstock formerly used medicinally
  2813. caviuna wood = an important Brazilian timber tree yielding a heavy hard dark-colored wood streaked with black
  2814. cayenne = plant bearing very hot and finely tapering long peppers
  2815. cayenne jasmine = commonly cultivated Old World woody herb having large pinkish to red flowers
  2816. cayenne pepper = plant bearing very hot and finely tapering long peppers
  2817. Cebu maguey = hard fiber used in making coarse twine
  2818. Cecropia = large genus of tropical American trees that yield a bast fiber used for cordage and bark used in tanning
  2819. Cecropia peltata = tropical American tree with large peltate leaves and hollow stems
  2820. Cecropiaceae = in some classifications included in family Moraceae
  2821. cedar = any cedar of the genus Cedrus / durable aromatic wood of any of numerous cedar trees
  2822. cedar elm = elm of southern United States and Mexico having spreading pendulous corky branches
  2823. cedar mahogany = African tree having rather lightweight cedar-scented wood varying in color from pink to reddish brown
  2824. cedar nut = the seed of the Swiss pine
  2825. cedar of Goa = tall spreading evergreen found in Mexico having drooping branches
  2826. cedar of Lebanon = cedar of Lebanon and northwestern Syria that attains great age and height
  2827. cedar tree = any cedar of the genus Cedrus / any of numerous trees of the family Cupressaceae that resemble cedars
  2828. cedar-apple rust = rust fungus causing rust spots on apples and pears etc
  2829. cedarwood = durable aromatic wood of any of numerous cedar trees
  2830. Cedrela = tropical American trees
  2831. Cedrela calantas = Philippine timber tree having hard red fragrant wood
  2832. Cedrela odorata = tropical American tree yielding fragrant wood used especially for boxes
  2833. Cedrus = true cedars
  2834. Cedrus atlantica = tall Algerian evergreen of Atlas mountains with blue-green leaves
  2835. Cedrus deodara = tall East Indian cedar having spreading branches with nodding tips
  2836. Cedrus libani = cedar of Lebanon and northwestern Syria that attains great age and height
  2837. Ceiba = tropical American trees with palmately compound leaves and showy bell-shaped flowers
  2838. Ceiba pentandra = massive tropical tree with deep ridges on its massive trunk and bearing large pods of seeds covered with silky floss
  2839. ceiba tree = massive tropical tree with deep ridges on its massive trunk and bearing large pods of seeds covered with silky floss
  2840. ceibo = small South American spiny tree with dark crimson and scarlet flowers solitary or clustered
  2841. celandine = perennial herb with branched woody stock and bright yellow flowers / North American annual plant with usually yellow or orange flowers
  2842. celandine poppy = perennial herb native to woodland of the eastern United States having yellow flowers
  2843. Celastraceae = trees and shrubs and woody vines usually having bright-colored fruits
  2844. Celastric articulatus = ornamental Asiatic vine with showy orange-yellow fruit with a scarlet aril
  2845. Celastrus = genus of woody vines and erect shrubs (type genus of the Celastraceae) that is native chiefly to Asia and Australia: includes bittersweet
  2846. Celastrus orbiculatus = ornamental Asiatic vine with showy orange-yellow fruit with a scarlet aril
  2847. Celastrus scandens = twining shrub of North America having yellow capsules enclosing scarlet seeds
  2848. celeriac = grown for its thickened edible aromatic root
  2849. celery = widely cultivated herb with aromatic leaf stalks that are eaten raw or cooked
  2850. celery cabbage = plant with an elongated head of broad stalked leaves resembling celery
  2851. celery pine = Australasian evergreen conifer having a graceful head of foliage resembling celery that is composed of phyllodes borne in the axils of scalelike leaves
  2852. celery root = grown for its thickened edible aromatic root
  2853. celery top pine = medium tall celery pine of Tasmania
  2854. celery-leaved buttercup = annual herb growing in marshy places
  2855. celery-topped pine = medium tall celery pine of Tasmania
  2856. cell wall = a rigid layer of polysaccharides enclosing the membrane of plant and prokaryotic cells
  2857. cellular slime mold = differing from true slime molds in being cellular and nucleate throughout the life cycle
  2858. Celosia = annual or perennial herbs or vines of tropical and subtropical America and Asia and Africa
  2859. Celosia argentea = weedy annual with spikes of silver-white flowers
  2860. Celosia argentea cristata = garden annual with featherlike spikes of red or yellow flowers
  2861. Celosia cristata = garden annual with featherlike spikes of red or yellow flowers
  2862. Celtis = large genus of trees and shrubs with berrylike fruit
  2863. Celtis australis = bright green deciduous shade tree of southern Europe
  2864. Celtis laevigata = deciduous shade tree with small black berries; southern United States
  2865. Celtis occidentalis = large deciduous shade tree of southern United States with small deep purple berries
  2866. celtuce = lettuce valued especially for its edible stems
  2867. cembra nut = the seed of the Swiss pine
  2868. cembra nut tree = large five-needled European pine
  2869. Cenchrus = a genus of grasses of the family Gramineae that have burs
  2870. Cenchrus ciliaris = erect tussock-forming perennial bur grass used particularly in South Africa and Australia for pasture and forage
  2871. Cenchrus tribuloides = grass of the eastern United States and tropical America having spikelets enclosed in prickly burs
  2872. Centaurea = knapweed
  2873. Centaurea americana = annual of southwestern United States cultivated for its purple flower heads and its bracts that resemble small baskets
  2874. Centaurea cineraria = a plant having leaves and stems covered with down that resembles dust
  2875. Centaurea cyanus = an annual Eurasian plant cultivated in North America having showy heads of blue or purple or pink or white flowers
  2876. Centaurea gymnocarpa = a plant having leaves and stems covered with down that resembles dust
  2877. Centaurea imperialis = perennial of mountains of Iran and Iraq
  2878. Centaurea moschata = Asian plant widely grown for its sweetly fragrant pink flowers
  2879. Centaurea nigra = a weedy perennial with tough wiry stems and purple flowers
  2880. Centaurea scabiosa = tall European perennial having purple flower heads
  2881. Centaurea solstitialis = European weed having a winged stem and hairy leaves
  2882. Centauria calcitrapa = Mediterranean annual or biennial herb having pinkish to purple flowers surrounded by spine-tipped scales
  2883. Centaurium = genus of low-growing herbs mostly of northern hemisphere having flowers with protruding spirally twisted anthers
  2884. Centaurium calycosum = erect plant with small clusters of pink trumpet-shaped flowers of southwestern United States
  2885. Centaurium minus = common European glabrous annual centaury with flowers in dense cymes
  2886. Centaurium scilloides = tufted perennial of western Europe and Azores having bright pink to white flowers
  2887. centaury = any plant of the genus Centaurea / any of various plants of the genus Centaurium
  2888. Central American strap fern = fern with shorter and narrower leaves than Florida strap fern
  2889. Centranthus = genus of southern European herbs and subshrubs
  2890. Centranthus ruber = European herb with small fragrant crimson or white spurred flowers
  2891. Centrolobium = a genus of Centrolobium
  2892. Centrolobium robustum = Brazilian tree with handsomely marked wood
  2893. Centrosema = a genus of chiefly tropical American vines of the family Leguminosae having trifoliate leaves and large flowers
  2894. Centrosema virginianum = large-flowered weakly twining or prostrate vine of New Jersey to tropical eastern North America, sometimes cultivated for its purple and white flowers
  2895. Centrospermae = used in former classification systems
  2896. Centunculus = a dicotyledonous genus of the family Primulaceae
  2897. century plant = tropical American plants with basal rosettes of fibrous sword-shaped leaves and flowers in tall spikes
  2898. Cephalanthera = small genus of temperate Old World terrestrial orchids
  2899. Cephalanthera rubra = orchid of Mediterranean and Asia having a lax spike of bright rose-pink flowers
  2900. Cephalotaceae = a family of plants of order Rosales
  2901. Cephalotaxaceae = a family of Cephalotaxaceae
  2902. Cephalotaxus = the genus of Cephalotaxus
  2903. Cephalotus = one species: Australian pitcher plant
  2904. Cephalotus follicularis = a carnivorous perennial herb having a green pitcher and hinged lid both with red edges
  2905. Cerastium = mouse-eared chickweed
  2906. Cerastium alpinum = widespread in the Arctic and on mountains in Europe
  2907. Cerastium arvense = densely tufted perennial chickweed of north temperate zone
  2908. Cerastium tomentosum = chickweed with hairy silver-grey leaves and rather large white flowers
  2909. Ceratonia = carobs
  2910. Ceratonia siliqua = evergreen Mediterranean tree with edible pods
  2911. Ceratopetalum = a dicotyledonous genus of the family Cunoniaceae
  2912. Ceratopetalum gummiferum = Australian tree or shrub with red flowers
  2913. Ceratophyllaceae = coextensive with the genus Ceratophyllum: hornworts
  2914. Ceratophyllum = constituting the family Ceratophyllaceae: hornworts
  2915. Ceratopteris = water ferns
  2916. Ceratopteris pteridioides = aquatic fern of tropical America often used in aquariums
  2917. Ceratopteris thalictroides = pantropical aquatic fern
  2918. Ceratostomataceae = fungi having carbonous perithecia with long necks
  2919. Ceratostomella = genus of fungi forming continuous hyaline spores
  2920. Ceratostomella ulmi = fungus causing Dutch elm disease
  2921. ceratozamia = a small cycad of the genus Ceratozamia having a short scaly woody trunk and fernlike foliage and woody cones
  2922. Cercidiphyllaceae = one genus
  2923. Cercidiphyllum = one species: katsura tree
  2924. Cercidiphyllum japonicum = rapidly growing deciduous tree of low mountainsides of China and Japan
  2925. Cercidium = spiny shrubs or small trees sometimes placed in genus Parkinsonia: paloverde
  2926. Cercidium floridum = densely branched spiny tree of southwestern United States having showy yellow flowers and blue-green bark
  2927. Cercis = deciduous shrubs and trees of eastern Asia, southern Europe and the United States
  2928. Cercis canadensis = small shrubby tree of eastern North America similar to the Judas tree having usually pink flowers
  2929. Cercis occidentalis = shrub of western United States having pink or crimson flowers
  2930. Cercospora = form genus of imperfect fungi that are leaf parasites with long slender spores
  2931. Cercospora kopkei = fungus causing yellow spot
  2932. Cercosporella = form genus of imperfect fungi lacking pigment in the spores and conidiophores
  2933. cereal = grass whose starchy grains are used as food: wheat; rice; rye; oats; maize; buckwheat
  2934. cereal grass = grass whose starchy grains are used as food: wheat; rice; rye; oats; maize; buckwheat
  2935. cereal oat = widely cultivated in temperate regions for its edible grains
  2936. Cereus = genus of much-branched treelike or shrubby cacti with pronounced ribs and rounded needlelike spines and nocturnal flowers usually white
  2937. ceriman = tropical American vine having roots that hang like cords and cylindrical fruit with a pineapple and banana flavor
  2938. Ceroxylon = wax palms
  2939. Ceroxylon alpinum = palm of the Andes yielding a resinous wax which is mixed with tallow to make candles
  2940. Ceroxylon andicola = palm of the Andes yielding a resinous wax which is mixed with tallow to make candles
  2941. Cestrum = genus of fragrant tropical American shrubs
  2942. Cestrum diurnum = West Indian evergreen shrub having clusters of funnel-shaped white flowers that are fragrant by day
  2943. Cestrum nocturnum = West Indian evergreen shrub having clusters of funnel-shaped yellow-white flowers that are fragrant by night
  2944. Ceterach = small genus of Old World ferns
  2945. Ceterach officinarum = small European fern with chaffy leathery fronds
  2946. Cetraria = foliose lichens chiefly of northern latitudes
  2947. Cetraria islandica = lichen with branched flattened partly erect thallus that grows in mountainous and Arctic regions; used as a medicine or food for humans and livestock
  2948. Ceylon bowstring hemp = plant having thick fibrous leaves transversely banded in light and dark green
  2949. Ceylon cinnamon = tropical Asian tree with aromatic yellowish-brown bark
  2950. Ceylon cinnamon tree = tropical Asian tree with aromatic yellowish-brown bark
  2951. Ceylon gooseberry = a small shrubby spiny tree cultivated for its maroon-purple fruit with sweet purple pulp tasting like gooseberries
  2952. chadlock = weedy Eurasian plant often a pest in grain fields
  2953. chaenactis = any of several United States plants having long stalks of funnel-shaped white or yellow flowers
  2954. Chaenomeles = flowering quince
  2955. Chaenomeles japonica = deciduous thorny shrub native to Japan having red blossoms
  2956. Chaenomeles speciosa = deciduous thorny shrub native to China having red or white blossoms
  2957. chafeweed = weedy perennial of north temperate regions having woolly foliage and dirty white flowers in a leafy spike
  2958. chaffweed = weedy plant having short dry chafflike leaves
  2959. chain fern = a fern of the genus Woodwardia having the sori in chainlike rows
  2960. chalaza = basal part of a plant ovule opposite the micropyle
  2961. chalice vine = Mexican evergreen climbing plant having large solitary funnel-shaped fragrant yellow flowers with purple-brown ridges in the throat
  2962. Chamaecrista = genus of tropical herbs or subshrubs having sensitive leaves and suddenly dehiscing pods
  2963. Chamaecrista fasciculata = tropical American plant having leaflets somewhat sensitive to the touch
  2964. Chamaecyparis = a genus of Chamaecyparis
  2965. Chamaecyparis lawsoniana = large timber tree of western North America with trunk diameter to 12 feet and height to 200 feet
  2966. Chamaecyparis nootkatensis = tall evergreen of the Pacific coast of North America often cultivated for ornament
  2967. Chamaecyparis thyoides = slow-growing medium-sized cedar of east coast of the United States
  2968. Chamaecytisus = small late-flowering trees or subshrubs having yellow to red flowers and leathery or woody pods
  2969. Chamaecytisus palmensis = shrub of Canary Islands having bristle-tipped oblanceolate leaves
  2970. Chamaedaphne = one species: leatherleaf
  2971. Chamaedaphne calyculata = north temperate bog shrub with evergreen leathery leaves and small white cylindrical flowers
  2972. Chamaemelum = small genus of plants sometimes included in genus Anthemis: chamomile
  2973. Chamaemelum nobilis = Eurasian plant with apple-scented foliage and white-rayed flowers and feathery leaves used medicinally
  2974. chamois cress = small tufted perennial herb of mountains of central and southern Europe having very small flowers of usually leafless stems
  2975. chamomile = Eurasian plant with apple-scented foliage and white-rayed flowers and feathery leaves used medicinally
  2976. chanal = thorny shrub or small tree common in central Argentina having small orange or yellow flowers followed by edible berries
  2977. chanar = thorny shrub or small tree common in central Argentina having small orange or yellow flowers followed by edible berries
  2978. chantarelle = widely distributed edible mushroom rich yellow in color with a smooth cap and a pleasant apricot aroma
  2979. chanterelle = widely distributed edible mushroom rich yellow in color with a smooth cap and a pleasant apricot aroma
  2980. chaparral broom = widely spreading evergreen shrub of southwestern United States with flower heads in a leafy panicle
  2981. chaparral mallow = shrub of coastal ranges of California and Baja California having hairy branches and spikes of numerous mauve flowers
  2982. chaparral pea = spiny evergreen xerophytic shrub having showy rose and purple flowers and forming dense thickets
  2983. chaparral sage = silvery-leaved California herb with purple flowers
  2984. chard = beet lacking swollen root
  2985. chard plant = beet lacking swollen root
  2986. Chardonnay = white wine grape
  2987. chardonnay grape = white wine grape
  2988. charity = pinnate-leaved European perennial having bright blue or white flowers
  2989. charlock = weedy Eurasian plant often a pest in grain fields
  2990. charred pancake cup = a common name for a variety of Sarcosomataceae
  2991. chatterbox = orchid growing along streams or ponds of western North America having leafy stems and 1 greenish-brown and pinkish flower in the axil of each upper leaf
  2992. chaulmoogra = East Indian tree with oily seeds yield chaulmoogra oil used to treat leprosy
  2993. chaulmoogra tree = East Indian tree with oily seeds yield chaulmoogra oil used to treat leprosy
  2994. chaulmugra = East Indian tree with oily seeds yield chaulmoogra oil used to treat leprosy
  2995. cheat = weedy annual native to Europe but widely distributed as a weed especially in wheat / weedy annual grass often occurs in grainfields and other cultivated land
  2996. cheatgrass = annual or winter annual grass with softly hairy leaves of the Mediterranean
  2997. checkerberry = creeping shrub of eastern North America having white bell-shaped flowers followed by spicy red berrylike fruit and shiny aromatic leaves that yield wintergreen oil
  2998. checkerbloom = perennial purple-flowered wild mallow of western North America that is also cultivated
  2999. checkered daffodil = Eurasian checkered lily with pendant flowers usually veined and checkered with purple or maroon on a pale ground and shaped like the bells carried by lepers in medieval times
  3000. checkered lily = any liliaceous plant of the genus Fritillaria having nodding variously colored flowers
  3001. cheddar pink = mat-forming perennial of central Europe with large fragrant pink or red flowers
  3002. cheese = erect or decumbent Old World perennial with axillary clusters of rosy-purple flowers
  3003. cheeseflower = erect or decumbent Old World perennial with axillary clusters of rosy-purple flowers
  3004. Cheilanthes = small evergreen ferns: lipferns
  3005. Cheilanthes alabamensis = southeastern United States to northern Mexico and Jamaica
  3006. Cheilanthes eatonii = lip fern of Texas to Oklahoma and Colorado and Arizona and Mexico having tall erect tufted fronds
  3007. Cheilanthes gracillima = small tufted fern of northwestern America
  3008. Cheilanthes lanosa = small North American evergreen fern whose stipes and lower frond surfaces are densely wooly
  3009. Cheiranthus = Old World perennial plants grown for their showy flowers
  3010. Cheiranthus allionii = showy erect biennial or short-lived perennial cultivated for its terminal racemes of orange-yellow flowers
  3011. Cheiranthus asperus = biennial or short-lived perennial prairie rocket having orange-yellow flowers; western North America to Minnesota and Kansas
  3012. Cheiranthus cheiri = perennial of southern Europe having clusters of fragrant flowers of all colors especially yellow and orange; often naturalized on old walls or cliffs
  3013. Chelidonium = one species: greater celandine
  3014. Chelidonium majus = perennial herb with branched woody stock and bright yellow flowers
  3015. Chelone = herbaceous perennials: shellflower
  3016. Chelone glabra = showy perennial of marshlands of eastern and central North America having waxy lanceolate leaves and flower with lower part creamy white and upper parts pale pink to deep purple
  3017. Chenin blanc = white grape grown especially in California and the lower Loire valley of France
  3018. Chenopodiaceae = includes spinach and beets
  3019. Chenopodiales = corresponds approximately to the older group Centrospermae
  3020. Chenopodium = goosefoot
  3021. Chenopodium album = common weedy European plant introduced into North America
  3022. Chenopodium ambrosioides = rank-smelling tropical American pigweed
  3023. Chenopodium bonus-henricus = European plant naturalized in North America
  3024. Chenopodium botrys = Eurasian aromatic oak-leaved goosefoot with many yellow-green flowers
  3025. Chenopodium capitatum = European annual with clusters of greenish flowers followed by red pulpy berrylike fruit
  3026. Chenopodium glaucum = annual European plant with spikes of greenish flowers and leaves that are white and hairy on the underside
  3027. Chenopodium hybridum = herb considered fatal to swine
  3028. Chenopodium murale = European annual with coarsely dentate leaves
  3029. Chenopodium rubrum = common Eurasian weed
  3030. Chenopodium vulvaria = European goosefoot with strong-scented foliage
  3031. cherimoya = small tropical American tree bearing round or oblong fruit
  3032. cherimoya tree = small tropical American tree bearing round or oblong fruit
  3033. Cherokee rose = Chinese climbing rose with fragrant white blossoms
  3034. cherry = any of numerous trees and shrubs producing a small fleshy round fruit with a single hard stone
  3035. cherry apple = Asian wild crab apple cultivated in many varieties for it small acid usually red fruit used for preserving
  3036. cherry birch = common birch of the eastern United States having spicy brown bark yielding a volatile oil and hard dark wood used for furniture
  3037. cherry crab = Asian wild crab apple cultivated in many varieties for it small acid usually red fruit used for preserving
  3038. cherry laurel = small flowering evergreen tree of southern United States / frequently cultivated Eurasian evergreen shrub or small tree having showy clusters of white flowers and glossy foliage and yielding oil similar to bitter almond oil
  3039. cherry pepper = plant bearing small rounded usually pungent fruits
  3040. cherry plum = small Asiatic tree bearing edible red or yellow fruit
  3041. cherry stone = the stone seed of a cherry
  3042. cherry tomato = plant bearing small red to yellow fruit
  3043. cherry tree = any of numerous trees and shrubs producing a small fleshy round fruit with a single hard stone
  3044. chervil = aromatic annual Old World herb cultivated for its finely divided and often curly leaves for use especially in soups and salads
  3045. chess = weedy annual native to Europe but widely distributed as a weed especially in wheat
  3046. chestnut = any of several attractive deciduous trees yellow-brown in autumn
  3047. chestnut oak = an oak having leaves resembling those of chestnut trees
  3048. chestnut tree = any of several attractive deciduous trees yellow-brown in autumn
  3049. chichipe = tall treelike Mexican cactus with edible red fruit
  3050. chickasaw plum = small native American shrubby tree bearing small edible yellow to reddish fruit
  3051. chickpea = Asiatic herb cultivated for its short pods with one or two edible seeds / the seed of the chickpea plant
  3052. chickpea plant = Asiatic herb cultivated for its short pods with one or two edible seeds
  3053. chickweed = any of various plants related to the common chickweed / any of various plants of the genus Stellaria
  3054. chickweed phlox = low mat-forming herb of rocky places in United States
  3055. chicory = perennial Old World herb having rayed flower heads with blue florets cultivated for its root and its heads of crisp edible leaves used in salads / the dried root of the chicory plant: used as a coffee substitute
  3056. chicory plant = perennial Old World herb having rayed flower heads with blue florets cultivated for its root and its heads of crisp edible leaves used in salads
  3057. chicory root = the dried root of the chicory plant: used as a coffee substitute
  3058. chicot = handsome tree of central and eastern North America having large bipinnate leaves and green-white flowers followed by large woody brown pods whose seeds are used as a coffee substitute
  3059. chigger flower = erect perennial of eastern and southern United States having showy orange flowers
  3060. chiggerflower = erect perennial of eastern and southern United States having showy orange flowers
  3061. Chile hazel = Chilean shrub bearing coral-red fruit with an edible seed resembling a hazelnut
  3062. Chile nut = Chilean shrub bearing coral-red fruit with an edible seed resembling a hazelnut
  3063. chile pine = large Chilean evergreen conifer having intertwined branches and bearing edible nuts
  3064. Chile tarweed = South American herb with sticky glandular foliage
  3065. Chilean cedar = a small South American evergreen having coppery bark and pretty foliage
  3066. Chilean firebush = grown for outstanding display of brilliant usually scarlet-crimson flowers
  3067. Chilean flameflower = grown for outstanding display of brilliant usually scarlet-crimson flowers
  3068. Chilean hazelnut = Chilean shrub bearing coral-red fruit with an edible seed resembling a hazelnut
  3069. Chilean jasmine = woody vine of Argentina grown as an ornamental for its glossy leaves and racemes of large fragrant funnel-shaped creamy-white flowers
  3070. Chilean nut = Chilean shrub bearing coral-red fruit with an edible seed resembling a hazelnut
  3071. Chilean rimu = about the hardiest Podocarpaceae species; prostrate spreading shrub similar to mountain rimu
  3072. Chilean strawberry = wild strawberry of western United States and South America
  3073. chili pepper = plant bearing very hot and finely tapering long peppers
  3074. chilli pepper = plant bearing very hot and finely tapering long peppers
  3075. Chilopsis = one species: desert willow
  3076. Chilopsis linearis = evergreen shrubby tree resembling a willow of dry regions of southwestern North America having showy purplish flowers and long seed pods
  3077. Chimaphila = small genus of evergreen herbs with long creeping rootstocks and shining leaves; North America; Europe
  3078. Chimaphila corymbosa = Eurasian herb with white or pinkish flowers in a terminal corymb
  3079. Chimaphila umbellata = Eurasian herb with white or pinkish flowers in a terminal corymb
  3080. chimney bellflower = bellflower of southeastern Europe
  3081. chimney plant = bellflower of southeastern Europe
  3082. Chimonanthus = small genus of Asian deciduous or evergreen shrubs having fragrant flowers: winter sweet
  3083. Chimonanthus praecox = deciduous Japanese shrub cultivated for its fragrant yellow flowers
  3084. China aster = valued for their beautiful flowers in a wide range of clear bright colors
  3085. China fleece vine = twining perennial vine having racemes of fragrant greenish flowers
  3086. China grass = tall perennial herb of tropical Asia with dark green leaves
  3087. China jute = tall annual herb or subshrub of tropical Asia having velvety leaves and yellow flowers and yielding a strong fiber
  3088. china pink = Chinese pink with deeply toothed rose-lilac flowers with a purplish eye
  3089. China rose = large showy Asiatic shrub or small tree having large single or double red to deep-red flowers / shrubby Chinese rose
  3090. China tree = tree of northern India and China having purple blossoms and small inedible yellow fruits
  3091. chinaberry = tree of northern India and China having purple blossoms and small inedible yellow fruits
  3092. chinaberry tree = tree of northern India and China having purple blossoms and small inedible yellow fruits
  3093. chincherinchee = South African perennial with long-lasting spikes of white blossoms that are shipped in to Europe and America for use as winter cut flowers
  3094. chinchona = any of several trees of the genus Cinchona
  3095. Chinese angelica = similar to American angelica tree but less prickly
  3096. Chinese angelica tree = similar to American angelica tree but less prickly
  3097. Chinese anise = small tree of China and Vietnam bearing anise-scented star-shaped fruit used in food and medicinally as a carminative
  3098. Chinese black mushroom = edible east Asian mushroom having a golden or dark brown to blackish cap and an inedible stipe
  3099. Chinese cabbage = plant with an elongated head of broad stalked leaves resembling celery
  3100. Chinese chestnut = a small tree with small sweet nuts
  3101. Chinese chive = a plant of eastern Asia
  3102. Chinese cinnamon = aromatic bark of the cassia-bark tree
  3103. Chinese cork oak = medium to large deciduous tree of China, Japan, and Korea having thick corky bark
  3104. Chinese elm = small fast-growing tree native to Asia
  3105. Chinese evergreen = erect or partially climbing herb having large green or variegated leaves
  3106. Chinese forget-me-not = biennial east Asian herb grown for its usually bright blue flowers
  3107. Chinese gooseberry = climbing vine native to China
  3108. Chinese hibiscus = large showy Asiatic shrub or small tree having large single or double red to deep-red flowers
  3109. Chinese holly = dense rounded evergreen shrub of China having spiny leaves
  3110. Chinese lacquer tree = small Asiatic tree yielding a toxic exudate from which lacquer is obtained
  3111. Chinese lantern plant = Old World perennial cultivated for its ornamental inflated papery orange-red calyx
  3112. Chinese magnolia = large deciduous shrub or small tree having large open rosy to purplish flowers; native to Asia
  3113. Chinese mushroom = small tropical and subtropical edible mushroom having a white cap and long stem
  3114. chinese mustard = Asiatic mustard used as a potherb
  3115. Chinese parasol = deciduous tree widely grown in southern United States as an ornamental for its handsome maplelike foliage and long racemes of yellow-green flowers followed by curious leaflike pods
  3116. Chinese parasol tree = deciduous tree widely grown in southern United States as an ornamental for its handsome maplelike foliage and long racemes of yellow-green flowers followed by curious leaflike pods
  3117. Chinese parsley = Old World herb with aromatic leaves and seed resembling parsley
  3118. Chinese pea tree = shrub with dark-green glossy foliage and solitary pale yellow flowers
  3119. Chinese primrose = cultivated Asiatic primrose
  3120. Chinese privet = erect evergreen treelike shrub of China and Korea and Japan having acuminate leaves and flowers in long erect panicles
  3121. Chinese rhubarb = long used for laxative properties
  3122. Chinese scholar tree = handsome roundheaded deciduous tree having compound dark green leaves and profuse panicles of fragrant creamy-white flowers
  3123. Chinese scholartree = handsome roundheaded deciduous tree having compound dark green leaves and profuse panicles of fragrant creamy-white flowers
  3124. Chinese silk plant = tall perennial herb of tropical Asia with dark green leaves
  3125. Chinese water chestnut = Chinese sedge yielding edible bulb-shaped tubers
  3126. Chinese white cabbage = Asiatic plant grown for its cluster of edible white stalks with dark green leaves
  3127. Chinese wistaria = having deep purple flowers
  3128. Chinese yam = hardy Chinese vine naturalized in United States and cultivated as an ornamental climber for its glossy heart-shaped cinnamon-scented leaves and in the tropics for its edible tubers
  3129. chinkapin oak = medium-sized deciduous tree of the eastern United States that yields a strong durable wood
  3130. chinquapin = shrubby chestnut tree of southeastern United States having small edible nuts / shrubby tree closely related to the Allegheny chinkapin but with larger leaves
  3131. chinquapin oak = medium-sized deciduous tree of the eastern United States that yields a strong durable wood
  3132. Chiococca = shrubs of tropical and subtropical New World
  3133. Chiococca alba = evergreen climbing shrub of southern Florida and West Indies grown for its racemes of fragrant white to creamy flowers followed by globose white succulent berries
  3134. Chionanthus = deciduous trees or shrubs: fringe tree
  3135. Chionanthus virginicus = small bushy tree of southeastern United States having profuse clusters of white flowers
  3136. Chionochloa conspicua = used by Maoris for thatching
  3137. chittam bark = dried bark of the cascara buckthorn used as a laxative
  3138. chittamwood = shrubby tree of southern United States having large plumes of feathery flowers resembling puffs of smoke / deciduous tree of southeastern United States and Mexico / shrubby tree of the Pacific coast of the United States
  3139. chittem bark = dried bark of the cascara buckthorn used as a laxative
  3140. chittimwood = deciduous tree of southeastern United States and Mexico / shrubby tree of the Pacific coast of the United States
  3141. chive = perennial having hollow cylindrical leaves used for seasoning
  3142. chives = perennial having hollow cylindrical leaves used for seasoning
  3143. chlamydospore = thick-walled asexual resting spore of certain fungi and algae
  3144. chlamys = collective term for the outer parts of a flower consisting of the calyx and corolla and enclosing the stamens and pistils
  3145. Chloranthaceae = small family of tropical herbs and shrubs and trees
  3146. Chloranthus = type genus of the Chloranthaceae
  3147. chlorenchyma = parenchyma whose cells contain chloroplasts
  3148. Chloris = tufted or perennial or annual grasses having runners: finger grass
  3149. Chloris gayana = perennial grass of South Africa introduced into United States
  3150. Chloris truncata = perennial Australian grass having numerous long spikes arranged like the vanes of a windmill
  3151. Chlorophyllum molybdites = a poisonous agaric with a fibrillose cap and brown scales on a white ground color; cap can reach a diameter of 30 cm
  3152. chloroplast = plastid containing chlorophyll and other pigments
  3153. Chloroxylon = deciduous trees of India and Sri Lanka
  3154. Chloroxylon swietenia = East Indian tree with valuable hard lustrous yellowish wood
  3155. chocolate root = erect perennial of north temperate zone having pinnate leaves and a few nodding flowers with a brown-purple calyx and orange and pink petals
  3156. chocolate tree = tropical American tree producing cacao beans
  3157. chokecherry = a common wild cherry of eastern North America having small bitter black berries favored by birds / the fruit of the chokecherry tree
  3158. chokecherry tree = a common wild cherry of eastern North America having small bitter black berries favored by birds
  3159. cholla = arborescent cacti having very spiny cylindrical stem segments
  3160. chop-suey greens = grown for its succulent edible leaves used in Asian cooking
  3161. Chordospartium = 2 species of small New Zealand trees: weeping tree broom
  3162. Chorizema = genus of Australian twining vines and small shrubs: flame peas
  3163. Christ plant = somewhat climbing bushy spurge of Madagascar having long woody spiny stems with few leaves and flowers with scarlet bracts
  3164. Christ thorn = somewhat climbing bushy spurge of Madagascar having long woody spiny stems with few leaves and flowers with scarlet bracts
  3165. Christ's-thorn = spiny tree having dark red edible fruits / thorny Eurasian shrub with dry woody winged fruit
  3166. christella = any of several tropical ferns of the genus Christella having thin brittle fronds
  3167. Christmas begonia = hybrid winter-blooming begonia grown for its many large pink flowers
  3168. Christmas bells = any of several plants of the genus Blandfordia having large orange or crimson flowers
  3169. Christmas berry = ornamental evergreen treelike shrub of the Pacific coast of the United States having large white flowers and red berrylike fruits
  3170. Christmas bush = Australian tree or shrub with red flowers
  3171. Christmas cactus = epiphytic cactus of Brazilian ancestry widely cultivated as a houseplant having jointed flat segments and usually rose-purple flowers that bloom in winter
  3172. Christmas fern = North American evergreen fern having pinnate leaves and dense clusters of lance-shaped fronds
  3173. Christmas flower = tropical American plant having poisonous milk and showy tapering usually scarlet petallike leaves surrounding small yellow flowers
  3174. Christmas green = any of several club mosses having long creeping stems and erect branches
  3175. Christmas holly = an evergreen tree
  3176. Christmas rose = European evergreen plant with white or purplish rose-like winter-blooming flowers
  3177. Christmas star = tropical American plant having poisonous milk and showy tapering usually scarlet petallike leaves surrounding small yellow flowers
  3178. Christmas tree = medium to tall fir of western North America having a conic crown and branches in tiers; leaves smell of orange when crushed / tall timber tree of central and southern Europe having a regular crown and grey bark / a terrestrial evergreen shrub or small tree of western Australia having brilliant yellow-orange flowers; parasitic on roots of grasses / Australian tree or shrub with red flowers
  3179. Christmasberry = ornamental evergreen treelike shrub of the Pacific coast of the United States having large white flowers and red berrylike fruits
  3180. chromoplast = plastid containing pigments other than chlorophyll usually yellow or orange carotenoids
  3181. chrysanthemum = any of numerous perennial Old World herbs having showy brightly colored flower heads of the genera Chrysanthemum, Argyranthemum, Dendranthema, Tanacetum
  3182. Chrysanthemum balsamita = tansy-scented Eurasian perennial herb with buttonlike yellow flowers; used as potherb or salad green and sometimes for potpourri or tea or flavoring
  3183. Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium = white-flowered pyrethrum of Balkan area whose pinnate leaves are white and silky-hairy below; source of an insecticide
  3184. Chrysanthemum coccineum = spring-flowering garden perennial of Asiatic origin having finely divided aromatic leaves and white to pink-purple flowers; source of an insecticide
  3185. Chrysanthemum coronarium = shrubby annual of the Mediterranean region with yellowish-white flowers
  3186. Chrysanthemum coronarium spatiosum = grown for its succulent edible leaves used in Asian cooking
  3187. Chrysanthemum frutescens = perennial subshrub of the Canary Islands having usually pale yellow daisylike flowers
  3188. Chrysanthemum lacustre = perennial of Portugal similar to the oxeye daisy
  3189. Chrysanthemum leucanthemum = tall leafy-stemmed Eurasian perennial with white flowers; widely naturalized
  3190. Chrysanthemum maximum = similar to oxeye daisy
  3191. Chrysanthemum maximum maximum = hybrid garden flower derived from Chrysanthemum maximum and Chrysanthemum lacustre having large white flower heads resembling oxeye daisies
  3192. Chrysanthemum morifolium = of China
  3193. Chrysanthemum parthenium = bushy aromatic European perennial herb having clusters of buttonlike white-rayed flower heads; valued traditionally for medicinal uses
  3194. Chrysanthemum ptarmiciflorum = shrubby perennial of the Canary Islands having white flowers and leaves and hairy stems covered with dustlike down
  3195. Chrysanthemum segetum = European herb with bright yellow flowers
  3196. Chrysobalanus = coco plums
  3197. Chrysobalanus icaco = small tropical American tree bearing edible plumlike fruit
  3198. Chrysolepis = two species: golden chinkapins
  3199. Chrysolepis chrysophylla = small ornamental evergreen tree of Pacific Coast whose glossy yellow-green leaves are yellow beneath
  3200. Chrysolepis sempervirens = evergreen shrub similar to golden chinkapin
  3201. Chrysophyllum = tropical American evergreen trees or shrubs
  3202. Chrysophyllum cainito = evergreen tree of West Indies and Central America having edible purple fruit star-shaped in cross section and dark green leaves with golden silky undersides
  3203. Chrysophyllum oliviforme = tropical American timber tree with dark hard heavy wood and small plumlike purple fruit
  3204. Chrysopsis = golden aster
  3205. Chrysopsis mariana = perennial golden aster of southeastern United States
  3206. Chrysopsis villosa = hairy perennial with yellow flower heads in branched clusters; found almost everywhere in dry places from Canada to west central and western United States
  3207. Chrysosplenium = genus of widely distributed semiaquatic herbs with minute greenish-yellow apetalous flowers
  3208. Chrysosplenium americanum = aquatic herb with yellowish flowers
  3209. Chrysothamnus = genus of low branching shrubs of western North America
  3210. Chrysothamnus nauseosus = pleasantly aromatic shrub having erect slender flexible hairy branches and dense clusters of small yellow flowers covering vast areas of western alkali plains and affording a retreat for jackrabbits
  3211. chufa = European sedge having small edible nutlike tubers
  3212. Chytridiaceae = a family of aquatic fungi of order Chytridiales
  3213. Chytridiales = simple aquatic fungi mostly saprophytic but some parasitic on higher plants or animals or fresh water fungi
  3214. Chytridiomycetes = a class of mostly aquatic fungi
  3215. Cibotium = in some classification systems placed in family Cyatheaceae: ornamental tree ferns with coarse gracefully drooping fronds
  3216. Cibotium barometz = Asiatic tree fern having dense matted hairs sometimes used as a styptic
  3217. Cicer = chickpea plant
  3218. Cicer arietinum = Asiatic herb cultivated for its short pods with one or two edible seeds
  3219. Cichorium = chicory
  3220. Cichorium endivia = widely cultivated herb with leaves valued as salad green
  3221. Cichorium intybus = perennial Old World herb having rayed flower heads with blue florets cultivated for its root and its heads of crisp edible leaves used in salads
  3222. Cicuta = small genus of perennial herbs having deadly poisonous tuberous roots: water hemlock
  3223. Cicuta verosa = tall erect highly poisonous Eurasiatic perennial herb locally abundant in marshy areas
  3224. cider gum = small to medium-sized tree of Tasmania
  3225. cigar-box cedar = fragrant wood much used for cigar boxes
  3226. cilantro = Old World herb with aromatic leaves and seed resembling parsley
  3227. Cimicifuga = small genus of perennial herbs of north temperate regions: bugbane
  3228. Cimicifuga americana = bugbane of the eastern United States having erect racemes of white flowers
  3229. Cimicifuga foetida = bugbane of Siberia and eastern Asia having ill-smelling green-white flowers
  3230. Cimicifuga racemosa = North American bugbane found from Maine and Ontario to Wisconsin and south to Georgia
  3231. cinchona = any of several trees of the genus Cinchona / medicinal bark of cinchona trees
  3232. cinchona bark = medicinal bark of cinchona trees
  3233. Cinchona calisaya = Peruvian shrub or small tree having large glossy leaves and cymes of fragrant yellow to green or red flowers
  3234. Cinchona cordifolia = Colombian tree
  3235. Cinchona lancifolia = Colombian tree
  3236. Cinchona ledgeriana = Peruvian shrub or small tree having large glossy leaves and cymes of fragrant yellow to green or red flowers
  3237. Cinchona officinalis = Peruvian shrub or small tree having large glossy leaves and cymes of fragrant yellow to green or red flowers
  3238. Cinchona pubescens = small tree of Ecuador and Peru having very large glossy leaves and large panicles of fragrant pink flowers
  3239. cinchona tree = small tree of Ecuador and Peru having very large glossy leaves and large panicles of fragrant pink flowers
  3240. cineraria = herb of Canary Islands widely cultivated for its blue or purple or red or variegated daisylike flowers
  3241. Cineraria maritima = stiff much-branched perennial of the Mediterranean region having very white woolly stems and leaves
  3242. cinnabar chanterelle = mushroom with a distinctive pink to vermillion fruiting body
  3243. Cinnamomum = Asiatic and Australian aromatic trees and shrubs
  3244. Cinnamomum camphora = large evergreen tree of warm regions whose aromatic wood yields camphor
  3245. Cinnamomum cassia = Chinese tree with aromatic bark
  3246. Cinnamomum loureirii = tropical southeast Asian tree with aromatic bark
  3247. Cinnamomum zeylanicum = tropical Asian tree with aromatic yellowish-brown bark
  3248. cinnamon = tropical Asian tree with aromatic yellowish-brown bark
  3249. cinnamon bark = aromatic bark used as a spice / aromatic bark of Saigon cinnamon used medicinally as a carminative
  3250. cinnamon fern = New World fern having woolly cinnamon-colored spore-bearing fronds in early spring later surrounded by green fronds
  3251. cinnamon vine = hardy Chinese vine naturalized in United States and cultivated as an ornamental climber for its glossy heart-shaped cinnamon-scented leaves and in the tropics for its edible tubers
  3252. cinquefoil = any of a numerous plants grown for their five-petaled flowers; abundant in temperate regions
  3253. Circaea = enchanter's nightshade
  3254. Circaea alpina = an Alpine variety of enchanter's nightshade
  3255. Circaea lutetiana = tall evening primrose with inconspicuous flowers
  3256. Circassian walnut = Eurasian walnut valued for its large edible nut and its hard richly figured wood
  3257. Circis siliquastrum = small tree of the eastern Mediterranean having abundant purplish-red flowers growing on old wood directly from stems and appearing before the leaves: widely cultivated in mild regions
  3258. cirio = candlewood of Mexico and southwestern California having tall columnar stems and bearing honey-scented creamy yellow flowers
  3259. cirrhus = usually coiled
  3260. cirrus = usually coiled
  3261. Cirsium = plume thistles
  3262. Cirsium arvense = European thistle naturalized in United States and Canada where it is a pernicious weed
  3263. Cirsium discolor = stout North American thistle with purplish-pink flower heads
  3264. Cirsium eriophorum = woolly thistle of western and central Europe and Balkan Peninsula
  3265. Cirsium flodmanii = thistle of western North America having white woolly leaves
  3266. Cirsium helenioides = perennial stoloniferous thistle of northern Europe with lanceolate basal leaves and usually solitary heads of reddish-purple flowers
  3267. Cirsium heterophylum = perennial stoloniferous thistle of northern Europe with lanceolate basal leaves and usually solitary heads of reddish-purple flowers
  3268. Cirsium lanceolatum = European thistle with rather large heads and prickly leaves
  3269. Cirsium rivulare = of central and southwestern Europe
  3270. Cirsium vulgare = European thistle with rather large heads and prickly leaves
  3271. Cistaceae = shrubs or woody herbs of temperate regions especially Mediterranean
  3272. Cistus = small to medium-sized evergreen shrubs of southern Europe and North Africa
  3273. Cistus albidus = compact white pubescent shrub of southwestern Europe having pink flowers
  3274. Cistus ladanifer = shrub having white flowers and viscid stems and leaves yielding a fragrant oleoresin used in perfumes especially as a fixative
  3275. Cistus ladanum = shrub having white flowers and viscid stems and leaves yielding a fragrant oleoresin used in perfumes especially as a fixative
  3276. citrange = more aromatic and acidic than oranges
  3277. citrange tree = more aromatic and acidic than oranges
  3278. citron = thorny evergreen small tree or shrub of India widely cultivated for its large lemonlike fruits that have thick warty rind
  3279. citron tree = thorny evergreen small tree or shrub of India widely cultivated for its large lemonlike fruits that have thick warty rind
  3280. Citroncirus = a cross between Citrus sinensis and Poncirus trifoliata
  3281. Citroncirus webberi = more aromatic and acidic than oranges
  3282. citronwood = durable fragrant wood
  3283. Citrullus = a dicot genus of the family Cucurbitaceae including watermelons
  3284. Citrullus vulgaris = an African melon
  3285. citrus = any of numerous tropical usually thorny evergreen trees of the genus Citrus having leathery evergreen leaves and widely cultivated for their juicy edible fruits having leathery aromatic rinds
  3286. Citrus aurantifolia = any of various related trees bearing limes
  3287. Citrus aurantium = any of various common orange trees yielding sour or bitter fruit
  3288. Citrus bergamia = small tree with pear-shaped fruit whose oil is used in perfumery
  3289. Citrus decumana = southeastern Asian tree producing large fruits resembling grapefruits
  3290. Citrus grandis = southeastern Asian tree producing large fruits resembling grapefruits
  3291. Citrus limetta = lemon tree having fruit with a somewhat insipid sweetish pulp
  3292. Citrus limon = a small evergreen tree that originated in Asia but is widely cultivated for its fruit
  3293. Citrus limonia = hybrid between mandarin orange and lemon having very acid fruit with orange peel
  3294. Citrus maxima = southeastern Asian tree producing large fruits resembling grapefruits
  3295. Citrus medica = thorny evergreen small tree or shrub of India widely cultivated for its large lemonlike fruits that have thick warty rind
  3296. Citrus nobilis = large citrus tree having large sweet deep orange fruit that is easily peeled
  3297. Citrus paradisi = citrus tree bearing large round edible fruit having a thick yellow rind and juicy somewhat acid pulp
  3298. Citrus reticulata = shrub or small tree having flattened globose fruit with very sweet aromatic pulp and thin yellow-orange to flame-orange rind that is loose and easily removed
  3299. Citrus sinensis = probably native to southern China
  3300. Citrus tangelo = hybrid between grapefruit and mandarin orange
  3301. citrus tree = any of numerous tropical usually thorny evergreen trees of the genus Citrus having leathery evergreen leaves and widely cultivated for their juicy edible fruits having leathery aromatic rinds
  3302. cive = perennial having hollow cylindrical leaves used for seasoning
  3303. cladode = a flattened stem resembling and functioning as a leaf
  3304. Cladonia = type genus of Cladoniaceae
  3305. Cladonia rangiferina = an erect greyish branching lichen of Arctic and even some north temperate regions constituting the chief food for reindeer and caribou and sometimes being eaten by humans
  3306. Cladoniaceae = a family of lichens
  3307. cladophyll = a flattened stem resembling and functioning as a leaf
  3308. Cladrastis = yellowwoods
  3309. Cladrastis kentukea = small handsome roundheaded deciduous tree having showy white flowers in terminal clusters and heavy hardwood yielding yellow dye
  3310. Cladrastis lutea = small handsome roundheaded deciduous tree having showy white flowers in terminal clusters and heavy hardwood yielding yellow dye
  3311. clammy chickweed = any of various plants related to the common chickweed
  3312. clammy locust = small rough-barked locust of southeastern United States having racemes of pink flowers and glutinous branches and seeds
  3313. clammyweed = strong-scented herb common in southern United States covered with intermixed gland and hairs
  3314. clary = aromatic herb of southern Europe
  3315. clary sage = stout Mediterranean sage with white or pink or violet flowers
  3316. class Acrasiomycetes = cellular slime molds
  3317. class Angiospermae = comprising flowering plants that produce seeds enclosed in an ovary
  3318. class Anthoceropsida = hornworts: in some classification systems included in the class Hepaticopsida
  3319. class Ascomycetes = large class of higher fungi coextensive with division Ascomycota: sac fungi
  3320. class Basidiomycetes = large class of higher fungi coextensive with subdivision Basidiomycota
  3321. class Bryopsida = true mosses: bryophytes having leafy rather than thalloid gametophytes: comprises orders Andreaeales; Bryales; Dicranales; Eubryales
  3322. class Chytridiomycetes = a class of mostly aquatic fungi
  3323. class Coniferopsida = cone-bearing gymnosperms dating from the Carboniferous period; most are substantial trees
  3324. class Cycadopsida = palmlike gymnosperms: includes the surviving order Cycadales and several extinct orders; possibly not a natural group
  3325. class Deuteromycetes = form class
  3326. class Dicotyledonae = comprising seed plants that produce an embryo with paired cotyledons and net-veined leaves; divided into six (not always well distinguished) subclasses (or superorders): Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae (considered primitive); Caryophyllidae (an early and distinctive offshoot); and three more or less advanced groups: Dilleniidae; Rosidae
  3327. class Dicotyledones = comprising seed plants that produce an embryo with paired cotyledons and net-veined leaves; divided into six (not always well distinguished) subclasses (or superorders): Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae (considered primitive); Caryophyllidae (an early and distinctive offshoot); and three more or less advanced groups: Dilleniidae; Rosidae
  3328. class Equisetatae = horsetails and related forms
  3329. class Eumycetes = category used in some classifications: coextensive with division Eumycota
  3330. class Filicinae = ferns
  3331. class Filicopsida = ferns
  3332. class Gasteromycetes = fungi in which the hymenium is enclosed until after spores have matured: puffballs; earth stars
  3333. class Gastromycetes = fungi in which the hymenium is enclosed until after spores have matured: puffballs; earth stars
  3334. class Ginkgophytina = ginkgos: in some systems classified as a class and in others as a subdivision
  3335. class Ginkgopsida = ginkgos: in some systems classified as a class and in others as a subdivision
  3336. class Gnetopsida = gymnospermous flowering plants; supposed link between conifers and angiosperms
  3337. class Gymnospermae = plants having naked seeds not enclosed in an ovary; in some systems considered a class (Gymnospermae) and in others a division (Gymnospermophyta); comprises three subdivisions (or classes): Cycadophytina (class Cycadopsida) and Gnetophytina (class Gnetopsida) and Coniferophytina
  3338. class Hemiascomycetes = class of fungi in which no ascocarps are formed: yeasts and some plant parasites
  3339. class Hepaticae = liverworts: comprises orders Anthocerotales; Jungermanniales; Marchantiales
  3340. class Hepaticopsida = liverworts: comprises orders Anthocerotales; Jungermanniales; Marchantiales
  3341. class Hymenomycetes = used in some classifications; usually coextensive with order Agaricales: mushrooms; toadstools; agarics
  3342. class Liliopsida = comprising seed plants that produce an embryo with a single cotyledon and parallel-veined leaves: includes grasses and lilies and palms and orchids; divided into four subclasses or superorders: Alismatidae; Arecidae; Commelinidae
  3343. class Lycopodiate = club mosses and related forms: includes Lycopodiales; Isoetales; Selaginellales; and extinct Lepidodendrales
  3344. class Lycopodineae = alternative designation for the class Lycopsida
  3345. class Lycopsida = club mosses and related forms: includes Lycopodiales; Isoetales; Selaginellales; and extinct Lepidodendrales
  3346. class Magnoliopsida = comprising seed plants that produce an embryo with paired cotyledons and net-veined leaves; divided into six (not always well distinguished) subclasses (or superorders): Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae (considered primitive); Caryophyllidae (an early and distinctive offshoot); and three more or less advanced groups: Dilleniidae; Rosidae
  3347. class Monocotyledonae = comprising seed plants that produce an embryo with a single cotyledon and parallel-veined leaves: includes grasses and lilies and palms and orchids; divided into four subclasses or superorders: Alismatidae; Arecidae; Commelinidae
  3348. class Monocotyledones = comprising seed plants that produce an embryo with a single cotyledon and parallel-veined leaves: includes grasses and lilies and palms and orchids; divided into four subclasses or superorders: Alismatidae; Arecidae; Commelinidae
  3349. class Musci = true mosses: bryophytes having leafy rather than thalloid gametophytes: comprises orders Andreaeales; Bryales; Dicranales; Eubryales
  3350. class Myxomycetes = the class of true slime molds
  3351. class Oomycetes = nonphotosynthetic fungi that resemble algae and that reproduce by forming oospores
  3352. class Pinopsida = most conifers: in some systems classified as a class (Pinopsida) and in others as a subdivision
  3353. class Plectomycetes = class of fungi in which the fruiting body is a cleistothecium
  3354. class Psilopsida = whisk ferns
  3355. class Psilotatae = whisk ferns
  3356. class Pteridospermopsida = extinct gymnosperms most of Carboniferous to Jurassic: seed ferns and allies
  3357. class Pyrenomycetes = class of fungi in which the fruiting body is a perithecium
  3358. class Sphenopsida = horsetails and related forms
  3359. class Taxopsida = yews: in some systems classified as a class (Taxopsida) and in others as a subdivision (Taxophytina) used in some classifications for one of five subdivisions of Gymnospermophyta
  3360. class Tiliomycetes = category used in some systems to comprise the two orders Ustilaginales (smuts) and Uredinales
  3361. class Zygomycetes = class of fungi coextensive with subdivision Zygomycota
  3362. Clathraceae = family of fleshy fungi resembling stinkhorns
  3363. Clathrus = type genus of the Clathraceae
  3364. Clatonia lanceolata = small slender plant having one pair of succulent leaves at the middle of the stem and a loose raceme of white or pink or rose bowl-shaped flowers and an edible corm
  3365. Clavariaceae = fleshy fungi: coral fungi
  3366. Claviceps = fungi parasitic upon the ovaries of various grasses
  3367. Claviceps purpurea = a fungus that infects various cereal plants forming compact black masses of branching filaments that replace many grains of the plant
  3368. Clavicipitaceae = any of various mushrooms of the class Ascomycetes
  3369. Claytonia = genus of mainly North American succulent herbs with white or pink flowers usually in terminal racemes
  3370. Claytonia caroliniana = similar to Claytonia virginica but having usually pink flowers
  3371. Claytonia virginica = small cormous perennial grown for its low rosette of succulent foliage and racemes of pink-tinged white flowers
  3372. clearweed = a plants of the genus Pilea having drooping green flower clusters and smooth translucent stems and leaves
  3373. cleavers = annual having the stem beset with curved prickles
  3374. Cleistes = terrestrial orchids of North and South America having slender fibrous roots
  3375. Cleistes divaricata = orchid of northeastern United States with magenta-pink flowers having funnel-shaped lip
  3376. Cleistes rosea = orchid of central and northern South America having 1- to 3-blossomed racemes of large showy rose-colored flowers
  3377. cleistocarp = closed spore-bearing structure of some fungi (especially Aspergillaceae and Erysiphaceae) from which spores are released only by decay or disintegration
  3378. cleistothecium = closed spore-bearing structure of some fungi (especially Aspergillaceae and Erysiphaceae) from which spores are released only by decay or disintegration
  3379. clematis = any of various ornamental climbing plants of the genus Clematis usually having showy flowers
  3380. Clematis baldwinii = erect clematis of Florida having pink to purple flowers
  3381. Clematis crispa = climber of southern United States having bluish-purple flowers
  3382. Clematis lasiantha = clematis of California
  3383. Clematis ochreleuca = shrubby clematis of the eastern United States having curly foliage
  3384. Clematis tangutica = Chinese clematis with serrate leaves and large yellow flowers
  3385. Clematis texensis = woody vine of Texas having showy solitary nodding scarlet flowers
  3386. Clematis versicolor = woody vine of the southern United States having purple or blue flowers with leathery recurved sepals
  3387. Clematis verticillaris = climber of northeastern North America having waxy purplish-blue flowers
  3388. Clematis viorna = scandent subshrub of southeastern United States having large red-purple bell-shaped flowers with leathery recurved sepals
  3389. Clematis virginiana = common climber of eastern North America that sprawls over other plants and bears numerous panicles of small creamy white flowers
  3390. Clematis vitalba = vigorous deciduous climber of Europe to Afghanistan and Lebanon having panicles of fragrant green-white flowers in summer and autumn
  3391. clementine = a variety of mandarin orange that is grown around the Mediterranean and in South Africa
  3392. clementine tree = a variety of mandarin orange that is grown around the Mediterranean and in South Africa
  3393. Cleome = tropical and subtropical annual or perennial herbs or low shrubs / any of various often strong-smelling plants of the genus Cleome having showy spider-shaped flowers
  3394. Cleome hassleriana = native to South America but naturalized in warm parts of United States
  3395. Cleome pinnata = perennial of southwestern United States having leathery blue-green pinnatifid leaves and thick plumelike spikes of yellow flowers
  3396. Cleome serrulata = plant of western North America having trifoliate leaves and white or pink spider-shaped flowers
  3397. Clethra = type and sole genus of the Clethraceae
  3398. Clethra alnifolia = shrub of eastern and southern coastal United States having beautiful racemes of spice-scented white flowers
  3399. Clethraceae = coextensive with the genus Clethra
  3400. clianthus = any of various shrubs or vines of the genus Clianthus having compound leaves and pea-like red flowers in drooping racemes
  3401. Clianthus formosus = sprawling shrubby perennial noted for its scarlet black-marked flowers
  3402. Clianthus puniceus = evergreen shrub with scarlet to white clawlike or beaklike flowers
  3403. Clianthus speciosus = sprawling shrubby perennial noted for its scarlet black-marked flowers
  3404. cliff brake = any of several small lithophytic ferns of tropical and warm temperate regions
  3405. cliff penstemon = one of the West's most beautiful wildflowers; large brilliant pink or rose flowers in many racemes above thick mats of stems and leaves
  3406. cliff rose = tufted thrift of seacoasts and mountains of north temperate zone
  3407. cliff-brake = any of several small lithophytic ferns of tropical and warm temperate regions
  3408. Cliftonia = one species: titi
  3409. Cliftonia monophylla = tree of low-lying coastal areas of southeastern United States having glossy leaves and racemes of fragrant white flowers
  3410. climber = a vine or climbing plant that readily grows up a support or over other plants
  3411. climbing bird's nest fern = tropical Africa to Australasia and Polynesia
  3412. climbing bittersweet = twining shrub of North America having yellow capsules enclosing scarlet seeds
  3413. climbing boneset = herb of tropical America having vanilla-scented flowers
  3414. climbing corydalis = annual vine with decompound leaves and racemes of yellow and pink flowers
  3415. climbing fern = any of several ferns of the genus Lygodium that climb by twining
  3416. climbing fumitory = vine with feathery leaves and white or pinkish flowers
  3417. climbing hemp-vine = herb of tropical America having vanilla-scented flowers
  3418. climbing hempweed = herb of tropical America having vanilla-scented flowers
  3419. climbing hydrangea = deciduous climber with aerial roots having white to creamy flowers in fairly flat heads / deciduous climber with aerial roots having large flat flower heads / climbing shrub with adhesive aerial roots having opposite leaves and small white flowers in terminal cymes
  3420. climbing lily = any plant of the genus Gloriosa of tropical Africa and Asia; a perennial herb climbing by means of tendrils at leaf tips having showy yellow to red or purple flowers
  3421. climbing maidenhair = tropical fern widespread in Old World
  3422. climbing maidenhair fern = tropical fern widespread in Old World
  3423. climbing nightshade = poisonous perennial Old World vine having violet flowers and oval coral-red berries
  3424. climbing onion = much-branched leafless twining South African herb cultivated as an ornamental for its bright green stems growing from large aboveground bulbs
  3425. Clinopodium = wild basil
  3426. Clinopodium grandiflorum = aromatic herb with large pink flowers; southern and southeastern Europe; Anatolia
  3427. Clinopodium vulgare = aromatic herb having heads of small pink or whitish flowers
  3428. Clinton's lily = any temperate liliaceous plant of the genus Clintonia having broad basal leaves and white or yellowish or purplish flowers followed by blue or black berries
  3429. clintonia = any temperate liliaceous plant of the genus Clintonia having broad basal leaves and white or yellowish or purplish flowers followed by blue or black berries
  3430. Clintonia andrewsiana = plant with nearly leafless stalk topped by a cluster of red or reddish lavender flowers
  3431. Clintonia borealis = common woodland herb of temperate North America having yellow nodding flowers and small round blue fruits
  3432. Clintonia uniflora = plant with 1 or 2 white starlike flowers on short leafless stalks
  3433. Clitocybe = a genus of agarics with white to pale yellow spore deposits and fleshy stalks centrally attached to the cap and closely attached gills
  3434. Clitocybe clavipes = an agaric with a flat cap that is greyish or yellowish brown with pallid gills and a stalk that bulges toward the base
  3435. Clitocybe dealbata = a small poisonous agaric
  3436. Clitocybe inornata = a fungus with a cap that is creamy grey when young and turns brown with age and a whitish stalk that stains yellow when handled
  3437. Clitocybe irina = an edible agaric with large silky white caps and thick stalks
  3438. Clitocybe nuda = edible agaric that is pale lilac when young
  3439. Clitocybe robusta = a large white agaric
  3440. Clitocybe subconnexa = an edible white agaric that fruits in dense clusters
  3441. Clitoria = genus of tropical shrubs or vines having pinnate leaves and large axillary flowers
  3442. Clitoria mariana = large-flowered wild twining vine of southeastern and central United States having pale blue flowers
  3443. Clitoria turnatea = vine of tropical Asia having pinnate leaves and bright blue flowers with yellow centers
  3444. clivers = annual having the stem beset with curved prickles
  3445. clocks = European weed naturalized in southwestern United States and Mexico having reddish decumbent stems with small fernlike leaves and small deep reddish-lavender flowers followed by slender fruits that stick straight up
  3446. closed gentian = gentian of eastern North America having tubular blue or white flowers that open little if at all / similar to Gentiana andrewsii but with larger flowers
  3447. clotbur = any of several erect biennial herbs of temperate Eurasia having stout taproots and producing burs
  3448. cloud grass = Spanish grass with light feathery panicles grown for dried bouquets
  3449. cloudberry = creeping raspberry of north temperate regions with yellow or orange berries
  3450. clove = moderate sized very symmetrical red-flowered evergreen widely cultivated in the tropics for its flower buds which are source of cloves / aromatic flower bud of a clove tree
  3451. clove pink = Eurasian plant with pink to purple-red spice-scented usually double flowers
  3452. clove tree = moderate sized very symmetrical red-flowered evergreen widely cultivated in the tropics for its flower buds which are source of cloves
  3453. clover = a plant of the genus Trifolium
  3454. clover fern = any of several water ferns of the genus Marsilea having four leaflets
  3455. clover-root = hairy Eurasian plant with small yellow flowers and an astringent root formerly used medicinally
  3456. cloveroot = hairy Eurasian plant with small yellow flowers and an astringent root formerly used medicinally
  3457. club fungus = a club-shaped coral fungus
  3458. club moss = primitive evergreen moss-like plant with spores in club-shaped strobiles
  3459. club-moss = primitive evergreen moss-like plant with spores in club-shaped strobiles
  3460. clubmoss family = a family of ferns belonging to the order Lycopodiales
  3461. clubroot fungus = a fungus resembling slime mold that causes swellings or distortions of the roots of cabbages and related plants
  3462. clusia = an aromatic tree of the genus Clusia having large white or yellow or pink flowers
  3463. Clusia flava = a West Indies clusia having fig-shaped fruit
  3464. Clusia insignis = epiphytic clusia of British Guiana
  3465. Clusia major = a common tropical American clusia having solitary white or rose flowers
  3466. Clusia rosea = a common tropical American clusia having solitary white or rose flowers
  3467. Clusiaceae = widely distributed family of chiefly tropical trees and shrubs and vines that produce oils and resins and some usable timber
  3468. cluster bean = drought-tolerant herb grown for forage and for its seed which yield a gum used as a thickening agent or sizing material
  3469. clustered bellflower = bellflower of Europe to temperate Asia having dense spikes of violet-blue to white flowers
  3470. clustered lady's slipper = clusters of several short stems each having 2 broad leaves and 2-4 drooping brownish to greenish flowers with pouches mottled with purple
  3471. clustered poppy mallow = densely hairy perennial having mostly triangular basal leaves and rose-purple flowers in panicled clusters
  3472. Clytocybe alba = a large white agaric
  3473. Cnicus = one species: blessed thistle
  3474. Cnicus benedictus = annual of Mediterranean to Portugal having hairy stems and minutely spiny-toothed leaves and large heads of yellow flowers
  3475. Cnidoscolus = a genus of perennial plant with bristles
  3476. Cnidoscolus urens = a stinging herb of tropical America
  3477. coachwhip = desert shrub of southwestern United States and Mexico having slender naked spiny branches that after the rainy season put forth foliage and clusters of red flowers
  3478. coast banksia = shrubby tree with silky foliage and spikes of cylindrical yellow nectarous flowers
  3479. coast boykinia = plant with leaves mostly at the base and openly branched clusters of small white flowers
  3480. coast lily = orange-flowered lily of Pacific coast of United States
  3481. coast live oak = highly variable often shrubby evergreen oak of coastal zone of western North America having small thick usually spiny-toothed dark-green leaves
  3482. coast polypody = stiff leathery-leaved fern of western North America having ovate fronds parted to the midrib
  3483. coast redwood = lofty evergreen of United States coastal foothills from Oregon to Big Sur
  3484. coast rhododendron = medium-sized rhododendron of Pacific coast of North America having large rosy brown-spotted flowers
  3485. coast white cedar = slow-growing medium-sized cedar of east coast of the United States
  3486. coastal rein orchid = stout orchid of central California to northern Washington having racemes of white fragrant bilaterally symmetrical flowers
  3487. cobnut = small nut-bearing tree much grown in Europe
  3488. coca = a South American shrub whose leaves are chewed by natives of the Andes
  3489. coca plant = a South American shrub whose leaves are chewed by natives of the Andes
  3490. Cocculus = climbing plants or shrubs
  3491. Cocculus carolinus = woody vine of southeastern United States resembling the common moonseed but having red fruits
  3492. Cochlearia = a genus of the family Cruciferae
  3493. Cochlearia officinalis = a widely distributed Arctic cress reputed to have value in treatment or prevention of scurvy
  3494. cock's eggs = weedy vine of Argentina having solitary white flowers followed by egg-shaped white or yellow fruit
  3495. cockle-bur = any coarse weed of the genus Xanthium having spiny burrs
  3496. cockle-burr = any coarse weed of the genus Xanthium having spiny burrs
  3497. cocklebur = burdock having heart-shaped leaves found in open woodland, hedgerows and rough grassland of Europe (except extreme N) and Asia Minor
  3498. cockleburr = any coarse weed of the genus Xanthium having spiny burrs
  3499. cockscomb = garden annual with featherlike spikes of red or yellow flowers
  3500. cocksfoot = widely grown stout Old World hay and pasture grass
  3501. cockspur = small spiny West Indian tree / widely grown stout Old World hay and pasture grass
  3502. cockspur hawthorn = eastern United States hawthorn with long straight thorns
  3503. cockspur thorn = eastern United States hawthorn with long straight thorns
  3504. coco = tall palm tree bearing coconuts as fruits
  3505. coco de macao = tall feather palm of northern Brazil with hard-shelled nuts yielding valuable oil and a kind of vegetable ivory
  3506. coco palm = tall palm tree bearing coconuts as fruits
  3507. coco plum = small tropical American tree bearing edible plumlike fruit
  3508. coco plum tree = small tropical American tree bearing edible plumlike fruit
  3509. cocoa palm = tall palm tree bearing coconuts as fruits
  3510. cocoa plum = small tropical American tree bearing edible plumlike fruit
  3511. cocobolo = a valuable timber tree of tropical South America
  3512. coconut = tall palm tree bearing coconuts as fruits
  3513. coconut palm = tall palm tree bearing coconuts as fruits
  3514. coconut tree = tall palm tree bearing coconuts as fruits
  3515. Cocos = coconut palms
  3516. Cocos nucifera = tall palm tree bearing coconuts as fruits
  3517. cocoswood = wood of the granadilla tree used for making musical instruments especially clarinets
  3518. cocoyam = edible starchy tuberous root of taro plants
  3519. cocozelle = squash plant having dark green fruit with skin mottled with light green or yellow
  3520. cocuswood = wood of the granadilla tree used for making musical instruments especially clarinets
  3521. cod = the vessel that contains the seeds of a plant
  3522. Codariocalyx = used in some classifications for plants usually included in genus Desmodium
  3523. Codariocalyx motorius = erect tropical Asian shrub whose small lateral leaflets rotate on their axes and jerk up and down under the influence of sunshine
  3524. Codiaeum = evergreen tropical trees and shrubs with thick and colorful leathery leaves
  3525. Codiaeum variegatum = grown in many varieties for their brightly colored foliage
  3526. codlins-and-cream = plant of Europe and Asia having purplish-red flowers and hairy stems and leaves
  3527. Coeloglossum = terrestrial orchids of cooler parts of North America and Europe: satyr orchid
  3528. Coeloglossum bracteatum = orchid with broad ovate leaves and long-bracted green very irregular flowers
  3529. Coeloglossum viride = orchid having hooded long-bracted green to yellow-green flowers suffused with purple
  3530. coelogyne = any of various orchids of the genus Coelogyne with: clusters of fragrant lacy snow-white flowers; salmon-pink solitary flowers; chainlike racemes of topaz and chocolate brown flowers; spikes of delicate white spice-scented flowers
  3531. Coffea = coffee trees
  3532. Coffea arabica = shrubby tree of northeastern tropical Africa widely cultivated in tropical or near tropical regions for its seed which form most of the commercial coffee
  3533. Coffea canephora = native to West Africa but grown in Java and elsewhere
  3534. Coffea liberica = small tree of West Africa
  3535. Coffea robusta = native to West Africa but grown in Java and elsewhere
  3536. coffee = any of several small trees and shrubs native to the tropical Old World yielding coffee beans
  3537. coffee fern = evergreen fern of California and Baja California
  3538. coffee fungus = fungus causing a disease in coffee and some other tropical plants
  3539. coffee rose = tropical shrub having glossy foliage and fragrant nocturnal flowers with crimped or wavy corollas
  3540. coffee senna = very leafy malodorous tropical weedy shrub whose seeds have been used as an adulterant for coffee
  3541. coffee tree = any of several small trees and shrubs native to the tropical Old World yielding coffee beans
  3542. coffeeberry = evergreen shrub of western United States bearing small red or black fruits
  3543. cohosh = a plant of the genus Actaea having acrid poisonous berries
  3544. cohune = tropical American feather palm whose large nuts yield valuable oil and a kind of vegetable ivory
  3545. cohune fat = semisolid fat from nuts of the cohune palm
  3546. cohune nut = nut of the cohune palm having hard white shells like those of ivory nuts
  3547. cohune oil = semisolid fat from nuts of the cohune palm
  3548. cohune palm = tropical American feather palm whose large nuts yield valuable oil and a kind of vegetable ivory
  3549. cohune-nut oil = semisolid fat from nuts of the cohune palm
  3550. Coigue = Chilean evergreen whose leafy boughs are used for thatching
  3551. coir = stiff coarse fiber from the outer husk of a coconut
  3552. Cola = large genus of African trees bearing kola nuts
  3553. Cola acuminata = tree bearing large brown nuts containing e.g. caffeine
  3554. cola nut = bitter brown seed containing caffein
  3555. Colchicaceae = one of many subfamilies into which some classification systems subdivide the Liliaceae but not widely accepted: genera Colchicum and Gloriosa
  3556. Colchicum = chiefly fall-blooming perennial cormous herbs
  3557. Colchicum autumnale = bulbous autumn-flowering herb with white, purple or lavender-and-white flowers
  3558. cole = a hardy cabbage with coarse curly leaves that do not form a head
  3559. coleus = any of various Old World tropical plants of the genus Coleus having multicolored decorative leaves and spikes of blue flowers
  3560. Coleus amboinicus = an aromatic fleshy herb of India and Ceylon to South Africa
  3561. Coleus aromaticus = an aromatic fleshy herb of India and Ceylon to South Africa
  3562. Coleus blumei = perennial aromatic herb of southeastern Asia having large usually bright-colored or blotched leaves and spikes of blue-violet flowers
  3563. colewort = a hardy cabbage with coarse curly leaves that do not form a head
  3564. colic root = any of several perennials of the genus Aletris having grasslike leaves and bitter roots reputed to cure colic
  3565. colicroot = any of several perennials of the genus Aletris having grasslike leaves and bitter roots reputed to cure colic
  3566. collard = variety of kale having smooth leaves
  3567. Collinsia = genus of hardy annual herbs of western United States
  3568. Collinsia bicolor = white and lavender to pale-blue flowers grow in perfect rings of widely spaced bands around the stems forming a kind of pagoda
  3569. Collinsia heterophylla = white and lavender to pale-blue flowers grow in perfect rings of widely spaced bands around the stems forming a kind of pagoda
  3570. Collinsia parviflora = small widely branching western plant with tiny blue-and-white flowers
  3571. Collinsia verna = eastern United States plant with whorls of blue-and-white flowers
  3572. Collinsonia = small genus of perennial erect or spreading aromatic herbs
  3573. Collinsonia canadensis = erect perennial strong-scented with serrate pointed leaves and a loose panicle of yellowish flowers
  3574. Colocasia = small genus of perennial tuberous herbs of tropical Asia: taro
  3575. Colocasia esculenta = herb of the Pacific islands grown throughout the tropics for its edible root and in temperate areas as an ornamental for its large glossy leaves
  3576. coloradillo = handsome shrub with showy orange to scarlet or crimson flowers
  3577. Colorado blue spruce = tall spruce with blue-green needles and dense conic crown
  3578. Colorado fir = medium to tall fir of central to western United States having a narrow erect crown and soft wood
  3579. Colorado four o'clock = wildflower having vibrant deep pink tubular evening-blooming flowers
  3580. Colorado River hemp = tall-growing annual of southwestern United States widely grown as green manure
  3581. Colorado spruce = tall spruce with blue-green needles and dense conic crown
  3582. coltsfoot = perennial herb with large rounded leaves resembling a colt's foot and yellow flowers appearing before the leaves do; native to Europe but now nearly cosmopolitan
  3583. Colubrina = mostly tropical American shrubs or small trees with small yellowish flowers and yellow or red fruits
  3584. Columbia tiger lily = lily of western North America with showy orange-red purple-spotted flowers
  3585. columbine = a plant of the genus Aquilegia having irregular showy spurred flowers
  3586. columbo = any of various tall perennial herbs constituting the genus Frasera
  3587. columnea = tropical plant having thick hairy somewhat toothed leaves and solitary or clustered yellow to scarlet flowers
  3588. Colutea = small genus of Eurasian shrubs with yellow flowers and bladdery pods
  3589. Colutea arborescens = yellow-flowered European shrub cultivated for its succession of yellow flowers and very inflated bladdery pods and as a source of wildlife food
  3590. colza = Eurasian plant cultivated for its seed and as a forage crop
  3591. colza oil = edible light yellow to brown oil from rapeseed used also as a lubricant or illuminant
  3592. coma = a usually terminal tuft of bracts (as in the pineapple) or tuft of hairs
  3593. Comandra = small genus of chiefly North American parasitic plants
  3594. Comandra pallida = woody creeping parasite of western North America having numerous thick powdery leaves and panicles of small dull-white flowers
  3595. Combretaceae = a family of tropical trees and shrubs of the order Myrtales
  3596. combretum = any of numerous shrubs or small trees of the genus Combretum having spikes of small flowers
  3597. Combretum appiculatum = small deciduous tree of the Transvaal having spikes of yellow flowers
  3598. Combretum bracteosum = ornamental African shrub or climber with red flowers
  3599. Combretum erythrophyllum = small South African tree having creamy yellow fragrant flowers usually growing on stream banks
  3600. combretum family = a family of tropical trees and shrubs of the order Myrtales
  3601. comfrey = perennial herbs of Europe and Iran
  3602. commelina = any plant of the genus Commelina
  3603. Commelinaceae = large widely distributed family of chiefly perennial herbs or climbers: spiderworts
  3604. Commelinales = an order of monocotyledonous herbs
  3605. Commelinidae = one of four subclasses or superorders of Monocotyledones; comprises about 19,000 species in 25 families of mostly terrestrial herbs especially of moist places including: Cyperaceae; Gramineae; Bromeliaceae
  3606. Commiphora = genus of East Indian and African trees yielding balsamic products
  3607. Commiphora meccanensis = small evergreen tree of Africa and Asia
  3608. Commiphora myrrha = tree of eastern Africa and Asia yielding myrrh
  3609. common ageratum = small tender herb grown for its fluffy brushlike blue to lavender blooms
  3610. common alder = medium-sized tree with brown-black bark and woody fruiting catkins
  3611. common allamanda = vigorous evergreen climbing plant of South America having glossy leathery foliage and golden yellow flowers
  3612. common amsinckia = annual of western United States with coiled spikes of yellow-orange coiled flowers
  3613. common apricot = temperate zone tree bearing downy yellow to rosy fruits
  3614. common arrowhead = a weed
  3615. common bamboo = extremely vigorous bamboo having thin-walled culms striped green and yellow
  3616. common barberry = upright deciduous European shrub widely naturalized in United States having clusters of juicy berries
  3617. common barley = grass yielding grain used for breakfast food and animal feed and in malt beverages
  3618. common basil = annual or perennial of tropical Asia having spikes of small white flowers and aromatic leaves; one of the most important culinary herbs
  3619. common bean = the common annual twining or bushy bean plant grown for its edible seeds or pods
  3620. common bean plant = the common annual twining or bushy bean plant grown for its edible seeds or pods
  3621. common bearberry = evergreen mat-forming shrub of North America and northern Eurasia having small white flowers and red berries
  3622. common beech = large European beech with minutely-toothed leaves
  3623. common beet = biennial Eurasian plant usually having a swollen edible root
  3624. common birch = European birch with silvery white peeling bark and markedly drooping branches
  3625. common bird cherry = small European cherry tree closely resembling the American chokecherry
  3626. common bog rosemary = erect to procumbent evergreen shrub having pendent clusters of white or pink flowers
  3627. common box = large slow-growing evergreen shrub or small tree with multiple stems
  3628. common broom = deciduous erect spreading broom native to western Europe
  3629. common burdock = a plant that is ubiquitous in all but very acid soil
  3630. common buttercup = perennial Old World buttercup with golden to sulphur yellow flowers in late spring to early summer
  3631. common calamint = mint-scented perennial of central and southern Europe
  3632. common camas = plant having a large edible bulb and linear basal leaves and racemes of light to deep violet-blue star-shaped flowers on tall green scapes
  3633. common caper = prostrate spiny shrub of the Mediterranean region cultivated for its greenish flower buds which are pickled
  3634. common carline thistle = Eurasian thistle growing in sand dunes and dry chalky soils
  3635. common chickweed = a common low-growing annual garden weed with small white flowers; cosmopolitan
  3636. common cockscomb = garden annual with featherlike spikes of red or yellow flowers
  3637. common comfrey = European herb having small white, pink or purple flowers
  3638. common coral tree = small South American spiny tree with dark crimson and scarlet flowers solitary or clustered
  3639. common corn salad = widely cultivated as a salad crop and pot herb
  3640. common cotton grass = having densely tufted white cottony or downlike glumes
  3641. common daisy = low-growing Eurasian plant with yellow central disc flowers and pinkish-white outer ray flowers
  3642. common dandelion = Eurasian plant widely naturalized as a weed in North America
  3643. common devil's claw = annual of southern United States to Mexico having large whitish or yellowish flowers mottled with purple and a long curving beak
  3644. common dogbane = North American perennial having pinkish flowers in loose cymes
  3645. common duckweed = of temperate regions except eastern Asia and Australia
  3646. common elder = a common shrub with black fruit or a small tree of Europe and Asia
  3647. common European ash = tall ash of Europe to the Caucasus having leaves shiny dark-green above and pale downy beneath
  3648. common European dogwood = European deciduous shrub turning red in autumn having dull white flowers
  3649. common evening primrose = a coarse biennial of eastern North America with yellow flowers that open in the evening
  3650. common fennel = strongly aromatic with a smell of aniseed
  3651. common fig = Mediterranean tree widely cultivated for its edible fruit
  3652. common fig tree = Mediterranean tree widely cultivated for its edible fruit
  3653. common flat pea = low spreading evergreen shrub of southern Australia having triangular to somewhat heart-shaped foliage and orange-yellow flowers followed by flat winged pods
  3654. common four-o'clock = common garden plant of North America having fragrant red or purple or yellow or white flowers that open in late afternoon
  3655. common foxglove = tall leafy European biennial or perennial having spectacular clusters of large tubular pink-purple flowers
  3656. common garden cress = annual herb used as salad green and garnish
  3657. common ginger = tropical Asian plant widely cultivated for its pungent root
  3658. common grape hyacinth = prolific species having particularly beautiful dark blue flowers
  3659. common grape vine = common European grape cultivated in many varieties
  3660. common gum cistus = shrub having white flowers and viscid stems and leaves yielding a fragrant oleoresin used in perfumes especially as a fixative
  3661. common heath = spindly upright shrub of southern Australia and Tasmania having white to rose or purple-red flowers / small erect shrub of Australia and Tasmania with fragrant ivory flowers
  3662. common hop = European twining plant whose flowers are used chiefly to flavor malt liquors
  3663. common hops = European twining plant whose flowers are used chiefly to flavor malt liquors
  3664. common horehound = European aromatic herb with hairy leaves and numerous white flowers in axillary cymes
  3665. common horsetail = of Eurasia and Greenland and North America
  3666. common hyacinth = widely grown for its fragrance and its white, pink, blue, or purplish flowers
  3667. common ivy = Old World vine with lobed evergreen leaves and black berrylike fruits
  3668. common jasmine = a climbing deciduous shrub with fragrant white or yellow or red flowers used in perfume and to flavor tea
  3669. common juniper = densely branching shrub or small tree having pungent blue berries used to flavor gin; widespread in northern hemisphere
  3670. common laburnum = an ornamental shrub or tree of the genus Laburnum
  3671. common lady's-slipper = pale pink wild orchid of northeastern America having an inflated pouchlike lip
  3672. common lettuce = annual or perennial garden plant having succulent leaves used in salads
  3673. common lilac = large European lilac naturalized in North America having heart-shaped ovate leaves and large panicles of highly fragrant lilac or white flowers
  3674. common madia = California annual having red-brown spots near the base of its yellow flower rays
  3675. common maidenhair = delicate maidenhair fern with slender shining black leaf stalks
  3676. common mallow = annual Old World plant with clusters of pink or white flowers
  3677. common marigold = the common European annual marigold
  3678. common matrimony vine = deciduous erect or spreading shrub with spiny branches and violet-purple flowers followed by orange-red berries
  3679. common milkwort = small European perennial with numerous branches having racemes of blue, pink or white flowers
  3680. common moonseed = a woody vine of eastern North America having large oval leaves and small white flowers and purple to blue-black fruits
  3681. common moonwort = of America and Eurasia and Australia
  3682. common morel = an edible and choice morel with a globular to elongate head with an irregular pattern of pits and ridges
  3683. common morning glory = pantropical annual climbing herb with funnel-shaped blue, purple, pink or white flowers / annual or perennial climbing herb of Central America having sky-blue flowers
  3684. common mugwort = European tufted aromatic perennial herb having hairy red or purple stems and dark green leaves downy white below and red-brown florets
  3685. common mullein = tall-stalked very woolly mullein with densely packed yellow flowers
  3686. common myrtle = European shrub with white or rosy flowers followed by black berries
  3687. common nardoo = Australian clover fern
  3688. common nightshade = Eurasian herb naturalized in America having white flowers and poisonous hairy foliage and bearing black berries that are sometimes poisonous but sometimes edible
  3689. common oak = medium to large deciduous European oak having smooth leaves with rounded lobes
  3690. common osier = willow with long flexible twigs used in basketry
  3691. common pea = plant producing peas usually eaten fresh rather than dried
  3692. common pepper = climber having dark red berries (peppercorns) when fully ripe; southern India and Sri Lanka
  3693. common pitcher plant = perennial bog herb having dark red flowers and decumbent broadly winged pitchers forming a rosette
  3694. common plantain = common European perennial naturalized worldwide
  3695. common plum = any of various widely distributed plums grown in the cooler temperate areas
  3696. common polypody = mat-forming lithophytic or terrestrial fern with creeping rootstocks and large pinnatifid fronds found throughout North America and Europe and Africa and east Asia
  3697. common privet = deciduous semi-evergreen shrub used for hedges
  3698. common purslane = weedy trailing mat-forming herb with bright yellow flowers cultivated for its edible mildly acid leaves eaten raw or cooked especially in Indian and Greek and Middle Eastern cuisine
  3699. common ragweed = annual weed with finely divided foliage and spikes of green flowers; common in North America
  3700. common reed = tall North American reed having relative wide leaves and large plumelike panicles; widely distributed in moist areas
  3701. common rose mallow = showy shrub of salt marshes of the eastern United States having large rose-colored flowers
  3702. common rush = tall rush with soft erect or arching stems found in Eurasia, Australia, New Zealand, and common in North America
  3703. common sage = shrubby plant with aromatic greyish-green leaves used as a cooking herb
  3704. common scurvy grass = a widely distributed Arctic cress reputed to have value in treatment or prevention of scurvy
  3705. common sickle pine = small tropical rain forest tree of Indonesia and Malaysia
  3706. common snowberry = deciduous shrub of western North America having spikes of pink flowers followed by round white berries
  3707. common speedwell = common hairy European perennial with pale blue or lilac flowers in axillary racemes
  3708. common spindle tree = small erect deciduous shrub having tough white wood and cathartic bark and fruit
  3709. common spotted orchid = European orchid having lanceolate leaves spotted purple and pink to white or mauve flowers spotted or lined deep red or purple
  3710. common St John's wort = deciduous bushy Eurasian shrub with golden yellow flowers and reddish-purple fruits from which a soothing salve is made in Spain
  3711. common staghorn fern = commonly cultivated fern of Australia and southeastern Asia and Polynesia
  3712. common stinkhorn = a common fungus formerly used in preparing a salve for rheumatism
  3713. common sunflower = annual sunflower grown for silage and for its seeds which are a source of oil
  3714. common tarweed = California annual having red-brown spots near the base of its yellow flower rays
  3715. common teasel = teasel with lilac flowers native to Old World but naturalized in North America
  3716. common thorn apple = intensely poisonous tall coarse annual tropical weed having rank-smelling foliage, large white or violet trumpet-shaped flowers and prickly fruits
  3717. common thyme = common aromatic garden perennial native to the western Mediterranean
  3718. common tobacco = tall erect South American herb with large ovate leaves and terminal clusters of tubular white or pink flowers
  3719. common unicorn plant = annual of southern United States to Mexico having large whitish or yellowish flowers mottled with purple and a long curving beak
  3720. common valerian = tall rhizomatous plant having very fragrant flowers and rhizomes used medicinally
  3721. common vetchling = scrambling perennial Eurasian wild pea having yellowish flowers and compressed seed pods
  3722. common watercress = perennial Eurasian cress growing chiefly in springs or running water having fleshy pungent leaves used in salads or as a potherb or garnish
  3723. common wheat = widely cultivated in temperate regions in many varieties for its commercially important grain
  3724. common white dogwood = deciduous tree
  3725. common winterberry holly = a holly shrub
  3726. common wolffia = smallest flowering plants known
  3727. common wood sorrel = Eurasian plant with heart-shaped trifoliate leaves and white purple-veined flowers
  3728. common wormwood = aromatic herb of temperate Eurasia and North Africa having a bitter taste used in making the liqueur absinthe
  3729. common yellowwood = medium-sized tree of South Africa
  3730. compass flower = any of several plants having leaves so arranged on the axis as to indicate the cardinal points of the compass
  3731. compass plant = any of several plants having leaves so arranged on the axis as to indicate the cardinal points of the compass / North American annual with red or rose-colored flowers
  3732. Compositae = plants with heads composed of many florets: aster; daisy; dandelion; goldenrod; marigold; lettuces; ragweed; sunflower; thistle
  3733. composite = considered the most highly evolved dicotyledonous plants, characterized by florets arranged in dense heads that resemble single flowers
  3734. composite plant = considered the most highly evolved dicotyledonous plants, characterized by florets arranged in dense heads that resemble single flowers
  3735. compound leaf = a leaf composed of a number of leaflets on a common stalk
  3736. compound pistil = consists of two or more fused carpels
  3737. Comptonia = one species: sweet fern
  3738. Comptonia asplenifolia = deciduous shrub of eastern North America with sweet scented fernlike leaves and tiny white flowers
  3739. Comptonia peregrina = deciduous shrub of eastern North America with sweet scented fernlike leaves and tiny white flowers
  3740. conacaste = tropical South American tree having a wide-spreading crown of bipinnate leaves and coiled ear-shaped fruits
  3741. cone = cone-shaped mass of ovule- or spore-bearing scales or bracts
  3742. cone pepper = plant bearing erect pungent conical red or yellow or purple fruits
  3743. coneflower = any of various perennials of the eastern United States having thick rough leaves and long-stalked showy flowers with drooping rays and a conelike center / a wildflower of the genus Ratibida / any of various plants of the genus Rudbeckia cultivated for their large usually yellow daisies with prominent central cones
  3744. conessi = tropical Asian tree with hard white wood and bark formerly used as a remedy for dysentery and diarrhea
  3745. confederate jasmine = evergreen Chinese woody climber with shiny dark green leaves and intensely fragrant white flowers
  3746. Confederate rose = Chinese shrub or small tree having white or pink flowers becoming deep red at night; widely cultivated
  3747. Confederate rose mallow = Chinese shrub or small tree having white or pink flowers becoming deep red at night; widely cultivated
  3748. congoo mallee = small shrubby mallee
  3749. conic morel = a morel whose pitted fertile body is attached to the stalk with little free skirt around it
  3750. conic Verpa = a morel with a fertile portion that has a relatively smooth surface
  3751. conic waxycap = a fungus having an acutely conic cap and dry stalks
  3752. conidiophore = a specialized fungal hypha that produces conidia
  3753. conidiospore = an asexually produced fungal spore formed on a conidiophore
  3754. conidium = an asexually produced fungal spore formed on a conidiophore
  3755. conifer = any gymnospermous tree or shrub bearing cones
  3756. Coniferales = profusely branching and chiefly evergreen trees and some shrubs having narrow or needlelike leaves
  3757. Coniferophyta = cone-bearing gymnosperms dating from the Carboniferous period; most are substantial trees
  3758. Coniferophytina = cone-bearing gymnosperms dating from the Carboniferous period; most are substantial trees
  3759. Coniferopsida = cone-bearing gymnosperms dating from the Carboniferous period; most are substantial trees
  3760. coniferous tree = any gymnospermous tree or shrub bearing cones
  3761. Coniogramme = terrestrial ferns of Pacific islands and Asia
  3762. Coniogramme japonica = fast-growing sturdy Japanese fern
  3763. Conium = small genus of highly toxic biennials: hemlock
  3764. Conium maculatum = large branching biennial herb native to Eurasia and Africa and adventive in North America having large fernlike leaves and white flowers; usually found in damp habitats
  3765. conker = the inedible nutlike seed of the horse chestnut
  3766. Connaraceae = mostly tropical climbing shrubs or small trees
  3767. Connarus = large genus of tropical trees and shrubs
  3768. Connarus guianensis = tropical American and east African tree with strikingly marked hardwood used in cabinetwork
  3769. Connemara heath = low straggling evergreen shrub of western Europe represented by several varieties with flowers from white to rose-purple
  3770. Conocarpus = monotypic genus of tropical American trees: button tree
  3771. Conocarpus erectus = evergreen tree or shrub with fruit resembling buttons and yielding heavy hard compact wood
  3772. Conoclinium = mistflower
  3773. Conoclinium coelestinum = rhizomatous plant of central and southeastern United States and West Indies having large showy heads of clear blue flowers
  3774. Conopodium = a genus of dicotyledonous plants of the family Umbelliferae
  3775. Conopodium denudatum = a common European plant having edible tubers with the flavor of roasted chestnuts
  3776. Conospermum = Australian shrubs (some trees) with flowers in dense spikes: smoke bush
  3777. Conradina = small genus of low aromatic shrubs of southeastern United States
  3778. Conradina glabra = small shrub of Apalachicola River area in southeastern United States having highly aromatic pinkish flowers
  3779. Consolida = plants having flowers resembling the larkspur's but differing from larkspur's in the arrangement of petals
  3780. Consolida ambigua = commonly cultivated larkspur of southern Europe having unbranched spikelike racemes of blue or sometimes purplish or pinkish flowers
  3781. consumption weed = a shrub of salt marshes of eastern and south central North America and West Indies
  3782. Convallaria = sometimes placed in family Convallariaceae: lily of the valley
  3783. Convallaria majalis = low-growing perennial plant having usually two large oblong lanceolate leaves and a raceme of small fragrant nodding bell-shaped flowers followed by scarlet berries
  3784. Convallariaceae = one of many subfamilies into which some classification systems subdivide the Liliaceae but not widely accepted
  3785. Convolvulaceae = morning glory; bindweed; sweet potato
  3786. convolvulus = any of numerous plants of the genus Convolvulus
  3787. Convolvulus arvensis = weakly climbing European perennial with white or pink flowers
  3788. Convolvulus scammonia = twining plant of Asia Minor having cream-colored to purple flowers and long thick roots yielding a cathartic resin
  3789. Convolvulus sepium = common Eurasian and American wild climber with pink flowers
  3790. Conyza = common American weed or wildflower
  3791. Conyza canadensis = common North American weed with linear leaves and small discoid heads of yellowish flowers; widely naturalized throughout temperate regions
  3792. coolwart = stoloniferous white-flowered spring-blooming woodland plant
  3793. coontie = small tough woody zamia of Florida and West Indies and Cuba
  3794. Copernicia = slow-growing tropical fan palms
  3795. Copernicia alba = South American palm yielding a wax similar to carnauba wax
  3796. Copernicia australis = South American palm yielding a wax similar to carnauba wax
  3797. Copernicia cerifera = Brazilian fan palm having an edible root
  3798. Copernicia prunifera = Brazilian fan palm having an edible root
  3799. copper beech = variety of European beech with shining purple or copper-colored leaves
  3800. Coprinaceae = used in some classifications for the genus Coprinus
  3801. Coprinus = genus of black-spotted agarics in which the cap breaks down at maturity into an inky fluid
  3802. Coprinus atramentarius = having a cap that melts into an inky fluid after spores have matured
  3803. Coprinus comatus = common edible mushroom having an elongated shaggy white cap and black spores
  3804. Coptis = small genus of low perennial herbs having yellow rhizomes and white or yellow flowers
  3805. Coptis groenlandica = low-growing perennial of North America woodlands having trifoliate leaves and yellow rootstock and white flowers
  3806. Coptis trifolia groenlandica = low-growing perennial of North America woodlands having trifoliate leaves and yellow rootstock and white flowers
  3807. coquilla nut = nut having a hard hazel-brown shell used like vegetable ivory
  3808. coracan = East Indian cereal grass whose seed yield a somewhat bitter flour, a staple in the Orient
  3809. corakan = East Indian cereal grass whose seed yield a somewhat bitter flour, a staple in the Orient
  3810. coral bean = shrub or small tree having pinnate leaves poisonous to livestock and dense racemes of intensely fragrant blue flowers and red beans
  3811. coral bean tree = deciduous shrub having racemes of deep red flowers and black-spotted red seeds
  3812. coral bush = Australian shrub having simple obovate leaves and brilliant scarlet flowers
  3813. coral drops = half-hardy Mexican herb cultivated for its drooping terminal umbels of showy red-and-white flowers
  3814. coral fungus = any of numerous fungi of the family Clavariaceae often brightly colored that grow in often intricately branched clusters like coral
  3815. coral gem = low-growing much-branched perennial of Canary Islands having orange-red to scarlet or purple flowers
  3816. coral honeysuckle = evergreen North American honeysuckle vine having coral-red or orange flowers
  3817. coral necklace = glabrous annual with slender taproot and clusters of white flowers
  3818. coral pea = any of various Australian climbing plants of the genus Kennedia having scarlet flowers
  3819. coral root = a wildflower of the genus Corallorhiza growing from a hard mass of rhizomes associated with a fungus that aids in absorbing nutrients from the forest floor
  3820. coral tree = any of various shrubs or shrubby trees of the genus Erythrina having trifoliate leaves and racemes of scarlet to coral red flowers and black seeds
  3821. coral vine = prostrate or twining woody vine with small leathery leaves and umbels of red flowers
  3822. coral-root bittercress = European bittercress having a knotted white rootstock
  3823. coral-wood = East Indian tree with racemes of yellow-white flowers
  3824. coralbells = perennial plant of the western United States having bright red flowers in feathery spikes
  3825. coralberry = shrub with coral-red berries
  3826. Corallorhiza = genus of leafless root-parasitic orchids having small purplish or yellowish racemose flowers with lobed lips
  3827. Corallorhiza maculata = common coral root having yellowish- or reddish- or purplish-brown leafless stems bearing loose racemes of similarly colored flowers with white purple-spotted lips
  3828. Corallorhiza striata = nearly leafless wildflower with erect reddish-purple stems bearing racemes of pale pinkish and brownish-striped flowers
  3829. Corallorhiza trifida = plant having clumps of nearly leafless pale yellowish to greenish stems bearing similarly colored flowers with white lower lips
  3830. coralroot = European bittercress having a knotted white rootstock
  3831. coralwood = East Indian tree with racemes of yellow-white flowers
  3832. coralwort = European bittercress having a knotted white rootstock
  3833. Corchorus = widely distributed genus of tropical herbs or subshrubs; especially Asia / any of various plants of the genus Corchorus having large leaves and cymose clusters of yellow flowers
  3834. cord grass = any of several perennial grasses of the genus Spartina
  3835. Cordaitaceae = chiefly Paleozoic plants
  3836. Cordaitales = extinct plants having tall arborescent trunks comparable to or more advanced than cycads; known from the Pennsylvanian period
  3837. Cordaites = tall Paleozoic trees superficially resembling modern screw pines
  3838. cordate leaf = a heart-shaped leaf
  3839. cordgrass = any of several perennial grasses of the genus Spartina
  3840. Cordia = tropical deciduous or evergreen trees or shrubs of the family Boraginaceae
  3841. Cordia alliodora = large tropical American tree of the genus Cordia grown for its abundant creamy white flowers and valuable wood
  3842. Cordia gerascanthus = tropical American timber tree
  3843. Cordyline = Asiatic and Pacific trees or shrubs
  3844. Cordyline australis = elegant tree having either a single trunk or a branching trunk each with terminal clusters of long narrow leaves and large panicles of fragrant white, yellow or red flowers
  3845. Cordyline terminalis = shrub with terminal tufts of elongated leaves used locally for thatching and clothing; thick sweet roots are used as food
  3846. coreopsis = any of numerous plants of the genus Coreopsis having a profusion of showy usually yellow daisylike flowers over long periods
  3847. Coreopsis gigantea = large treelike shrub having feathery leaves and clusters of large yellow flower heads
  3848. Coreopsis maritima = stout herb with flowers one to a stalk
  3849. Coreopsis tinctoria = North American annual widely cultivated for its yellow flowers with purple-red to brownish centers
  3850. coriander = Old World herb with aromatic leaves and seed resembling parsley
  3851. coriander plant = Old World herb with aromatic leaves and seed resembling parsley
  3852. Coriandrum = small genus of annual Mediterranean herbs
  3853. Coriandrum sativum = Old World herb with aromatic leaves and seed resembling parsley
  3854. cork oak = medium-sized evergreen oak of southern Europe and northern Africa having thick corky bark that is periodically stripped to yield commercial cork
  3855. cork tree = prickly Australian coral tree having soft spongy wood / deciduous tree of China and Manchuria having a turpentine aroma and handsome compound leaves turning yellow in autumn and deeply fissured corky bark
  3856. corkscrew flower = perennial tropical American vine cultivated for its racemes of showy yellow and purple flowers having the corolla keel coiled like a snail shell
  3857. corkwood = very small deciduous dioecious tree or shrub of damp habitats in southeastern United States having extremely light wood
  3858. corkwood family = coextensive with the genus Leitneria
  3859. corkwood tree = very small deciduous dioecious tree or shrub of damp habitats in southeastern United States having extremely light wood
  3860. corm = solid swollen underground bulb-shaped stem or stem base and serving as a reproductive structure
  3861. cormous plant = plant growing from a corm
  3862. corn = tall annual cereal grass bearing kernels on large ears: widely cultivated in America in many varieties
  3863. corn campion = European annual having large trumpet-shaped reddish-purple flowers and poisonous seed; a common weed in grainfields and beside roadways
  3864. corn chamomile = European white-flowered weed naturalized in North America
  3865. corn cockle = European annual having large trumpet-shaped reddish-purple flowers and poisonous seed; a common weed in grainfields and beside roadways
  3866. corn lily = any of several South African plants of the genus Ixia having grasslike leaves and clusters of showy variously colored lily-like flowers
  3867. corn marigold = European herb with bright yellow flowers
  3868. corn mayweed = European white-flowered weed naturalized in North America / ubiquitous European annual weed with white flowers and finely divided leaves naturalized and sometimes cultivated in eastern North America
  3869. corn mint = European mint naturalized in United States
  3870. corn poppy = annual European poppy common in grain fields and often cultivated
  3871. corn salad = a plant of the genus Valerianella
  3872. corn silk = each of the long filamentous styles that grow as a silky tuft at the tip of an ear of Indian corn
  3873. corn smut = a smut fungus attacking Indian corn
  3874. corn speedwell = erect or procumbent blue-flowered annual found in waste places of Europe and America
  3875. corn spurrey = small European weed with whorled leaves and white flowers
  3876. corn spurry = small European weed with whorled leaves and white flowers
  3877. corn stalk = the stalk of a corn plant
  3878. Cornaceae = a rosid dicot family of the order Umbellales including: genera Aucuba, Cornus, Corokia, Curtisia, Griselinia, Helwingia
  3879. cornel = a tree of shrub of the genus Cornus often having showy bracts resembling flowers
  3880. cornelian cherry = deciduous European shrub or small tree having bright red fruit
  3881. cornflower = an annual Eurasian plant cultivated in North America having showy heads of blue or purple or pink or white flowers / plant of southern and southeastern United States grown for its yellow flowers that can be dried
  3882. cornflower aster = erect perennial of southeastern United States having large heads of usually blue flowers
  3883. cornhusk = the husk of an ear of corn
  3884. Cornish heath = bushy shrub having pink to white flowers; common on the moors of Cornwall and in southwestern Europe
  3885. cornsilk = each of the long filamentous styles that grow as a silky tuft at the tip of an ear of Indian corn
  3886. cornsmut = a smut fungus attacking Indian corn
  3887. cornstalk = the stalk of a corn plant
  3888. Cornus = a rosid dicot genus of the family Cornaceae including: dogwood
  3889. Cornus amomum = shrub of eastern North America having purplish stems and blue fruit
  3890. Cornus canadensis = creeping perennial herb distinguished by red berries and clustered leaf whorls at the tips of shoots
  3891. Cornus florida = deciduous tree
  3892. Cornus mas = deciduous European shrub or small tree having bright red fruit
  3893. Cornus obliqua = shrub of eastern North America closely resembling silky cornel
  3894. Cornus sanguinea = European deciduous shrub turning red in autumn having dull white flowers
  3895. Cornus stolonifera = common North American shrub with reddish purple twigs and white flowers
  3896. Corokia = evergreen shrubs with intricately twisted wiry stems that in summer are smothered in small yellow flowers
  3897. corolla = the whorl of petals of a flower that collectively form an inner floral envelope or layer of the perianth
  3898. corona = the trumpet-shaped or cup-shaped outgrowth of the corolla of a daffodil or narcissus flower
  3899. coronilla = any of various plants of the genus Coronilla having purple or pink or yellow flowers in long axillary heads or umbels
  3900. Coronilla varia = European herb resembling vetch; naturalized in the eastern United States
  3901. corozo = any of several tropical American palms bearing corozo nuts
  3902. corozo palm = any of several tropical American palms bearing corozo nuts
  3903. Cortaderia = tall ornamental grasses of South America and New Zealand and New Guinea: pampas grass
  3904. Cortaderia richardii = tall grass of New Zealand grown for plumelike flower heads
  3905. Cortaderia selloana = tall perennial grass of pampas of South America having silvery plumes and growing in large dense clumps
  3906. Corticium = genus of fungi having simple smooth sporophores; some are parasitic on wood or economic crops
  3907. Corticium salmonicolor = fungus causing pink disease in citrus and coffee and rubber trees etc
  3908. Corticium solani = fungus causing bottom rot in lettuce
  3909. cortina = a cobwebby partial veil consisting of silky fibrils
  3910. Cortinariaceae = a family of fungi belonging to the order Agaricales
  3911. Cortinarius = the largest genus in the Agaricales
  3912. Cortinarius armillatus = a fungus with large tawny caps and pale cinnamon gills and a red band of veil around the stalk
  3913. Cortinarius atkinsonianus = an edible fungus with a slimy viscid cap that is initially yellow but turns olive and then tawny
  3914. Cortinarius corrugatus = a fungus with a viscid wrinkled tawny cap; the stalk has a basal bulb that diminishes as the stalk elongates
  3915. Cortinarius gentilis = a poisonous fungus with a bright yellow brown cap and a long cinnamon colored stalk
  3916. Cortinarius mutabilis = a fungus with a reddish purple cap having a smooth slimy surface; close violet gills
  3917. Cortinarius semisanguineus = a fungus with a dry brown cap and rusty red gills and a yellowish stalk
  3918. Cortinarius subfoetidus = a fungus with a sticky lavender cap and stalk that whitish above and covered with a silky lavender sheath
  3919. Cortinarius violaceus = a fungus that is violet overall with a squamulose cap
  3920. Coryanthes = small genus of tropical American epiphytic or lithophytic orchids
  3921. Corydalis = annual or perennial herbs of Himalayan China and South Africa / a plant of the genus Corydalis with beautiful compound foliage and spurred tubular flowers
  3922. Corydalis claviculata = annual vine with decompound leaves and racemes of yellow and pink flowers
  3923. Corydalis sempervirens = glaucous herb of northeastern United States and Canada having loose racemes of yellow-tipped pink flowers
  3924. Corydalis solida = herb of northern Europe and Asia having erect racemes of red flowers
  3925. Corylaceae = used in some classification systems for the genus Corylus
  3926. Corylopsis = small genus of deciduous shrubs of temperate regions of Asia
  3927. Corylus = deciduous monoecious nut-bearing shrubs of small trees: hazel
  3928. Corylus americana = nut-bearing shrub of eastern North America
  3929. Corylus avellana = small nut-bearing tree much grown in Europe
  3930. Corylus avellana grandis = small nut-bearing tree much grown in Europe
  3931. Corylus cornuta = hazel of western United States with conspicuous beaklike involucres on the nuts
  3932. corymb = flat-topped or convex inflorescence in which the individual flower stalks grow upward from various points on the main stem to approximately the same height
  3933. Corypha = large fan palms of tropical Asia to Australia
  3934. Corypha gebanga = large-leaved palm of Malay to Philippines and northern Australia
  3935. Corypha umbraculifera = tall palm of southern India and Sri Lanka with gigantic leaves used as umbrellas and fans or cut into strips for writing paper
  3936. Corypha utan = large-leaved palm of Malay to Philippines and northern Australia
  3937. coryphantha = a cactus of the genus Coryphantha
  3938. cos lettuce = lettuce with long dark-green spoon-shaped leaves
  3939. cosmea = any of various mostly Mexican herbs of the genus Cosmos having radiate heads of variously colored flowers and pinnate leaves
  3940. cosmos = any of various mostly Mexican herbs of the genus Cosmos having radiate heads of variously colored flowers and pinnate leaves
  3941. costmary = tansy-scented Eurasian perennial herb with buttonlike yellow flowers; used as potherb or salad green and sometimes for potpourri or tea or flavoring
  3942. costusroot = annual herb of the eastern Himalayas (Kashmir) having purple florets and a fragrant root that yields a volatile oil used in perfumery and for preserving furs
  3943. Cotinus = smoke trees
  3944. Cotinus americanus = shrubby tree of southern United States having large plumes of feathery flowers resembling puffs of smoke
  3945. Cotinus coggygria = Old World shrub having large plumes of yellowish feathery flowers resembling puffs of smoke
  3946. Cotinus obovatus = shrubby tree of southern United States having large plumes of feathery flowers resembling puffs of smoke
  3947. cotoneaster = any shrub of the genus Cotoneaster: erect or creeping shrubs having richly colored autumn foliage and many small white to pinkish flowers followed by tiny red or black fruits
  3948. Cotoneaster dammeri = climbing evergreen shrub with white flowers and red berries
  3949. Cotoneaster horizontalis = deciduous flat-growing shrub with a fanned herringbone pattern and having reddish flowers and orange-red berries
  3950. cottage pink = European pink cultivated for its very fragrant pink or rosy flowers
  3951. cottage tulip = any of several long-stemmed tulips that flower in May
  3952. cotton = erect bushy mallow plant or small tree bearing bolls containing seeds with many long hairy fibers
  3953. cotton grass = any sedge of the genus Eriophorum
  3954. cotton plant = erect bushy mallow plant or small tree bearing bolls containing seeds with many long hairy fibers
  3955. cotton rose = any plant of the genus Filago having capitate clusters of small woolly flower heads / Chinese shrub or small tree having white or pink flowers becoming deep red at night; widely cultivated
  3956. cotton rush = any sedge of the genus Eriophorum
  3957. cotton thistle = biennial Eurasian white hairy thistle having pale purple flowers
  3958. cotton-seed tree = a shrub of salt marshes of eastern and south central North America and West Indies
  3959. cottonseed = seed of cotton plants
  3960. cottonweed = any of various plants of the genus Froelichia found in sandy soils and on rocky slopes in warmer regions of America
  3961. cottonwood = American basswood of the Allegheny region / any of several North American trees of the genus Populus having a tuft of cottony hairs on the seed
  3962. Cotula = cosmopolitan herbs especially southern hemisphere
  3963. Cotula coronopifolia = South African herb with golden-yellow globose flower heads; naturalized in moist areas along coast of California
  3964. cotyledon = embryonic leaf in seed-bearing plants
  3965. couch grass = European grass spreading rapidly by creeping rhizomes
  3966. coumara nut = fragrant black nutlike seeds of the tonka bean tree
  3967. Coumarouna = tropical American trees: tonka beans
  3968. Coumarouna odorata = tall tropical South American tree having pulpy egg-shaped pods of fragrant black almond-shaped seeds used for flavoring
  3969. country borage = an aromatic fleshy herb of India and Ceylon to South Africa
  3970. courbaril = West Indian locust tree having pinnate leaves and panicles of large white or purplish flowers
  3971. courbaril copal = resin from the courbaril tree
  3972. courgette = marrow squash plant whose fruit are eaten when small
  3973. cover crop = crop planted to prevent soil erosion and provide green manure
  3974. covered smut = a smut fungus causing a smut disease of grains in which the spore masses are covered or held together by the grain membranes
  3975. coville = desert shrub of southwestern United States and New Mexico having persistent resinous aromatic foliage and small yellow flowers
  3976. cow cockle = European annual with pale rose-colored flowers; cultivated flower or self-sown grainfield weed; introduced in North America
  3977. cow lily = common water lily of eastern and central North America, having broad leaves and globe-shaped yellow flowers
  3978. cow oak = medium to large deciduous tree of the eastern United States
  3979. cow parsley = coarse erect biennial Old World herb introduced as a weed in eastern North America
  3980. cow parsnip = tall coarse plant having thick stems and cluster of white to purple flowers
  3981. cow's head = a morel with the ridged and pitted fertile portion attached to the stipe for about half its length
  3982. cow-tongue fern = common epiphytic or sometimes terrestrial fern having pale yellow-green strap-shaped leaves
  3983. cowage = the annual woody vine of Asia having long clusters of purplish flowers and densely hairy pods; cultivated in southern United States for green manure and grazing / pods of the cowage plant or the stinging hairs covering them
  3984. cowberry = low evergreen shrub of high north temperate regions of Europe and Asia and America bearing red edible berries
  3985. cowherb = European annual with pale rose-colored flowers; cultivated flower or self-sown grainfield weed; introduced in North America
  3986. cowpea = sprawling Old World annual cultivated especially in southern United States for food and forage and green manure / fruit or seed of the cowpea plant
  3987. cowpea plant = sprawling Old World annual cultivated especially in southern United States for food and forage and green manure
  3988. cowpen daisy = coarse greyish-green annual yellow-flowered herb
  3989. cowslip = swamp plant of Europe and North America having bright yellow flowers resembling buttercups / early spring flower common in British isles having fragrant yellow or sometimes purple flowers
  3990. coyol = tropical American palm having edible nuts and yielding a useful fiber
  3991. coyol palm = tropical American palm having edible nuts and yielding a useful fiber
  3992. coyote brush = widely spreading evergreen shrub of southwestern United States with flower heads in a leafy panicle
  3993. coyote bush = widely spreading evergreen shrub of southwestern United States with flower heads in a leafy panicle
  3994. crab apple = any of numerous wild apple trees usually with small acidic fruit / any of numerous varieties of crab apples cultivated for their small acidic (usually bright red) fruit used for preserves or as ornamentals for their blossoms
  3995. crab cactus = South American jointed cactus with usually red flowers; often cultivated as a houseplant
  3996. crab grass = grasses with creeping stems that root freely
  3997. crabapple = any of numerous wild apple trees usually with small acidic fruit / any of numerous varieties of crab apples cultivated for their small acidic (usually bright red) fruit used for preserves or as ornamentals for their blossoms
  3998. crabgrass = grasses with creeping stems that root freely
  3999. crack willow = large willow tree with stiff branches that are easily broken
  4000. crackerberry = creeping perennial herb distinguished by red berries and clustered leaf whorls at the tips of shoots
  4001. Crambe = annual or perennial herbs with large leaves that resemble the leaves of cabbages
  4002. Crambe maritima = perennial of coastal sands and shingles of northern Europe and Baltic and Black Seas having racemes of small white flowers and large fleshy blue-green leaves often used as potherbs
  4003. crampbark = deciduous thicket-forming Old World shrub with clusters of white flowers and small bright red berries
  4004. cranberry = any of numerous shrubs of genus Vaccinium bearing cranberries
  4005. cranberry bush = deciduous North American shrub or small tree having three-lobed leaves and red berries
  4006. cranberry heath = small prostrate or ascending shrub having scarlet flowers and succulent fruit resembling cranberries
  4007. cranberry tree = deciduous North American shrub or small tree having three-lobed leaves and red berries / deciduous thicket-forming Old World shrub with clusters of white flowers and small bright red berries
  4008. crane's bill = any of numerous geraniums of the genus Geranium
  4009. cranesbill = any of numerous geraniums of the genus Geranium
  4010. crape fern = New Zealand with pinnate fronds and a densely woolly stalks
  4011. crape jasmine = tropical shrub having glossy foliage and fragrant nocturnal flowers with crimped or wavy corollas
  4012. crape myrtle = ornamental shrub from eastern India commonly planted in the southern United States
  4013. Craspedia = herbs of Australia and New Zealand
  4014. Crassula = type genus of Crassulaceae
  4015. Crassulaceae = succulent shrubs and herbs
  4016. Crataegus = thorny shrubs and small trees: hawthorn; thorn
  4017. Crataegus aestivalis = hawthorn of southern United States bearing a juicy, acidic, scarlet fruit that is often used in jellies or preserves
  4018. Crataegus apiifolia = southern United States hawthorn with pinnately lobed leaves
  4019. Crataegus biltmoreana = common shrub or small tree of the eastern United States having few thorns and white flowers in corymbs followed by bright orange-red berries
  4020. Crataegus calpodendron = erect and almost thornless American hawthorn with somewhat pear-shaped berries
  4021. Crataegus coccinea = American red-fruited hawthorn with dense corymbs of pink-red flowers
  4022. Crataegus coccinea mollis = American red-fruited hawthorn with stems and leaves densely covered with short woolly hairs
  4023. Crataegus crus-galli = eastern United States hawthorn with long straight thorns
  4024. Crataegus laevigata = thorny Eurasian shrub of small tree having dense clusters of white to scarlet flowers followed by deep red berries
  4025. Crataegus marshallii = southern United States hawthorn with pinnately lobed leaves
  4026. Crataegus mollis = American red-fruited hawthorn with stems and leaves densely covered with short woolly hairs
  4027. Crataegus monogyna = European hawthorn having deeply cleft leaves and bright red fruits; widely cultivated in many varieties and often grown as impenetrable hedges
  4028. Crataegus oxyacantha = evergreen hawthorn of southeastern Europe
  4029. Crataegus oxycantha = thorny Eurasian shrub of small tree having dense clusters of white to scarlet flowers followed by deep red berries
  4030. Crataegus pedicellata = American red-fruited hawthorn with dense corymbs of pink-red flowers
  4031. Crataegus tomentosa = erect and almost thornless American hawthorn with somewhat pear-shaped berries
  4032. Crateva = tropical genus of small trees or shrubs
  4033. crazy weed = any of several leguminous plants of western North America causing locoism in livestock
  4034. crazyweed = any of several leguminous plants of western North America causing locoism in livestock
  4035. cream violet = leafy-stemmed violet of eastern North America having large white or creamy flowers faintly marked with purple
  4036. cream-of-tartar tree = Australian tree having an agreeably acid fruit that resembles a gourd
  4037. creamcups = California plant with small pale yellow flowers
  4038. creashak = evergreen mat-forming shrub of North America and northern Eurasia having small white flowers and red berries
  4039. creeper = any plant (as ivy or periwinkle) that grows by creeping
  4040. creeping bellflower = erect European herb with creeping rootstocks and nodding spikelike racemes of blue to violet flowers
  4041. creeping bent = common pasture or lawn grass spread by long runners
  4042. creeping bentgrass = common pasture or lawn grass spread by long runners
  4043. creeping bugle = low rhizomatous European carpeting plant having spikes of blue flowers
  4044. creeping buttercup = perennial European herb with long creeping stolons
  4045. creeping Charlie = a loosestrife vine
  4046. creeping crowfoot = perennial European herb with long creeping stolons
  4047. creeping fern = delicate fern of the eastern United States having a twining stem and palmately-lobed sterile fronds and forked fertile fronds
  4048. creeping Jenny = a loosestrife vine
  4049. creeping juniper = low to prostrate shrub of Canada and northern United States
  4050. creeping lily = any plant of the genus Gloriosa of tropical Africa and Asia; a perennial herb climbing by means of tendrils at leaf tips having showy yellow to red or purple flowers
  4051. creeping oxalis = creeping much-branched mat-forming weed
  4052. creeping snowberry = slow-growing procumbent evergreen shrublet of northern North America and Japan having white flowers and numerous white fleshy rough and hairy seeds
  4053. creeping soft grass = European perennial grass with soft velvety foliage
  4054. creeping spike rush = cylindrical-stemmed sedge
  4055. creeping St John's wort = creeping evergreen shrub with bright yellow star-shaped summer flowers
  4056. creeping thistle = European thistle naturalized in United States and Canada where it is a pernicious weed
  4057. creeping thyme = aromatic dwarf shrub common on banks and hillsides in Europe
  4058. creeping willow = small trailing bush of Europe and Asia having straggling branches with silky green leaves of which several varieties are cultivated
  4059. creeping windmill grass = perennial Australian grass having numerous long spikes arranged like the vanes of a windmill
  4060. creeping wintergreen = creeping shrub of eastern North America having white bell-shaped flowers followed by spicy red berrylike fruit and shiny aromatic leaves that yield wintergreen oil
  4061. creeping wood sorrel = creeping much-branched mat-forming weed
  4062. creeping zinnia = low-branching leafy annual with flower heads resembling zinnias
  4063. crenate leaf = a leaf having a scalloped margin
  4064. creosote bush = desert shrub of southwestern United States and New Mexico having persistent resinous aromatic foliage and small yellow flowers
  4065. crepe fern = fern of rain forests of tropical Australia and New Zealand and South Africa
  4066. crepe flower = ornamental shrub from eastern India commonly planted in the southern United States
  4067. crepe gardenia = tropical shrub having glossy foliage and fragrant nocturnal flowers with crimped or wavy corollas
  4068. crepe jasmine = tropical shrub having glossy foliage and fragrant nocturnal flowers with crimped or wavy corollas
  4069. crepe myrtle = ornamental shrub from eastern India commonly planted in the southern United States
  4070. Crepis = hawk's-beard
  4071. Crescentia = a genus of tropical American trees of the family Bignoniaceae
  4072. Crescentia cujete = tropical American evergreen that produces large round gourds
  4073. cress = any of various plants of the family Cruciferae with edible leaves that have a pungent taste
  4074. cress plant = any of various plants of the family Cruciferae with edible leaves that have a pungent taste
  4075. crested coral root = orchid with yellowish-brown flowers with dark veins
  4076. crested wheat grass = Eurasian grass grown in United States great plains area for forage and erosion control
  4077. crested wheatgrass = Eurasian grass grown in United States great plains area for forage and erosion control
  4078. cretan dittany = dwarf aromatic shrub of Crete
  4079. crete dittany = dwarf aromatic shrub of Crete
  4080. cricket-bat willow = Eurasian willow tree having greyish leaves and ascending branches
  4081. crimson clover = southern European annual with spiky heads of crimson flower
  4082. crinkle root = North American herb with pungent scaly or toothed roots
  4083. crinkle-root = North American herb with pungent scaly or toothed roots
  4084. crinkleroot = North American herb with pungent scaly or toothed roots
  4085. Crocanthemum canadense = perennial of the eastern United States having early solitary yellow flowers followed by late petalless flowers
  4086. crocus = any of numerous low-growing plants of the genus Crocus having slender grasslike leaves and white or yellow or purple flowers
  4087. Crocus sativus = Old World crocus having purple or white flowers with aromatic pungent orange stigmas used in flavoring food
  4088. Cronartium = rust fungi having aecia produced in raised or swollen sori and teliospores borne in waxy columns
  4089. Cronartium ribicola = fungus causing white pine blister rust and having a complex life cycle requiring a plant of genus Ribes as alternate host
  4090. crooked-stemmed aster = a variety of aster
  4091. crop = a cultivated plant that is grown commercially on a large scale / the yield from plants in a single growing season
  4092. cross vine = woody flowering vine of southern United States
  4093. cross-leaved heath = dwarf European shrub with rose-colored flowers
  4094. crotal = any of several lichens of the genus Parmelia from which reddish brown or purple dyes are made
  4095. crotalaria = any of various plants of the genus Crotalaria having inflated pods within which the seeds rattle
  4096. Crotalaria sagitallis = tropical American annual herb having an inflated pod in which the ripe seeds rattle
  4097. Crotalaria spectabilis = erect subshrub having purple-tinted flowers and an inflated pod in which the ripe seeds rattle
  4098. croton = tropical Asiatic shrub; source of croton oil / grown in many varieties for their brightly colored foliage
  4099. Croton eluteria = West Indian shrub with aromatic bark
  4100. croton oil = viscid acrid brownish-yellow oil from the seeds of Croton tiglium having a violent cathartic action
  4101. Croton tiglium = tropical Asiatic shrub
  4102. crottal = any of several lichens of the genus Parmelia from which reddish brown or purple dyes are made
  4103. crottle = any of several lichens of the genus Parmelia from which reddish brown or purple dyes are made
  4104. crow corn = any of several perennials of the genus Aletris having grasslike leaves and bitter roots reputed to cure colic
  4105. crow garlic = pungent Old World wild onion
  4106. crow's foot = large tree of Australasia
  4107. crowberry = a low evergreen shrub with small purple flowers and black berrylike fruit
  4108. crowberry family = heathlike shrubs
  4109. crowfoot = any of various plants of the genus Ranunculus
  4110. crowfoot family = a family of Ranunculaceae
  4111. crowfoot grass = a creeping grass with spikes like fingers
  4112. crown = the upper branches and leaves of a tree or other plant
  4113. crown beard = any plant of the genus Verbesina having clustered white or yellow flower heads
  4114. crown daisy = shrubby annual of the Mediterranean region with yellowish-white flowers
  4115. crown imperial = Eurasian herb with a cluster of leaves and orange-red bell-shaped flowers at the top of the stem
  4116. crown of thorns = somewhat climbing bushy spurge of Madagascar having long woody spiny stems with few leaves and flowers with scarlet bracts
  4117. crown vetch = European herb resembling vetch; naturalized in the eastern United States
  4118. crown-beard = any plant of the genus Verbesina having clustered white or yellow flower heads
  4119. crown-of-the-field = European annual having large trumpet-shaped reddish-purple flowers and poisonous seed; a common weed in grainfields and beside roadways
  4120. crownbeard = any plant of the genus Verbesina having clustered white or yellow flower heads
  4121. crucifer = any of various plants of the family Cruciferae
  4122. Cruciferae = a large family of plants with four-petaled flowers
  4123. cruciferous plant = any of various plants of the family Cruciferae
  4124. cruel plant = robust twining shrub having racemes of fragrant white or pink flowers with flat spreading terminal petals that trap nocturnal moths and hold them until dawn
  4125. crustose thallus = thin crusty lichen thallus
  4126. cry-baby tree = small South American spiny tree with dark crimson and scarlet flowers solitary or clustered
  4127. crybaby tree = small South American spiny tree with dark crimson and scarlet flowers solitary or clustered
  4128. cryptocoryne = any plant of the genus Cryptocoryne; evergreen perennials growing in fresh or brackish water
  4129. cryptogam = formerly recognized taxonomic group including all flowerless and seedless plants that reproduce by means of spores: ferns, mosses, algae, fungi
  4130. Cryptogamia = in former classification systems: one of two major plant divisions, including all plants that do not bear seeds: ferns, mosses, algae, fungi
  4131. Cryptogramma = sometimes placed in family Polypodiaceae or Cryptogrammataceae
  4132. Cryptogramma acrostichoides = rock-inhabiting fern of northern North America growing in massive tufts and having fronds resembling parsley
  4133. Cryptogramma crispa = fern of Europe and Asia Minor having short slender rhizome and densely tufted bright green fronds resembling parsley
  4134. Cryptogrammataceae = one of a number of families into which the family Polypodiaceae has been subdivided in some classification systems
  4135. Cryptomeria = Japanese cedar
  4136. Cryptomeria japonica = tall evergreen of Japan and China yielding valuable soft wood
  4137. crystal tea = evergreen shrub of eastern North America having white or creamy bell-shaped flowers and dark green hairy leaves used for tea during American Revolution
  4138. Cuban bast = erect forest tree of Cuba and Jamaica having variably hairy leaves and orange-yellow or orange-red flowers
  4139. Cuban mahogany = mahogany tree of West Indies
  4140. Cuban spinach = succulent herb sometimes grown as a salad or pot herb
  4141. cube = any of several tropical American woody plants of the genus Lonchocarpus whose roots are used locally as a fish poison and commercially as a source of rotenone
  4142. cubeb = tropical southeast Asian shrubby vine bearing spicy berrylike fruits / spicy fruit of the cubeb vine
  4143. cubeb vine = tropical southeast Asian shrubby vine bearing spicy berrylike fruits
  4144. cuckoo bread = Eurasian plant with heart-shaped trifoliate leaves and white purple-veined flowers
  4145. cuckoo flower = common perennial native to Europe and western Asia having usually pink flowers with ragged petals / a bitter cress of Europe and America
  4146. cuckooflower = a bitter cress of Europe and America
  4147. cuckoopint = common European arum with lanceolate spathe and short purple spadix; emerges in early spring
  4148. cucumber = a melon vine of the genus Cucumis
  4149. cucumber tree = American deciduous magnolia having large leaves and fruit like a small cucumber
  4150. cucumber vine = a melon vine of the genus Cucumis
  4151. Cucumis = cucumbers
  4152. Cucumis melo = any of several varieties of vine whose fruit has a netted rind and edible flesh and a musky smell
  4153. Cucumis melo cantalupensis = a variety of muskmelon vine having fruit with a tan rind and orange flesh
  4154. Cucumis melo inodorus = any of a variety of muskmelon vines having fruit with a smooth white rind and white or greenish flesh that does not have a musky smell
  4155. Cucumis melo reticulatus = a muskmelon vine with fruit that has a thin reticulated rind and sweet green flesh
  4156. Cucumis sativus = a melon vine of the genus Cucumis
  4157. cucurbit = any plant of the family Cucurbitaceae
  4158. Cucurbita = type genus of the Cucurbitaceae
  4159. Cucurbita argyrosperma = plant bearing squash having globose to ovoid fruit with variously striped grey and green and white warty rinds
  4160. Cucurbita foetidissima = perennial vine of dry parts of central and southwestern United States and Mexico having small hard mottled green inedible fruit
  4161. Cucurbita maxima = any of several winter squash plants producing large greyish-green football-shaped fruit with a rough warty rind / plant bearing buff-colored squash having somewhat bottle-shaped fruit with fine-textured edible flesh and a smooth thin rind
  4162. Cucurbita maxima turbaniformis = squash plants bearing hard-shelled fruit shaped somewhat like a turban with a rounded central portion protruding from the end opposite the stem
  4163. Cucurbita mixta = plant bearing squash having globose to ovoid fruit with variously striped grey and green and white warty rinds
  4164. Cucurbita moschata = any of various plants bearing squash having hard rinds and elongated recurved necks
  4165. Cucurbita pepo = a coarse vine widely cultivated for its large pulpy round orange fruit with firm orange skin and numerous seeds
  4166. Cucurbita pepo melopepo = any of various usually bushy plants producing fruit that is eaten while immature and before the rind or seeds harden
  4167. Cucurbitaceae = a family of herbaceous vines
  4168. cudweed = perennial cottony-white herb of southwestern United States / any plant of the genus Filago having capitate clusters of small woolly flower heads / any of numerous plants of the genus Gnaphalium having flowers that can be dried without loss of form or color
  4169. Culcita = includes some plants usually placed in e.g. genus Dicksonia: terrestrial ferns resembling bracken; tropical America; Malaysia to Australia and Polynesia
  4170. Culcita dubia = resembles Pteridium aquilinum
  4171. culm = stem of plants of the Gramineae
  4172. cultivar = a variety of a plant developed from a natural species and maintained under cultivation
  4173. cultivated cabbage = any of various cultivars of the genus Brassica oleracea grown for their edible leaves or flowers
  4174. cultivated carrot = perennial plant widely cultivated as an annual in many varieties for its long conical orange edible roots
  4175. cultivated celery = widely cultivated herb with aromatic leaf stalks that are eaten raw or cooked
  4176. cultivated crab apple = any of numerous varieties of crab apples cultivated for their small acidic (usually bright red) fruit used for preserves or as ornamentals for their blossoms
  4177. cultivated parsnip = European biennial having a long fusiform root that has been made palatable through cultivation
  4178. cultivated plant = plants that are grown for their produce
  4179. cultivated rice = yields the staple food of 50 percent of world's population
  4180. cultivated strawberry = widely cultivated
  4181. Culver's physic = a tall perennial herb having spikes of small white or purple flowers
  4182. Culver's root = a tall perennial herb having spikes of small white or purple flowers
  4183. Culvers physic = a tall perennial herb having spikes of small white or purple flowers
  4184. Culvers root = a tall perennial herb having spikes of small white or purple flowers
  4185. cumfrey = perennial herbs of Europe and Iran
  4186. cumin = dwarf Mediterranean annual long cultivated for its aromatic seeds
  4187. Cuminum = cumin
  4188. Cuminum cyminum = dwarf Mediterranean annual long cultivated for its aromatic seeds
  4189. cumquat = any of several trees or shrubs of the genus Fortunella bearing small orange-colored edible fruits with thick sweet-flavored skin and sour pulp
  4190. cuneate leaf = a wedge-shaped leaf having the acute angle at the base
  4191. cunonia family = trees or shrubs or climbers
  4192. Cunoniaceae = trees or shrubs or climbers
  4193. cup = cup-shaped plant organ
  4194. cup and saucer = European biennial widely cultivated for its blue or violet or white flowers
  4195. cup fungus = any fungus that is a member of the subclass Discomycetes
  4196. cup morel = an edible morel with a cup-shaped or saucer-shaped fruiting body can be up to 20 cm wide; the fertile surface inside the cup has wrinkles radiating from the center
  4197. cupflower = any of various plants of the genus Nierembergia having upturned bell-shaped flowers / Mexican evergreen climbing plant having large solitary funnel-shaped fragrant yellow flowers with purple-brown ridges in the throat
  4198. cupid's dart = south European plant having dark-eyed flowers with flat blue rays
  4199. Cupressaceae = cypresses and junipers and many cedars
  4200. Cupressus = type genus of Cupressaceae
  4201. Cupressus abramsiana = rare California cypress taller than but closely related to gowen cypress and sometimes considered the same species
  4202. Cupressus arizonica = Arizona timber tree with bluish silvery foliage
  4203. Cupressus goveniana = small sometimes shrubby tree native to California; often used as an ornamental
  4204. Cupressus goveniana abramsiana = rare California cypress taller than but closely related to gowen cypress and sometimes considered the same species
  4205. Cupressus goveniana pigmaea = rare small cypress native to northern California
  4206. Cupressus guadalupensis = relatively low wide-spreading endemic on Guadalupe Island
  4207. Cupressus lusitanica = tall spreading evergreen found in Mexico having drooping branches
  4208. Cupressus macrocarpa = tall California cypress endemic on Monterey Bay
  4209. Cupressus pigmaea = rare small cypress native to northern California
  4210. Cupressus sempervirens = tall Eurasian cypress with thin grey bark and ascending branches
  4211. cupule = cup-shaped structure of hardened bracts at the base of an acorn
  4212. Curcuma = tropical Asiatic perennial herbs
  4213. Curcuma domestica = widely cultivated tropical plant of India having yellow flowers and a large aromatic deep yellow rhizome
  4214. Curcuma longa = widely cultivated tropical plant of India having yellow flowers and a large aromatic deep yellow rhizome
  4215. curled leaf pondweed = European herb naturalized in the eastern United States and California
  4216. curly clematis = climber of southern United States having bluish-purple flowers
  4217. curly grass = rare small fern of northeastern North America having numerous slender spiraling fronds and forming dense tufts
  4218. curly grass fern = rare small fern of northeastern North America having numerous slender spiraling fronds and forming dense tufts
  4219. curly pondweed = European herb naturalized in the eastern United States and California
  4220. curly-heads = shrubby clematis of the eastern United States having curly foliage
  4221. curlycup gumweed = perennial gumweed of western and central North America
  4222. currajong = widely distributed tree of eastern Australia yielding a tough durable fiber and soft light attractively grained wood
  4223. currant = any of various deciduous shrubs of the genus Ribes bearing currants
  4224. currant bush = any of various deciduous shrubs of the genus Ribes bearing currants
  4225. cursed crowfoot = annual herb growing in marshy places
  4226. Curtisia = a large evergreen tree of South Africa
  4227. Cuscuta = genus of twining leafless parasitic herbs lacking chlorophyll: dodder
  4228. Cuscuta gronovii = leafless parasitic vine with dense clusters of small white bell-shaped flowers on orange-yellow stems that twine around clover or flax
  4229. cush-cush = tropical American yam with small yellow edible tubers
  4230. cushaw = plant bearing squash having globose to ovoid fruit with variously striped grey and green and white warty rinds
  4231. cushion calamint = aromatic herb having heads of small pink or whitish flowers
  4232. cushion flower = tall straggling shrub with large globose crimson-yellow flowers
  4233. custard apple = any of several tropical American trees bearing fruit with soft edible pulp
  4234. custard apple tree = any of several tropical American trees bearing fruit with soft edible pulp
  4235. custard-apple family = chiefly tropical trees or shrubs
  4236. cutch = tannin extract derived from any of several mangrove barks of Pacific areas
  4237. cutleaved coneflower = tall leafy plant with erect branches ending in large yellow flower heads with downward-arching rays
  4238. cutting = a part (sometimes a root or leaf or bud) removed from a plant to propagate a new plant through rooting or grafting
  4239. Cyamopsis = small genus of annual usually hairy herbs of tropical Africa and Arabia
  4240. Cyamopsis psoraloides = drought-tolerant herb grown for forage and for its seed which yield a gum used as a thickening agent or sizing material
  4241. Cyamopsis tetragonolobus = drought-tolerant herb grown for forage and for its seed which yield a gum used as a thickening agent or sizing material
  4242. Cyathea = type genus of the Cyatheaceae: tree ferns of the tropical rain forest to temperate woodlands
  4243. Cyathea medullaris = a showy tree fern of New Zealand and Australia having a crown of pinnated fronds with whitish undersides
  4244. Cyatheaceae = tropical tree ferns
  4245. cycad = any tropical gymnosperm of the order Cycadales
  4246. cycad family = ancient palmlike plants closely related to ferns in that fertilization is by means of spermatozoids
  4247. Cycadaceae = ancient palmlike plants closely related to ferns in that fertilization is by means of spermatozoids
  4248. Cycadales = primitive tropical gymnosperms abundant in the Mesozoic, now reduced to a few scattered tropical forms
  4249. Cycadofilicales = fossil gymnospermous trees or climbing plants from the Devonian: seed ferns
  4250. Cycadophyta = palmlike gymnosperms: includes the surviving order Cycadales and several extinct orders; possibly not a natural group
  4251. Cycadophytina = palmlike gymnosperms: includes the surviving order Cycadales and several extinct orders; possibly not a natural group
  4252. Cycadopsida = palmlike gymnosperms: includes the surviving order Cycadales and several extinct orders; possibly not a natural group
  4253. Cycas = type genus of Cycadaceae: genus of widely distributed Old World evergreen tropical trees having pinnate leaves and columnar stems covered with persistent bases of old leaves
  4254. Cycas circinalis = southeastern Indian cycad with palmlike foliage
  4255. Cycas revoluta = dwarf palmlike cycad of Japan that yields sago
  4256. cyclamen = Mediterranean plant widely cultivated as a houseplant for its showy dark green leaves splotched with silver and nodding white or pink to reddish flowers with reflexed petals
  4257. Cyclamen hederifolium = common wild European cyclamen with pink flowers
  4258. Cyclamen neopolitanum = common wild European cyclamen with pink flowers
  4259. Cyclamen purpurascens = Mediterranean plant widely cultivated as a houseplant for its showy dark green leaves splotched with silver and nodding white or pink to reddish flowers with reflexed petals
  4260. Cycloloma = a caryophyllaceous genus of the family Chenopodiaceae
  4261. Cycloloma atriplicifolium = bushy annual weed of central North America having greenish flowers and winged seeds
  4262. Cyclophorus = tropical Old World ferns having closely crowded circular sori and no indusia
  4263. Cyclophorus lingua = east Asian fern having fronds shaped like tongues
  4264. Cyclosorus = small genus of terrestrial ferns of tropical and subtropical southern hemisphere
  4265. Cycnoches = genus of epiphytic or terrestrial tropical American orchids
  4266. Cydonia = quince
  4267. Cydonia oblonga = small Asian tree with pinkish flowers and pear-shaped fruit
  4268. cymbid = any of various plants of the genus Cymbidium having narrow leaves and a long drooping cluster of numerous showy and variously colored boat-shaped flowers
  4269. cymbidium = any of various plants of the genus Cymbidium having narrow leaves and a long drooping cluster of numerous showy and variously colored boat-shaped flowers
  4270. cyme = more or less flat-topped cluster of flowers in which the central or terminal flower opens first
  4271. cymling = squash plant having flattened round fruit with a scalloped edge
  4272. cymule = a small cyme, generally with few flowers
  4273. cynancum = any of various mostly giant tropical lianas of Africa and Madagascar having greenish or purple flowers and long smooth pods
  4274. Cynara = artichoke
  4275. Cynara cardunculus = southern European plant having spiny leaves and purple flowers cultivated for its edible leafstalks and roots
  4276. Cynara scolymus = Mediterranean thistlelike plant widely cultivated for its large edible flower head
  4277. Cynodon = creeping perennial grasses of tropical and southern Africa
  4278. Cynodon dactylon = trailing grass native to Europe now cosmopolitan in warm regions
  4279. Cynodon plectostachyum = perennial grass having stems 3 to 4 feet high
  4280. Cynoglossum = a large genus of tall rough herbs belonging to the family Boraginaceae
  4281. Cynoglossum amabile = biennial east Asian herb grown for its usually bright blue flowers
  4282. Cynoglossum officinale = biennial shrub of Europe and western Asia having coarse tongue-shaped leaves and dark reddish-purple flowers
  4283. Cynoglossum virginaticum = perennial shrub of North America having coarse tongue-shaped leaves and pale-blue to purple flowers
  4284. Cyperaceae = bulrush; chufa; cotton grass; papyrus
  4285. Cyperus = type genus of Cyperaceae; grasslike rhizomatous herbs
  4286. Cyperus alternifolius = African sedge widely cultivated as an ornamental water plant for its terminal umbrellalike cluster of slender grasslike leaves
  4287. Cyperus esculentus = European sedge having small edible nutlike tubers
  4288. Cyperus longus = European sedge having rough-edged leaves and spikelets of reddish flowers and aromatic roots
  4289. Cyperus papyrus = tall sedge of the Nile valley yielding fiber that served many purposes in historic times
  4290. Cyperus rotundus = a widely distributed perennial sedge having small edible nutlike tubers
  4291. Cyphomandra = tree tomato
  4292. cypre = large tropical American tree of the genus Cordia grown for its abundant creamy white flowers and valuable wood
  4293. cypress = any of numerous evergreen conifers of the genus Cupressus of north temperate regions having dark scalelike leaves and rounded cones / wood of any of various cypress trees especially of the genus Cupressus
  4294. cypress family = cypresses and junipers and many cedars
  4295. cypress pine = any of several evergreen trees or shrubs of Australia and northern New Caledonia
  4296. cypress sedge = tufted sedge of temperate regions
  4297. cypress spurge = Old World perennial having foliage resembling cypress
  4298. cypress tree = any of numerous evergreen conifers of the genus Cupressus of north temperate regions having dark scalelike leaves and rounded cones
  4299. cypress vine = tropical American annual climber having red (sometimes white) flowers and finely dissected leaves
  4300. cypripedia = a plant or flower of the genus Cypripedium
  4301. Cypripedium = genus of chiefly American perennial leafy-stemmed orchids: lady's slippers
  4302. Cypripedium acaule = once common rose pink woodland orchid of eastern North America
  4303. Cypripedium album = pale pink wild orchid of northeastern America having an inflated pouchlike lip
  4304. Cypripedium arietinum = orchid of northern North America having a brownish-green flower and red-and-white lip suggestive of a ram's head
  4305. Cypripedium calceolus = maroon to purple-brown orchid with yellow lip
  4306. Cypripedium calceolus pubescens = plant of eastern and central North America having slightly fragrant purple-marked greenish-yellow flowers
  4307. Cypripedium californicum = often having many yellow-green orchids with white pouches growing along streams and seeps of southwestern Oregon and northern California
  4308. Cypripedium fasciculatum = clusters of several short stems each having 2 broad leaves and 2-4 drooping brownish to greenish flowers with pouches mottled with purple
  4309. Cypripedium montanum = leafy plant having a few stems in a clump with 1 white and dull purple flower in each upper leaf axil
  4310. Cypripedium parviflorum = maroon to purple-brown orchid with yellow lip
  4311. Cypripedium reginae = pale pink wild orchid of northeastern America having an inflated pouchlike lip
  4312. cyrilla = shrub or small tree of southeastern United States to West Indies and Brazil
  4313. cyrilla family = shrubs and trees with leathery leaves and small white flowers in racemes: genera Cyrilla and Cliftonia
  4314. Cyrilla racemiflora = shrub or small tree of southeastern United States to West Indies and Brazil
  4315. Cyrilliaceae = shrubs and trees with leathery leaves and small white flowers in racemes: genera Cyrilla and Cliftonia
  4316. Cyrtomium = small genus of tropical Asiatic greenhouse ferns
  4317. Cyrtomium aculeatum = tropical Old World fern having glossy fronds suggestive of holly
  4318. Cystopteris = chiefly small perennial rock ferns: bladder ferns
  4319. Cystopteris bulbifera = North American fern often bearing bulbils on the leaflets
  4320. Cystopteris fragilis = delicate fern widely distributed in North America and European having thin pinnatifid fronds with brittle stems
  4321. Cystopteris montana = fern of rocky mountainous areas of hemisphere
  4322. Cytesis proliferus = shrub of Canary Islands having bristle-tipped oblanceolate leaves
  4323. Cytisus = large genus of stiff or spiny evergreen or deciduous Old World shrubs: broom
  4324. Cytisus albus = low European broom having trifoliate leaves and yellowish-white flowers
  4325. Cytisus multiflorus = low European broom having trifoliate leaves and yellowish-white flowers
  4326. Cytisus ramentaceus = erect shrub having large trifoliate leaves and dense clusters of yellow flowers followed by poisonous seeds; Yugoslavia
  4327. Cytisus scoparius = deciduous erect spreading broom native to western Europe
  4328. Daboecia = a dicotyledonous genus of the family Ericaceae
  4329. Daboecia cantabrica = low straggling evergreen shrub of western Europe represented by several varieties with flowers from white to rose-purple
  4330. Dacridium laxifolius = low-growing to prostrate shrub with slender trailing branches
  4331. Dacrycarpus = evergreen coniferous shrubs or trees of New Zealand to Malaysia and Philippines
  4332. Dacrycarpus dacrydioides = New Zealand evergreen valued for its light easily worked wood
  4333. Dacrydium = Australasian evergreen trees or shrubs
  4334. Dacrydium bidwilli = New Zealand shrub
  4335. Dacrydium colensoi = New Zealand silver pine of conical habit with long slender flexuous branches
  4336. Dacrydium cupressinum = tall New Zealand timber tree
  4337. Dacrydium franklinii = Tasmanian timber tree with yellow aromatic wavy-grained wood used for carving and ship building
  4338. Dacrymyces = type genus of the Dacrymycetaceae: fungi with a bifurcate basidium that lacks septa
  4339. Dacrymycetaceae = a family of basidiomycetous fungi belonging to the order Tremellales having a bifurcate basidium that lacks septa
  4340. Dactylis = a monocotyledonous grass of the family Gramineae
  4341. Dactylis glomerata = widely grown stout Old World hay and pasture grass
  4342. Dactyloctenium = a monocotyledonous genus of the family Gramineae
  4343. Dactyloctenium aegypticum = a creeping grass with spikes like fingers
  4344. Dactylorhiza = genus of terrestrial orchids of Europe and Asia and North Africa
  4345. Dactylorhiza fuchsii = European orchid having lanceolate leaves spotted purple and pink to white or mauve flowers spotted or lined deep red or purple
  4346. Dactylorhiza maculata fuchsii = European orchid having lanceolate leaves spotted purple and pink to white or mauve flowers spotted or lined deep red or purple
  4347. daffodil = any of numerous varieties of Narcissus plants having showy often yellow flowers with a trumpet-shaped central crown
  4348. daffodil garlic = European onion with white flowers
  4349. dagame = source of a tough elastic wood
  4350. dagga = relatively nontoxic South African herb smoked like tobacco
  4351. dagger fern = North American evergreen fern having pinnate leaves and dense clusters of lance-shaped fronds
  4352. dahl = tropical woody herb with showy yellow flowers and flat pods
  4353. dahlia = any of several plants of or developed from the species Dahlia pinnata having tuberous roots and showy rayed variously colored flower heads
  4354. Dahlia pinnata = any of several plants of or developed from the species Dahlia pinnata having tuberous roots and showy rayed variously colored flower heads
  4355. daikon = radish of Japan with a long hard durable root eaten raw or cooked
  4356. daily dew = any of various bog plants of the genus Drosera having leaves covered with sticky hairs that trap and digest insects
  4357. daisy = any of numerous composite plants having flower heads with well-developed ray flowers usually arranged in a single whorl
  4358. daisy bush = any of various mostly Australian attractively shaped shrubs of the genus Olearia grown for their handsome and sometimes fragrant evergreen foliage and profusion of daisy flowers with white or purple or blue rays
  4359. daisy fleabane = widely naturalized white-flowered North American herb
  4360. daisy-bush = any of various mostly Australian attractively shaped shrubs of the genus Olearia grown for their handsome and sometimes fragrant evergreen foliage and profusion of daisy flowers with white or purple or blue rays
  4361. daisy-leaved grape fern = of North America and Eurasia
  4362. daisybush = any of various mostly Australian attractively shaped shrubs of the genus Olearia grown for their handsome and sometimes fragrant evergreen foliage and profusion of daisy flowers with white or purple or blue rays
  4363. daisyleaf grape fern = of North America and Eurasia
  4364. dak = East Indian tree bearing a profusion of intense vermilion velvet-textured blooms and yielding a yellow dye
  4365. Dalbergia = large genus of tropical trees having pinnate leaves and paniculate flowers and cultivated commercially for their dramatically grained and colored timbers
  4366. Dalbergia cearensis = Brazilian tree yielding a handsome cabinet wood
  4367. Dalbergia latifolia = East Indian tree having a useful dark purple wood
  4368. Dalbergia nigra = an important Brazilian timber tree yielding a heavy hard dark-colored wood streaked with black
  4369. Dalbergia retusa = a valuable timber tree of tropical South America
  4370. Dalbergia sissoo = East Indian tree whose leaves are used for fodder
  4371. Dalbergia stevensonii = Central American tree yielding a valuable dark streaked rosewood
  4372. Dalea = indigo bush
  4373. Dalea spinosa = greyish-green shrub of desert regions of southwestern United States and Mexico having sparse foliage and terminal spikes of bluish violet flowers
  4374. dallis grass = tall tufted perennial tropical American grass naturalized as pasture and forage grass in southern United States
  4375. dallisgrass = tall tufted perennial tropical American grass naturalized as pasture and forage grass in southern United States
  4376. Dalmatia pyrethrum = white-flowered pyrethrum of Balkan area whose pinnate leaves are white and silky-hairy below; source of an insecticide
  4377. Dalmatian iris = European iris having soft lilac-blue flowers
  4378. Dalmatian laburnum = erect shrub having large trifoliate leaves and dense clusters of yellow flowers followed by poisonous seeds; Yugoslavia
  4379. Dalmatian pyrethrum = white-flowered pyrethrum of Balkan area whose pinnate leaves are white and silky-hairy below; source of an insecticide
  4380. dalo = herb of the Pacific islands grown throughout the tropics for its edible root and in temperate areas as an ornamental for its large glossy leaves
  4381. damask rose = large hardy very fragrant pink rose; cultivated in Asia Minor as source of attar of roses
  4382. damask violet = long cultivated herb having flowers whose scent is more pronounced in the evening
  4383. Dame's violet = long cultivated herb having flowers whose scent is more pronounced in the evening
  4384. dammar pine = any of various trees of the genus Agathis
  4385. damping off fungus = fungus causing damping off disease in seedlings
  4386. damson plum = plum tree long cultivated for its edible fruit / tropical American timber tree with dark hard heavy wood and small plumlike purple fruit
  4387. damson plum tree = plum tree long cultivated for its edible fruit
  4388. Danaea = fairly small terrestrial ferns of tropical America
  4389. dancing lady orchid = any orchid of the genus Oncidium: characterized by slender branching sprays of small yellow and brown flowers
  4390. dandelion = any of several herbs of the genus Taraxacum having long tap roots and deeply notched leaves and bright yellow flowers followed by fluffy seed balls
  4391. dandelion green = the foliage of the dandelion plant
  4392. danewort = dwarf herbaceous elder of Europe having pink flowers and a nauseous odor
  4393. dangle-berry = huckleberry of the eastern United States with pink flowers and sweet blue fruit
  4394. dangleberry = huckleberry of the eastern United States with pink flowers and sweet blue fruit
  4395. daphne = any of several ornamental shrubs with shiny mostly evergreen leaves and clusters of small bell-shaped flowers
  4396. Daphne cneorum = widely cultivated low evergreen shrub with dense clusters of fragrant pink to deep rose flowers
  4397. daphne family = family of trees and shrubs and herbs having tough bark that are found especially in Australia and tropical Africa
  4398. Daphne laureola = bushy Eurasian shrub with glossy leathery oblong leaves and yellow-green flowers
  4399. Daphne mezereum = small European deciduous shrub with fragrant lilac-colored flowers followed by red berries on highly toxic twigs
  4400. darling pea = either of two Australian plants of the genus Swainsona that are poisonous to sheep
  4401. Darlingtonia = one species: California pitcher plant
  4402. Darlingtonia californica = marsh or bog herb having solitary pendulous yellow-green flowers and somewhat twisted pitchers with broad wings below
  4403. Darmera = one species
  4404. Darmera peltata = rhizomatous perennial herb with large dramatic peltate leaves and white to bright pink flowers in round heads on leafless stems
  4405. darnel = weedy annual grass often occurs in grainfields and other cultivated land
  4406. Darwin tulip = any of several very tall, late blooming tulips bearing large squarish flowers on sturdy stems
  4407. dasheen = herb of the Pacific islands grown throughout the tropics for its edible root and in temperate areas as an ornamental for its large glossy leaves / edible starchy tuberous root of taro plants
  4408. date palm = tall tropical feather palm tree native to Syria bearing sweet edible fruit
  4409. date plum = an Asiatic persimmon tree cultivated for its small yellow or purplish-black edible fruit much valued by Afghan tribes
  4410. Datura = thorn apple
  4411. Datura arborea = a South American plant that is cultivated for its large fragrant trumpet-shaped flowers
  4412. Datura sanguinea = arborescent South American shrub having very large orange-red flowers
  4413. Datura stramonium = intensely poisonous tall coarse annual tropical weed having rank-smelling foliage, large white or violet trumpet-shaped flowers and prickly fruits
  4414. Datura suaveolens = South American plant cultivated for its very large nocturnally fragrant trumpet-shaped flowers
  4415. Daucus = carrot
  4416. Daucus carota = a widely naturalized Eurasian herb with finely cut foliage and white compound umbels of small white or yellowish flowers and thin yellowish roots
  4417. Daucus carota sativa = perennial plant widely cultivated as an annual in many varieties for its long conical orange edible roots
  4418. daughter cell = a cell formed by the division or budding of another cell
  4419. Davalia bullata = feathery fern of tropical Asia and Malaysia
  4420. Davalia bullata mariesii = feathery fern of tropical Asia and Malaysia
  4421. davallia = any fern of the genus Davallia
  4422. Davallia canariensis = fern of the Canary Islands and Madeira
  4423. Davallia Mariesii = feathery fern of tropical Asia and Malaysia
  4424. Davallia pyxidata = a hare's-foot fern of the genus Davallia
  4425. Davalliaceae = one of a number of families into which Polypodiaceae has been subdivided in some classification systems
  4426. Davidson's penstemon = mat-forming plant with blue and lavender flowers clustered on short erect stems
  4427. Daviesia = genus of Australasian shrubs and subshrubs having small yellow or purple flowers followed by short triangular pods
  4428. dawn redwood = large fast-growing Chinese monoecious tree having flat bright-green deciduous leaves and small globular cones; commonly cultivated in United States as an ornamental
  4429. day jessamine = West Indian evergreen shrub having clusters of funnel-shaped white flowers that are fragrant by day
  4430. day lily = any of numerous perennials having tuberous roots and long narrow bladelike leaves and usually yellow lily-like flowers that bloom for only a day / any of numerous perennials having mounds of sumptuous broad ribbed leaves and clusters of white, blue, or lilac flowers
  4431. dayflower = any plant of the family Commelinaceae
  4432. daylily = any of numerous perennials having tuberous roots and long narrow bladelike leaves and usually yellow lily-like flowers that bloom for only a day
  4433. dead nettle = a plants of the genus Pilea having drooping green flower clusters and smooth translucent stems and leaves / coarse bristly Eurasian plant with white or reddish flowers and foliage resembling that of a nettle
  4434. dead-man's-fingers = the fruiting bodies of the fungi of the genus Xylaria
  4435. dead-men's-fingers = the fruiting bodies of the fungi of the genus Xylaria
  4436. deadly nightshade = poisonous perennial Old World vine having violet flowers and oval coral-red berries; widespread weed in North America / perennial Eurasian herb with reddish bell-shaped flowers and shining black berries; extensively grown in United States
  4437. deadwood = a branch or a part of a tree that is dead
  4438. death angel = extremely poisonous usually white fungus with a prominent cup-shaped base
  4439. death camas = any of various plants of the genus Zigadenus having glaucous leaves and terminal racemes of mostly white flowers
  4440. death cap = extremely poisonous usually white fungus with a prominent cup-shaped base
  4441. death cup = extremely poisonous usually white fungus with a prominent cup-shaped base
  4442. deccan hemp = valuable fiber plant of East Indies now widespread in cultivation / fiber from an East Indian plant Hibiscus cannabinus
  4443. deciduous holly = a holly tree
  4444. deciduous plant = a plant having foliage that is shed annually at the end of the growing season
  4445. decompound leaf = a leaf having divisions that are themselves compound
  4446. Decumaria = small genus of woody climbers with adhesive aerial roots
  4447. Decumaria barbara = woody climber of southeastern United States having white flowers in compound terminal clusters
  4448. Decumaria barbata = woody climber of southeastern United States having white flowers in compound terminal clusters
  4449. decumary = woody climber of southeastern United States having white flowers in compound terminal clusters
  4450. deer fern = fern with erect fronds of Europe and western North America
  4451. deer grass = any of several plants of the genus Rhexia usually having pink-purple to magenta flowers
  4452. deer mushroom = a small edible agaric with a slender stalk
  4453. deer's-ear = any of various tall perennial herbs constituting the genus Frasera
  4454. deer's-ears = any of various tall perennial herbs constituting the genus Frasera
  4455. deerberry = small branching blueberry common in marshy areas of the eastern United States having greenish or yellowish unpalatable berries reputedly eaten by deer
  4456. Delairea = one species: German ivy
  4457. Delairea odorata = South African succulent evergreen twining climber with yellow flowers grown primarily as a houseplant for its foliage
  4458. Delonix = evergreen or deciduous trees of tropical Africa and India
  4459. Delonix regia = showy tropical tree or shrub native to Madagascar; widely planted in tropical regions for its immense racemes of scarlet and orange flowers
  4460. delphinium = any plant of the genus Delphinium having palmately divided leaves and showy spikes of variously colored spurred flowers
  4461. Delphinium ajacis = commonly cultivated larkspur of southern Europe having unbranched spikelike racemes of blue or sometimes purplish or pinkish flowers
  4462. deltoid leaf = a simple leaf shaped like a capital delta
  4463. Dematiaceae = family of imperfect mushrooms having dark-colored hyphae or conidia
  4464. Dendranthema = comprises plants often included in the genus Chrysanthemum
  4465. Dendranthema grandifloruom = of China
  4466. dendrobium = a plant of the genus Dendrobium having stems like cane and usually showy racemose flowers
  4467. Dendrocalamus = giant clump-forming bamboos
  4468. Dendrocalamus giganteus = immense tropical southeast Asian bamboo with tough hollow culms that resemble tree trunks
  4469. Dendromecon = one species: bush poppy
  4470. Dennstaedtia = chiefly terrestrial ferns
  4471. Dennstaedtia punctilobula = fern of eastern North America with pale green fronds and an aroma like hay
  4472. Dennstaedtiaceae = one of a number of families into which Polypodiaceae has been subdivided in some classification systems
  4473. dense blazing star = perennial of southeastern and central United States having very dense spikes of purple flowers
  4474. dense-leaved elodea = aquatic plant with deep green foliage useful to oxygenate an aquarium
  4475. dent corn = corn whose kernels contain both hard and soft starch and become indented at maturity
  4476. Dentaria = usually included in genus Cardamine
  4477. Dentaria bulbifera = European bittercress having a knotted white rootstock
  4478. Dentaria diphylla = North American herb with pungent scaly or toothed roots
  4479. dentate leaf = a leaf having a toothed margin
  4480. denticulate leaf = a leaf having a finely toothed margin
  4481. deodar = tall East Indian cedar having spreading branches with nodding tips
  4482. deodar cedar = tall East Indian cedar having spreading branches with nodding tips
  4483. Deparia = classification used for 5 species of terrestrial ferns usually placed in other genera
  4484. Deparia acrostichoides = fern with elongate silvery outgrowths enclosing the developing spores
  4485. derris = any of various usually woody vines of the genus Derris of tropical Asia whose roots yield the insecticide rotenone
  4486. Derris elliptica = woody vine having bright green leaves and racemes of rose-tinted white flowers
  4487. derris root = woody vine having bright green leaves and racemes of rose-tinted white flowers
  4488. Descurainia = includes annual or biennial herbs of America and Europe very similar to and often included among those of genera Sisymbrium or Hugueninia
  4489. Descurainia pinnata = North American herb with bitter-tasting pinnate leaves resembling those of tansy
  4490. desert four o'clock = wildflower having vibrant deep pink tubular evening-blooming flowers
  4491. desert holly = handsome low saltbush of arid southwestern United States and Mexico having blue-green prickly-edged leaves often used for Christmas decoration
  4492. desert mariposa tulip = mariposa with clusters of bell-shaped vermilion or orange or yellow flowers atop short stems
  4493. desert olive = spiny branching deciduous shrub of southwestern United States having clusters of insignificant yellow-white flowers appearing before leaves followed by attractive black berrylike fruits
  4494. desert paintbrush = most common paintbrush of western United States dry lands
  4495. desert pea = sprawling shrubby perennial noted for its scarlet black-marked flowers
  4496. desert plant = plant adapted for life with a limited supply of water
  4497. desert plume = perennial of southwestern United States having leathery blue-green pinnatifid leaves and thick plumelike spikes of yellow flowers
  4498. desert rose = South African shrub having a swollen succulent stem and bearing showy pink and white flowers after the leaves fall
  4499. desert sand verbena = soft-haired sticky plant with heads of bright pink trumpet-shaped flowers; found in sandy desert soil
  4500. desert selaginella = prostrate spikemoss
  4501. desert sunflower = slender hairy plant with few leaves and golden-yellow flower heads
  4502. desert willow = evergreen shrubby tree resembling a willow of dry regions of southwestern North America having showy purplish flowers and long seed pods
  4503. Desmanthus = genus of American herbs or shrubs with sensitive pinnate leaves and small whitish flowers
  4504. Desmanthus ilinoensis = perennial herb of North American prairies having dense heads of small white flowers
  4505. Desmodium = beggarweed
  4506. Desmodium gyrans = erect tropical Asian shrub whose small lateral leaflets rotate on their axes and jerk up and down under the influence of sunshine
  4507. Desmodium motorium = erect tropical Asian shrub whose small lateral leaflets rotate on their axes and jerk up and down under the influence of sunshine
  4508. Desmodium purpureum = West Indian forage plant cultivated in southern United States as forage and to improve soil
  4509. Desmodium tortuosum = West Indian forage plant cultivated in southern United States as forage and to improve soil
  4510. destroying angel = extremely poisonous usually white fungus with a prominent cup-shaped base
  4511. Deuteromycetes = form class
  4512. Deuteromycota = large and heterogeneous form division of fungi comprising forms for which no sexually reproductive stage is known
  4513. Deuteromycotina = large and heterogeneous form division of fungi comprising forms for which no sexually reproductive stage is known
  4514. deutzia = any of various shrubs of the genus Deutzia having usually toothed opposite leaves and shredding bark and white or pink flowers in loose terminal clusters
  4515. devil grass = trailing grass native to Europe now cosmopolitan in warm regions
  4516. devil lily = east Asian perennial having large reddish-orange black-spotted flowers with reflexed petals
  4517. devil nettle = a stinging herb of tropical America
  4518. devil tree = evergreen tree of eastern Asia and Philippines having large leathery leaves and small green-white flowers in compact cymes
  4519. devil's apples = a plant of southern Europe and North Africa having purple flowers, yellow fruits and a forked root formerly thought to have magical powers
  4520. devil's cigar = a common name for a variety of Sarcosomataceae
  4521. devil's claw = annual of southern United States to Mexico having large whitish or yellowish flowers mottled with purple and a long curving beak
  4522. devil's darning needle = common climber of eastern North America that sprawls over other plants and bears numerous panicles of small creamy white flowers
  4523. devil's fig = any plant of the genus Argemone having large white or yellow flowers and prickly leaves and stems and pods
  4524. devil's flax = common European perennial having showy yellow and orange flowers
  4525. devil's milk = not unattractive European weed whose flowers turn toward the sun / an Old World spurge introduced as a weed in the eastern United States
  4526. devil's tongue = foul-smelling somewhat fleshy tropical plant of southeastern Asia cultivated for its edible corms or in the greenhouse for its large leaves and showy dark red spathe surrounding a large spadix
  4527. devil's turnip = white-flowered vine having thick roots and bearing small black berries
  4528. devil's urn = a common name for a variety of Sarcosomataceae
  4529. devil's walking stick = small deciduous clump-forming tree or shrub of eastern United States
  4530. devil's weed = tropical annual procumbent poisonous subshrub having fruit that splits into five spiny nutlets
  4531. devilwood = small tree of southern United States having panicles of dull white flowers followed by dark purple fruits
  4532. dewberry = any of several trailing blackberry brambles especially of North America
  4533. dewberry bush = any of several trailing blackberry brambles especially of North America
  4534. dhak = East Indian tree bearing a profusion of intense vermilion velvet-textured blooms and yielding a yellow dye
  4535. dhal = tropical woody herb with showy yellow flowers and flat pods
  4536. dhava = an Indian tree of the family Combretaceae that is a source of timber and gum
  4537. dhawa = an Indian tree of the family Combretaceae that is a source of timber and gum
  4538. Diacalpa = one species: delicate fern of foothills of Himalayas
  4539. Diangus gratianopolitanus = mat-forming perennial of central Europe with large fragrant pink or red flowers
  4540. Dianthus = carnations and pinks
  4541. Dianthus barbatus = Eurasian pink widely cultivated for its flat-topped dense clusters of varicolored flowers
  4542. Dianthus caryophyllus = Eurasian plant with pink to purple-red spice-scented usually double flowers
  4543. Dianthus chinensis = Chinese pink with deeply toothed rose-lilac flowers with a purplish eye
  4544. Dianthus chinensis heddewigii = a flowering variety of China pink distinguished by jagged-edged petals
  4545. Dianthus deltoides = low-growing loosely mat-forming Eurasian pink with a single pale pink flower with a crimson center
  4546. Dianthus latifolius = much-branched pink with flowers in clusters
  4547. Dianthus plumarius = European pink cultivated for its very fragrant pink or rosy flowers
  4548. Dianthus supurbus = Eurasian perennial pink having fragrant lilac or rose flowers with deeply fringed margins
  4549. diapensia = any boreal low-growing evergreen plant of the genus Diapensia
  4550. diapensia family = north temperate low evergreen plants
  4551. Diapensiaceae = north temperate low evergreen plants
  4552. Diapensiales = used in some classifications: coextensive with family Diapensiaceae
  4553. Dicentra = North American and Asian herbs with divided leaves and irregular flowers
  4554. Dicentra canadensis = American plant with cream-colored flowers and tuberous roots resembling kernels of corn
  4555. Dicentra cucullaria = delicate spring-flowering plant of the eastern United States having white flowers with double spurs
  4556. Dicentra spectabilis = garden plant having deep-pink drooping heart-shaped flowers
  4557. dichondra = a creeping perennial herb with hairy stems and orbicular to reniform leaves and small white to greenish flowers
  4558. Dichondra micrantha = a creeping perennial herb with hairy stems and orbicular to reniform leaves and small white to greenish flowers
  4559. Dicksonia = tree ferns of temperate Australasia having bipinnatifid or tripinnatifid fronds and usually marginal sori
  4560. Dicksonia antarctica = of Australia and Tasmania; often cultivated
  4561. Dicksoniaceae = tree ferns: genera Dicksonia, Cibotium, Culcita, and Thyrsopteris elegans
  4562. dicot = flowering plant with two cotyledons
  4563. dicot family = family of flowering plants having two cotyledons (embryonic leaves) in the seed which usually appear at germination
  4564. dicot genus = genus of flowering plants having two cotyledons (embryonic leaves) in the seed which usually appear at germination
  4565. dicotyledon = flowering plant with two cotyledons
  4566. Dicotyledonae = comprising seed plants that produce an embryo with paired cotyledons and net-veined leaves; divided into six (not always well distinguished) subclasses (or superorders): Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae (considered primitive); Caryophyllidae (an early and distinctive offshoot); and three more or less advanced groups: Dilleniidae; Rosidae
  4567. Dicotyledones = comprising seed plants that produce an embryo with paired cotyledons and net-veined leaves; divided into six (not always well distinguished) subclasses (or superorders): Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae (considered primitive); Caryophyllidae (an early and distinctive offshoot); and three more or less advanced groups: Dilleniidae; Rosidae
  4568. Dicranaceae = mosses having costate leaves and long-stalked capsules with cleft peristome
  4569. Dicranales = widely distributed order of mosses with erect gametophores and sporophytes at the tips of stems
  4570. Dicranopteris = terrestrial ferns of forest margin or open ground
  4571. Dicranum = type genus of Dicranaceae
  4572. Dictamnus = a dicotyledonous genus of the family Rutaceae
  4573. Dictamnus alba = Eurasian perennial herb with white flowers that emit flammable vapor in hot weather
  4574. dictostylium = any slime mold of the genus Dictostylium
  4575. Dictyophera = closely related to genus Phallus distinguished by an indusium hanging like a skirt from below the pileus
  4576. Dieffenbachia = evergreen perennial herbs of tropical America with lush foliage and poisonous sap
  4577. Dieffenbachia sequine = an evergreen plant with large showy dark green leaves
  4578. Diervilla = small genus of low deciduous shrubs: bush honeysuckles
  4579. Diervilla lonicera = spreading bush of northeastern United States having small clusters of fragrant green and yellow flowers
  4580. Diervilla sessilifolia = bush honeysuckle of southeastern United States having large crowded clusters of sulfur-yellow flowers
  4581. digitalis = any of several plants of the genus Digitalis
  4582. Digitalis lutea = European yellow-flowered foxglove
  4583. Digitalis purpurea = tall leafy European biennial or perennial having spectacular clusters of large tubular pink-purple flowers
  4584. Digitaria = crab grass
  4585. Digitaria ischaemum = a weed
  4586. Digitaria sanguinalis = a European forage grass grown for hay
  4587. dika = African tree with edible yellow fruit resembling mangos
  4588. dill = aromatic Old World herb having aromatic threadlike foliage and seeds used as seasoning
  4589. dillenia = any of several evergreen trees or shrubs of the genus Dillenia grown for their foliage and nodding flowers resembling magnolias which are followed by fruit that is used in curries and jellies and preserves
  4590. Dilleniaceae = chiefly tropical shrubs and trees and climbers having leathery leaves or flattened leaflike stems: genera Dillenia and Hibbertia
  4591. dilleniid dicot family = family of more or less advanced dicotyledonous trees and shrubs and herbs
  4592. dilleniid dicot genus = genus of more or less advanced dicotyledonous trees and shrubs and herbs
  4593. Dilleniidae = a group of families of more or less advanced trees and shrubs and herbs having either polypetalous or gamopetalous corollas and often with ovules attached to the walls of the ovary; contains 69 families including Ericaceae and Cruciferae and Malvaceae
  4594. Dimocarpus = longan
  4595. Dimocarpus longan = tree of southeastern Asia to Australia grown primarily for its sweet edible fruit resembling litchi nuts
  4596. Dimorphotheca = South African herbs or subshrubs with usually yellow flowers
  4597. Dionaea = a genus of the family Droseraceae
  4598. Dionaea muscipula = carnivorous plant of coastal plains of the Carolinas having sensitive hinged marginally bristled leaf blades that close and entrap insects
  4599. dioon = any cycad of the genus Dioon
  4600. Dioscorea = yams
  4601. Dioscorea alata = grown in Australasia and Polynesia for its large root with fine edible white flesh
  4602. Dioscorea batata = hardy Chinese vine naturalized in United States and cultivated as an ornamental climber for its glossy heart-shaped cinnamon-scented leaves and in the tropics for its edible tubers
  4603. Dioscorea bulbifera = yam of tropical Africa and Asia cultivated for it large tubers
  4604. Dioscorea elephantipes = South African vine having a massive rootstock covered with deeply fissured bark
  4605. Dioscorea paniculata = having a rhizome formerly dried and used to treat rheumatism or liver disorders
  4606. Dioscorea trifida = tropical American yam with small yellow edible tubers
  4607. Dioscoreaceae = yams
  4608. Diospyros = a genus of trees or shrubs that have beautiful and valuable wood
  4609. Diospyros ebenum = tropical tree of southern Asia having hard dark-colored heartwood used in cabinetwork
  4610. Diospyros kaki = small deciduous Asiatic tree bearing large red or orange edible astringent fruit
  4611. Diospyros kurzii = large Asiatic tree having hard marbled zebrawood
  4612. Diospyros lotus = an Asiatic persimmon tree cultivated for its small yellow or purplish-black edible fruit much valued by Afghan tribes
  4613. Diospyros virginiana = medium-sized tree of dry woodlands in the southern and eastern United States bearing yellow or orange very astringent fruit that is edible when fully ripe
  4614. Dipladenia = genus of tropical South American tuberous perennial woody vines with large racemose flowers and milky sap
  4615. Dipladenia boliviensis = shrubby climber having glossy leaves and white funnel-shaped flowers with yellow throats
  4616. Diplazium pycnocarpon = North American fern with narrow fronds on yellowish leafstalks
  4617. Diplopterygium = scandent thicket-forming ferns of Asia to western Pacific
  4618. Diplopterygium longissimum = large scrambling fern forming large patches to 18 feet high
  4619. Diplotaxis = wall rocket
  4620. Diplotaxis erucoides = from Mediterranean region
  4621. Diplotaxis muralis = yellow-flowered European plant that grows on old walls and in waste places
  4622. Diplotaxis tenuifolia = yellow-flowered European plant that grows on old walls and in waste places
  4623. Dipogon = one species: Australian pea
  4624. Dipogon lignosus = South African evergreen partly woody vine grown for its clusters of rosy purple flowers followed by edible pods like snap beans; also grown as green manure
  4625. Dipsacaceae = chiefly southern European herbs with flowers usually in dense cymose heads
  4626. Dipsacus = type genus of the Dipsacaceae: teasel
  4627. Dipsacus fullonum = teasel with lilac flowers native to Old World but naturalized in North America
  4628. Dipsacus sativus = similar to the common teasel and similarly used; widespread in Europe and North Africa and western Asia
  4629. Dipsacus sylvestris = European teasel with white to pink flowers
  4630. dipterocarp = tree of the family Dipterocarpaceae
  4631. Dipterocarpaceae = chiefly tropical Asian trees with two-winged fruits
  4632. Dipteronia = small genus of large deciduous shrubs having large clusters of winged seeds that turn red as they mature
  4633. Dipteryx = tropical American trees: tonka beans
  4634. Dipteryx odorata = tall tropical South American tree having pulpy egg-shaped pods of fragrant black almond-shaped seeds used for flavoring
  4635. Dirca = deciduous shrub of North America: leatherwood
  4636. Dirca palustris = deciduous shrub of eastern North America having tough flexible branches and pliable bark and small yellow flowers
  4637. disa = any orchid of the genus Disa; beautiful orchids with dark green leaves and usually hooded flowers
  4638. discina = any fungus of the genus Discina
  4639. Discina macrospora = a discina with a flat or saucer-shaped fertile body that is brown on the upper surface; has a short stalk
  4640. Disciotis venosa = an edible morel with a cup-shaped or saucer-shaped fruiting body can be up to 20 cm wide; the fertile surface inside the cup has wrinkles radiating from the center
  4641. discomycete = any fungus that is a member of the subclass Discomycetes
  4642. Discomycetes = a large and taxonomically difficult group of Ascomycetes in which the fleshy fruiting body is disklike or cup-shaped
  4643. dishcloth gourd = any of several tropical annual climbers having large yellow flowers and edible young fruits
  4644. dita = evergreen tree of eastern Asia and Philippines having large leathery leaves and small green-white flowers in compact cymes
  4645. dita bark = evergreen tree of eastern Asia and Philippines having large leathery leaves and small green-white flowers in compact cymes
  4646. ditch fern = large deeply rooted fern of worldwide distribution with upright bipinnate compound tufted fronds
  4647. ditch reed = tall North American reed having relative wide leaves and large plumelike panicles; widely distributed in moist areas
  4648. ditchmoss = submerged freshwater perennials
  4649. dittany = Eurasian perennial herb with white flowers that emit flammable vapor in hot weather
  4650. dittany of crete = dwarf aromatic shrub of Crete
  4651. divi-divi = small thornless tree or shrub of tropical America whose seed pods are a source of tannin / twisted seed pods of the divi-divi tree
  4652. division Anthophyta = comprising flowering plants that produce seeds enclosed in an ovary
  4653. division Bryophyta = a division of nonflowering plants characterized by rhizoids rather than true roots and having little or no organized vascular tissue and showing alternation of generations between gamete-bearing forms and spore-bearing forms
  4654. division Eumycota = true fungi; eukaryotic heterotrophic walled organisms; distinguished from Myxomycota (funguslike slime molds): comprises subdivisions Mastigomycotina; Zygomycotina; Ascomycotina; Basidiomycotina
  4655. division Gymnomycota = slime molds; organisms having a noncellular and multinucleate creeping vegetative phase and a propagative spore-producing stage: comprises Myxomycetes and Acrasiomycetes
  4656. division Gymnospermophyta = plants having naked seeds not enclosed in an ovary; in some systems considered a class (Gymnospermae) and in others a division (Gymnospermophyta); comprises three subdivisions (or classes): Cycadophytina (class Cycadopsida) and Gnetophytina (class Gnetopsida) and Coniferophytina
  4657. division Lichenes = comprising the lichens which grow symbiotically with algae
  4658. division Magnoliophyta = comprising flowering plants that produce seeds enclosed in an ovary
  4659. division Myxomycota = slime molds; organisms having a noncellular and multinucleate creeping vegetative phase and a propagative spore-producing stage: comprises Myxomycetes and Acrasiomycetes
  4660. division Pteridophyta = containing all the vascular plants that do not bear seeds: ferns, horsetails, club mosses, and whisk ferns
  4661. division Spermatophyta = seed plants; comprises the Angiospermae (or Magnoliophyta) and Gymnospermae
  4662. division Tracheophyta = in former classifications: comprising plants with a vascular system including ferns and fern allies as well as seed plants
  4663. dock = any of certain coarse weedy plants with long taproots, sometimes used as table greens or in folk medicine
  4664. dodder = a leafless annual parasitic vine of the genus Cuscuta having whitish or yellow filamentous stems
  4665. Dodonaea = a genus of tropical shrub or tree
  4666. dog bent = common grass with slender stems and narrow leaves
  4667. dog fennel = widespread rank-smelling weed having white-rayed flower heads with yellow discs / weedy plant of southeastern United States having divided leaves and long clusters of greenish flowers
  4668. dog grass = European grass spreading rapidly by creeping rhizomes
  4669. dog hobble = fast-growing evergreen shrub of southeastern United States having arching interlaced branches and racemes of white flowers
  4670. dog laurel = fast-growing evergreen shrub of southeastern United States having arching interlaced branches and racemes of white flowers
  4671. dog mercury = European perennial weedy plant with greenish flowers
  4672. dog rose = prickly wild rose with delicate pink or white scentless flowers
  4673. dog stinkhorn = a stinkhorn having a stalk without a cap
  4674. dog violet = Old World leafy-stemmed blue-flowered violet
  4675. dog's mercury = European perennial weedy plant with greenish flowers
  4676. dog's-tooth violet = perennial woodland spring-flowering plant
  4677. dogbane = any of several poisonous perennial plants of the genus Apocynum having acrid milky juice and bell-shaped white or pink flowers and a very bitter root
  4678. dogbane family = chiefly tropical trees or shrubs or herbs having milky juice and often showy flowers
  4679. dogtooth = perennial woodland spring-flowering plant
  4680. dogtooth violet = perennial woodland spring-flowering plant
  4681. dogwood = a tree of shrub of the genus Cornus often having showy bracts resembling flowers / hard tough wood of any dogwood of the genus Cornus
  4682. dogwood family = a rosid dicot family of the order Umbellales including: genera Aucuba, Cornus, Corokia, Curtisia, Griselinia, Helwingia
  4683. dogwood tree = a tree of shrub of the genus Cornus often having showy bracts resembling flowers
  4684. Dolichos = genus of chiefly tropical vines often placed in genera Dipogon or Lablab or Macrotyloma
  4685. Dolichos biflorus = twining herb of Old World tropics cultivated in India for food and fodder
  4686. Dolichos lablab = perennial twining vine of Old World tropics having trifoliate leaves and racemes of fragrant purple pea-like flowers followed by maroon pods of edible seeds; grown as an ornamental and as a vegetable on the Indian subcontinent
  4687. Dolichos lignosus = South African evergreen partly woody vine grown for its clusters of rosy purple flowers followed by edible pods like snap beans; also grown as green manure
  4688. doll's eyes = North American herb with white poisonous berries
  4689. domatium = a part of a plant (e.g., a leaf) that has been modified to provide protection for insects or mites or fungi
  4690. dombeya = any of various shrubs or small trees of the genus Dombeya grown for their rounded clusters of exquisite often sweet-scented flowers usually hanging beneath the leaves
  4691. Dominican mahogany = mahogany tree of West Indies
  4692. doob = trailing grass native to Europe now cosmopolitan in warm regions
  4693. Doodia = in some classification systems placed in family Polypodiaceae
  4694. Doronicum = genus of Eurasian perennial tuberous or rhizomatous herbs: leopard's bane
  4695. Dorotheanthus = a caryophyllaceous genus of Dorotheanthus
  4696. Dorotheanthus bellidiformis = low-growing showy succulent annual of South Africa having white or pink or red or orange flowers and spatulate leaves covered in papillae that resemble small crystals
  4697. Doryopteris = small to medium tropical tufted ferns
  4698. Doryopteris pedata = tropical American fern with coarsely lobed to palmatifid fronds
  4699. dotted gayfeather = herb with many stems bearing narrow slender wands of crowded rose-lavender flowers
  4700. double gold = very tall branching herb with showy much-doubled yellow flower heads
  4701. douglas fir = tall evergreen timber tree of western North America having resinous wood and short needles / strong durable timber of a douglas fir
  4702. douglas hemlock = lofty douglas fir of northwestern North America having short needles and egg-shaped cones
  4703. douglas pine = lofty douglas fir of northwestern North America having short needles and egg-shaped cones
  4704. douglas spruce = lofty douglas fir of northwestern North America having short needles and egg-shaped cones
  4705. doura = sorghums of dry regions of Asia and North Africa
  4706. dourah = sorghums of dry regions of Asia and North Africa
  4707. dove's foot geranium = western geranium with small pink flowers
  4708. Dovyalis = small genus of sometimes spiny shrubs or small trees; Africa; India
  4709. Dovyalis caffra = vigorous South African spiny shrub grown for its round yellow juicy edible fruits
  4710. Dovyalis hebecarpa = a small shrubby spiny tree cultivated for its maroon-purple fruit with sweet purple pulp tasting like gooseberries
  4711. downy ash = smallish American tree with velvety branchlets and lower leaf surfaces
  4712. downy birch = European birch with dull white to pale brown bark and somewhat drooping hairy branches
  4713. downy brome = annual or winter annual grass with softly hairy leaves of the Mediterranean
  4714. downy bromegrass = annual or winter annual grass with softly hairy leaves of the Mediterranean
  4715. downy cheat = annual or winter annual grass with softly hairy leaves of the Mediterranean
  4716. downy chess = annual or winter annual grass with softly hairy leaves of the Mediterranean
  4717. downy ground cherry = decorative American annual having round fleshy yellow berries enclosed in a bladderlike husk
  4718. downy haw = American red-fruited hawthorn with stems and leaves densely covered with short woolly hairs
  4719. downy manzanita = erect openly branched California shrub whose twigs are woolly when young
  4720. downy mildew = any of various fungi of the family Peronosporaceae parasitic on e.g. grapes and potatoes and melons
  4721. downy poplar = North American poplar with large rounded scalloped leaves and brownish bark and wood
  4722. downy wood mint = a variety of wood mint
  4723. downy yellow violet = violet of eastern North America having softly pubescent leaves and stems and clear yellow flowers with brown-purple veins
  4724. draba = any of numerous low-growing cushion-forming plants of the genus Draba having rosette-forming leaves and terminal racemes of small flowers with scapose or leafy stems
  4725. Draba verna = annual weed of Europe and North America having a rosette of basal leaves and tiny flowers followed by oblong seed capsules
  4726. dracaena = an agave that is often cultivated for its decorative foliage
  4727. Dracaena draco = tall tree of the Canary Islands
  4728. Dracaenaceae = one of two subfamilies to which some classification systems assign some members of the Agavaceae
  4729. Dracenaceae = one of two subfamilies to which some classification systems assign some members of the Agavaceae
  4730. Dracocephalum = genus of American herbs and dwarf shrubs of the mint family: dragonheads
  4731. Dracocephalum parviflorum = American herb having sharply serrate lanceolate leaves and spikes of blue to violet flowers
  4732. dracontium = any plant of the genus Dracontium
  4733. Dracula = comprises tropical American species usually placed in genus Masdevallia: diminutive plants having bizarre and often sinister-looking flowers with pendulous scapes and motile lips
  4734. Dracunculus = tuberous herbaceous perennials: dragon arum
  4735. Dracunculus vulgaris = European arum resembling the cuckoopint
  4736. dragon arum = European arum resembling the cuckoopint
  4737. dragon tree = tall tree of the Canary Islands
  4738. dragon's head = American herb having sharply serrate lanceolate leaves and spikes of blue to violet flowers
  4739. dragon's mouth = a bog orchid with usually a solitary fragrant magenta pink blossom with a wide gaping corolla
  4740. dragonhead = American herb having sharply serrate lanceolate leaves and spikes of blue to violet flowers
  4741. Drimys = shrubs and trees of southern hemisphere having aromatic foliage
  4742. Drimys winteri = South American evergreen tree yielding winter's bark and a light soft wood similar to basswood
  4743. drooping brome = annual or winter annual grass with softly hairy leaves of the Mediterranean
  4744. drooping juniper = small tree of western Texas and mountains of Mexico having spreading branches with drooping branchlets
  4745. drop-seed = a grass of the genus Sporobolus
  4746. dropseed = a grass of the genus Sporobolus
  4747. Drosera = the type genus of Droseraceae including many low bog-inhabiting insectivorous plants
  4748. Droseraceae = a family of carnivorous herbs and shrubs
  4749. Drosophyllum = one species
  4750. Drosophyllum lusitanicum = perennial of dry habitats whose leaves have glandular hairs that secrete adhesive and digestive fluid for capture and digestion of insects
  4751. drumstick tree = deciduous or semi-evergreen tree having scented sepia to yellow flowers in drooping racemes and pods whose pulp is used medicinally
  4752. drupe = fleshy indehiscent fruit with a single seed: e.g. almond; peach; plum; cherry; elderberry; olive
  4753. drupelet = a small part of an aggregate fruit that resembles a drupe
  4754. dry rot = a fungus causing dry rot
  4755. Dryadella = comprises tropical American species usually placed in genus Masdevallia: very dwarf plants having short tufted and usually unifoliate stems with usually solitary flowers
  4756. Dryas = mountain avens
  4757. Dryas octopetala = creeping evergreen shrub with large white flowers
  4758. dryland berry = low deciduous shrub of the eastern United States bearing dark blue sweet berries
  4759. dryland blueberry = low deciduous shrub of the eastern United States bearing dark blue sweet berries
  4760. Drymoglossum = epiphytic ferns of Madagascar to tropical Asia and New Guinea
  4761. Drynaria = large robust epiphytic ferns of tropical forest and scrub
  4762. Drynaria rigidula = giant epiphytic or lithophytic fern
  4763. Dryopteridaceae = alternative names for one of a number of families into which the family Polypodiaceae has been subdivided in some classification systems
  4764. Dryopteris = large widespread genus of medium-sized terrestrial ferns
  4765. Dryopteris dilatata = European shield fern
  4766. Dryopteris filix-mas = fern of North America and Europe whose rhizomes and stalks yield an oleoresin used to expel tapeworms
  4767. Dryopteris fragrans = fern or northern Eurasia and North America having fragrant fronds
  4768. Dryopteris goldiana = North American fern with a blackish lustrous stipe
  4769. Dryopteris hexagonoptera = beech fern of North American woodlands having straw-colored stripes
  4770. Dryopteris marginalis = North American fern with evergreen fronds
  4771. Dryopteris noveboracensis = slender shield fern of moist woods of eastern North America
  4772. Dryopteris oreades = a fern of the genus Dryopteris
  4773. Dryopteris oreopteris = common European mountain fern having fragrant lemon or balsam scented fronds
  4774. Dryopteris phegopteris = beech fern of North America and Eurasia
  4775. Dryopteris thelypteris = fern having pinnatifid fronds and growing in wet places
  4776. Dryopteris thelypteris pubescens = fern of northeastern North America
  4777. drypis = spiny-leaved perennial herb of southern Europe having terminal clusters of small flowers
  4778. duckweed = any small or minute aquatic plant of the family Lemnaceae that float on or near the surface of shallow ponds
  4779. duckweed family = family of small free-floating thalloid plants
  4780. duct = a continuous tube formed by a row of elongated cells lacking intervening end walls
  4781. Duke of Argyll's tea tree = deciduous erect or spreading shrub with spiny branches and violet-purple flowers followed by orange-red berries
  4782. dumb cane = an evergreen plant with large showy dark green leaves
  4783. dundathu pine = Australian timber tree resembling the kauri but having wood much lighter in weight and softer
  4784. duramen = the older inactive central wood of a tree or woody plant
  4785. durian = tree of southeastern Asia having edible oval fruit with a hard spiny rind
  4786. durian tree = tree of southeastern Asia having edible oval fruit with a hard spiny rind
  4787. Durio = a genus of tall Asian trees of the family Bombacaceae
  4788. Durio zibethinus = tree of southeastern Asia having edible oval fruit with a hard spiny rind
  4789. durion = tree of southeastern Asia having edible oval fruit with a hard spiny rind
  4790. durmast = deciduous European oak valued for its tough elastic wood
  4791. durra = sorghums of dry regions of Asia and North Africa
  4792. durum = wheat with hard dark-colored kernels high in gluten and used for bread and pasta
  4793. durum wheat = wheat with hard dark-colored kernels high in gluten and used for bread and pasta
  4794. dusty miller = an old cottage garden plant of southeastern Europe widely cultivated for its attractive white woolly foliage and showy crimson flowers / herb with greyish leaves found along the east coast of North America; used as an ornamental plant / a plant having leaves and stems covered with down that resembles dust / stiff much-branched perennial of the Mediterranean region having very white woolly stems and leaves / shrubby perennial of the Canary Islands having white flowers and leaves and hairy stems covered with dustlike down
  4795. Dutch case-knife bean = tropical American bean with red flowers and mottled black beans similar to Phaseolus vulgaris but perennial
  4796. dutch clover = creeping European clover having white to pink flowers and bright green leaves; naturalized in United States
  4797. Dutch elm = any of various hybrid ornamental European shade trees ranging from dwarf to tall
  4798. Dutch elm fungus = fungus causing Dutch elm disease
  4799. Dutch iris = bulbous Spanish iris with red-violet flowers / bulbous Spanish iris having blue flowers
  4800. Dutchman's breeches = delicate spring-flowering plant of the eastern United States having white flowers with double spurs
  4801. Dutchman's-pipe = hardy deciduous vine having large leaves and flowers with the calyx tube curved like the bowl of a pipe
  4802. dwarf astilbe = mat-forming evergreen Asiatic plant with finely cut leaves and small pink to burgundy flowers
  4803. dwarf banana = low-growing Asian banana tree cultivated especially in the West Indies for its clusters of edible yellow fruit
  4804. dwarf bilberry = low-growing tufted deciduous shrub of northern and alpine North America having pink to coral-red flowers followed by sweet blue berries
  4805. dwarf blueberry = low-growing tufted deciduous shrub of northern and alpine North America having pink to coral-red flowers followed by sweet blue berries
  4806. dwarf buckeye = a spreading shrub with pink flowers
  4807. dwarf cape gooseberry = stout hairy annual of eastern North America with sweet yellow fruits
  4808. dwarf chestnut = shrubby chestnut tree of southeastern United States having small edible nuts
  4809. dwarf chinkapin oak = deciduous shrubby tree of northeastern and central United States having a sweet edible nut and often forming dense thickets
  4810. dwarf chinquapin oak = deciduous shrubby tree of northeastern and central United States having a sweet edible nut and often forming dense thickets
  4811. dwarf cornel = creeping perennial herb distinguished by red berries and clustered leaf whorls at the tips of shoots
  4812. dwarf daisy = tiny grey woolly tufted annual with small golden-yellow flower heads; southeastern California to northwestern Arizona and southwestern Utah
  4813. dwarf dandelion = small yellow-flowered herb resembling dandelions of central and southeastern United States
  4814. dwarf elder = bristly herb of eastern and central North America having black fruit and medicinal bark / dwarf herbaceous elder of Europe having pink flowers and a nauseous odor
  4815. dwarf elm = fast-growing shrubby Asian tree naturalized in United States for shelter or ornament
  4816. dwarf flowering almond = small Chinese shrub with smooth unfurrowed dark red fruit grown especially for its red or pink or white flowers
  4817. dwarf golden chinkapin = evergreen shrub similar to golden chinkapin
  4818. dwarf gray willow = willow shrub of dry places in the eastern United States having long narrow leaves canescent beneath
  4819. dwarf grey willow = willow shrub of dry places in the eastern United States having long narrow leaves canescent beneath
  4820. dwarf hulsea = similar to but smaller than alpine hulsea
  4821. dwarf iris = low-growing summer-flowering iris of northeastern United States / low-growing spring-flowering American iris with bright blue-lilac flowers
  4822. dwarf juniper = procumbent or spreading juniper / a procumbent variety of the common juniper
  4823. dwarf lycopod = tufted spikemoss forming loose spreading mats
  4824. dwarf maple = small maple of northwestern North America
  4825. dwarf mountain pine = low shrubby pine of central Europe with short bright green needles in bunches of two
  4826. dwarf mulberry = creeping raspberry of north temperate regions with yellow or orange berries
  4827. dwarf nipplewort = small European herb with small yellow flowers
  4828. dwarf oak = deciduous shrubby tree of northeastern and central United States having a sweet edible nut and often forming dense thickets
  4829. dwarf phlox = low tufted perennial phlox with needlelike evergreen leaves and pink or white flowers
  4830. dwarf Russian almond = Asiatic shrub cultivated for its rosy red flowers
  4831. dwarf spurge = European erect or depressed annual weedy spurge adventive in northeastern United States
  4832. dwarf sumac = common nonpoisonous shrub of eastern North America with compound leaves and green paniculate flowers followed by red berries
  4833. dwarf tulip = small early blooming tulip
  4834. dwarf willow = widely distributed boreal shrubby willow with partially underground creeping stems and bright green glossy leaves
  4835. dwarf-white trillium = a low perennial white-flowered trillium found in the southeastern United States
  4836. dyer's greenweed = small Eurasian shrub having clusters of yellow flowers that yield a dye; common as a weed in Britain and the United States
  4837. dyer's mignonette = European mignonette cultivated as a source of yellow dye
  4838. dyer's rocket = European mignonette cultivated as a source of yellow dye
  4839. dyer's weed = eastern North American herb whose yellow flowers are (or were) used in dyeing
  4840. dyer's woad = European biennial formerly grown for the blue coloring matter yielded by its leaves
  4841. dyer's woodruff = creeping European perennial having red or pinkish-white flowers and red roots sometimes used as a substitute for madder in dyeing
  4842. dyer's-broom = small Eurasian shrub having clusters of yellow flowers that yield a dye; common as a weed in Britain and the United States
  4843. dyers' chamomile = Eurasian perennial herb with hairy divided leaves and yellow flowers
  4844. dyeweed = small Eurasian shrub having clusters of yellow flowers that yield a dye; common as a weed in Britain and the United States
  4845. ear = fruiting spike of a cereal plant especially corn
  4846. ear fungus = widely distributed edible fungus shaped like a human ear and growing on decaying wood
  4847. earleaved umbrella tree = small erect deciduous tree with large leaves in coiled formations at branch tips
  4848. early coral root = plant having clumps of nearly leafless pale yellowish to greenish stems bearing similarly colored flowers with white lower lips
  4849. early morel = resembles a thimble on a finger; the surface of the fertile portion is folded into wrinkles that extend from the top down
  4850. early purple orchid = Eurasian orchid with showy pink or purple flowers in a loose spike
  4851. early spider orchid = spring-blooming spider orchid having a flower with yellow or green or pink sepals and a broad brown velvety lip
  4852. early wake-robin = a low perennial white-flowered trillium found in the southeastern United States
  4853. early winter cress = of southwestern Europe
  4854. earth almond = European sedge having small edible nutlike tubers
  4855. earth-ball = any of various highly prized edible subterranean fungi of the genus Tuber
  4856. earth-nut pea = European herb bearing small tubers used for food and in Scotland to flavor whiskey
  4857. earth-tongue = any club-shaped fungus of the genus Geoglossum
  4858. earthball = any of various fungi of the genus Scleroderma having hard-skinned subterranean fruiting bodies resembling truffles
  4859. earthnut = a common European plant having edible tubers with the flavor of roasted chestnuts / any of various highly prized edible subterranean fungi of the genus Tuber
  4860. earthnut pea = European herb bearing small tubers used for food and in Scotland to flavor whiskey
  4861. earthstar = any fungus of the family Geastraceae
  4862. earthtongue = any club-shaped fungus of the genus Geoglossum
  4863. east African cedar = tropical African timber tree with fragrant wood
  4864. East India kino = reddish or black juice or resin from certain trees of the genus Pterocarpus and used in medicine and tanning etc
  4865. East India rosewood = East Indian tree having a useful dark purple wood
  4866. East Indian fig tree = East Indian tree that puts out aerial shoots that grow down into the soil forming additional trunks
  4867. East Indian rosebay = tropical shrub having glossy foliage and fragrant nocturnal flowers with crimped or wavy corollas
  4868. East Indian rosewood = East Indian tree having a useful dark purple wood
  4869. Easter cactus = spring-blooming South American cactus with oblong joints and coral-red flowers
  4870. Easter daisy = dwarf tufted nearly stemless herb having a rosette of woolly leaves and large white-rayed flower heads and bristly achenes
  4871. Easter lily = tall lily have large white trumpet-shaped flowers that bloom in the spring
  4872. Easter lily vine = evergreen woody twiner with large glossy leaves and showy corymbs of fragrant white trumpet-shaped flowers
  4873. eastern chinquapin = shrubby chestnut tree of southeastern United States having small edible nuts
  4874. Eastern cottonwood = a common poplar of eastern and central United States
  4875. eastern flowering dogwood = deciduous tree
  4876. eastern hemlock = common forest tree of the eastern United States and Canada
  4877. Eastern hop hornbeam = medium-sized hop hornbeam of eastern North America
  4878. Eastern pasque flower = short hairy perennial with early spring blue-violet or lilac flowers
  4879. eastern poison oak = poisonous shrub of southeastern United States causing a rash on contact
  4880. eastern red cedar = small juniper found east of Rocky Mountains having a conic crown, brown bark that peels in shreds, and small sharp needles
  4881. Eastern silvery aster = a variety of aster
  4882. eastern spruce = medium-sized spruce of eastern North America; chief lumber spruce of the area
  4883. eastern white pine = tall-growing pine of eastern North America; bark is brown with longitudinal fissures when mature
  4884. eau de cologne mint = mint with leaves having perfume like that of the bergamot orange
  4885. Ebenaceae = fruit and timber trees of tropical and warm regions including ebony and persimmon
  4886. Ebenales = trees or shrubs of the families Ebenaceae or Sapotaceae or Styracaceae or Symplocaceae
  4887. ebony = tropical tree of southern Asia having hard dark-colored heartwood used in cabinetwork / hard dark-colored heartwood of the ebony tree
  4888. ebony family = fruit and timber trees of tropical and warm regions including ebony and persimmon
  4889. ebony spleenwort = common North American fern with polished black stripes
  4890. ebony tree = tropical tree of southern Asia having hard dark-colored heartwood used in cabinetwork
  4891. Eburophyton = a monocotyledonous genus of the family Orchidaceae
  4892. Eburophyton austinae = waxy white nearly leafless plant with stems in clusters and racemes of white flowers
  4893. Ecballium = exploding cucumber
  4894. Ecballium elaterium = Mediterranean vine having oblong fruit that when ripe expels its seeds and juice violently when touched
  4895. Echinacea = small genus of North American coarse perennial herbs
  4896. echinocactus = any cactus of the genus Echinocactus; strongly ribbed and very spiny
  4897. Echinocactus grusonii = large cactus of east central Mexico having golden to pale yellow flowers and spines
  4898. Echinocereus = large genus of low-growing shrubby ribbed cacti of Mexico and southwestern United States
  4899. Echinochloa = annual or perennial succulent grasses of warm regions
  4900. Echinochloa crusgalli = a coarse annual panic grass; a cosmopolitan weed
  4901. Echinochloa frumentacea = coarse annual grass cultivated in Japan and southeastern Asia for its edible seeds and for forage
  4902. Echinops = genus of Mediterranean and Eurasian herbs: globe thistles
  4903. Echium = a genus of bristly herbs and shrubs of the family Boraginaceae
  4904. Echium vulgare = a coarse prickly European weed with spikes of blue flowers
  4905. eddo = edible starchy tuberous root of taro plants
  4906. edelweiss = alpine perennial plant native to Europe having leaves covered with whitish down and small flower heads held in stars of glistening whitish bracts
  4907. edible asparagus = plant whose succulent young shoots are cooked and eaten as a vegetable
  4908. edible banana = widely cultivated species of banana trees bearing compact hanging clusters of commercially important edible yellow fruit
  4909. edible-pod pea = a variety of pea plant producing peas having soft thick edible pods lacking the fibrous inner lining of the common pea
  4910. edible-podded pea = a variety of pea plant producing peas having soft thick edible pods lacking the fibrous inner lining of the common pea
  4911. eelgrass = submerged aquatic plant with ribbonlike leaves
  4912. eelgrass family = used in some classifications: essentially equivalent to Potamogetonaceae
  4913. Egeria = small genus of dioecious tropical aquatic plants
  4914. Egeria densa = aquatic plant with deep green foliage useful to oxygenate an aquarium
  4915. eggplant = hairy upright herb native to southeastern Asia but widely cultivated for its large glossy edible fruit commonly used as a vegetable
  4916. eggplant bush = hairy upright herb native to southeastern Asia but widely cultivated for its large glossy edible fruit commonly used as a vegetable
  4917. eglantine = Eurasian rose with prickly stems and fragrant leaves and bright pink flowers followed by scarlet hips
  4918. Egyptian bean = perennial twining vine of Old World tropics having trifoliate leaves and racemes of fragrant purple pea-like flowers followed by maroon pods of edible seeds; grown as an ornamental and as a vegetable on the Indian subcontinent
  4919. Egyptian corn = sorghums of dry regions of Asia and North Africa
  4920. Egyptian cotton = fine somewhat brownish long-staple cotton grown in Egypt
  4921. Egyptian grass = a creeping grass with spikes like fingers
  4922. Egyptian henbane = poisonous herb whose leaves are a source of hyoscyamine
  4923. Egyptian lupine = white-flowered Eurasian herb widely cultivated for forage and erosion control
  4924. Egyptian onion = type of perennial onion grown chiefly as a curiosity or for early salad onions
  4925. Egyptian paper reed = tall sedge of the Nile valley yielding fiber that served many purposes in historic times
  4926. Egyptian paper rush = tall sedge of the Nile valley yielding fiber that served many purposes in historic times
  4927. Egyptian pea = Asiatic herb cultivated for its short pods with one or two edible seeds
  4928. Egyptian water lily = white Egyptian lotus: water lily of Egypt to southeastern Africa
  4929. Eichhornia = water hyacinth
  4930. Eichhornia crassipes = a tropical floating aquatic plant having spikes of large blue flowers
  4931. Eichhornia spesiosa = a tropical floating aquatic plant having spikes of large blue flowers
  4932. Elaeagnaceae = shrubs or small trees often armed
  4933. Elaeagnus = oleaster
  4934. Elaeagnus augustifolia = deciduous shrubby tree of Europe and western Asia having grey leaves and small yellow fruits covered in silvery scales
  4935. Elaeagnus commutata = deciduous unarmed North American shrub with silvery leaves and fruits
  4936. Elaeagnus latifolia = erect shrub or climber of India and China with red olivelike fruit
  4937. Elaeis = oil palms
  4938. Elaeis guineensis = oil palm of Africa
  4939. Elaeis oleifera = palm of Central and South America
  4940. Elaeocarpaceae = genus of trees and shrubs widely distributed in warm regions some yielding useful timber
  4941. Elaeocarpus = type genus of the family Elaeocarpaceae
  4942. elaeocarpus family = genus of trees and shrubs widely distributed in warm regions some yielding useful timber
  4943. Elaeocarpus grandis = Australian tree having hard white timber and glossy green leaves with white flowers followed by one-seeded glossy blue fruit
  4944. elder = any of numerous shrubs or small trees of temperate and subtropical northern hemisphere having white flowers and berrylike fruit
  4945. elderberry = a common shrub with black fruit or a small tree of Europe and Asia
  4946. elderberry bush = any of numerous shrubs or small trees of temperate and subtropical northern hemisphere having white flowers and berrylike fruit
  4947. elecampane = tall coarse Eurasian herb having daisylike yellow flowers with narrow petals whose rhizomatous roots are used medicinally
  4948. elegant brodiaea = brodiaea having an umbel of violet or blue-violet flowers atop a leafless stalk
  4949. elegant cat's ears = small plant with slender bent stems bearing branched clusters of a few white star-shaped flowers with petals shaped like cat's ears
  4950. elegant Habenaria = slender inland rein orchid similar to coastal rein orchid but with pale greenish-yellow flowers
  4951. elemi = fragrant resin obtain from trees of the family Burseraceae and used as incense
  4952. Eleocharis = sedges having dense spikes of flowers and leaves reduced to basal sheaths
  4953. Eleocharis acicularis = fine-leaved aquatic spike rush
  4954. Eleocharis dulcis = Chinese sedge yielding edible bulb-shaped tubers
  4955. Eleocharis palustris = cylindrical-stemmed sedge
  4956. elephant ear = any plant of the genus Alocasia having large showy basal leaves and boat-shaped spathe and reddish berries
  4957. elephant tree = small tree or shrub of the southwestern United States having a spicy odor and odd-pinnate leaves and small clusters of white flowers
  4958. elephant yam = putrid-smelling aroid of southeastern Asia (especially the Philippines) grown for its edible tuber
  4959. elephant's ear = tropical South American tree having a wide-spreading crown of bipinnate leaves and coiled ear-shaped fruits
  4960. elephant's-foot = any plant of the genus Elephantopus having heads of blue or purple flowers
  4961. elephant-tusk = annual of southern United States to Mexico having large whitish or yellowish flowers mottled with purple and a long curving beak
  4962. Elephantopus = perennial American herb
  4963. Elettaria = cardamom
  4964. Elettaria cardamomum = rhizomatous herb of India having aromatic seeds used as seasoning
  4965. Eleusine = annual and perennial grasses of savannas and upland grasslands
  4966. Eleusine coracana = East Indian cereal grass whose seed yield a somewhat bitter flour, a staple in the Orient
  4967. Eleusine indica = coarse annual grass having fingerlike spikes of flowers; native to Old World tropics
  4968. eleuthera bark = aromatic bark of cascarilla
  4969. elf cup = apothecium of a fungus of the family Pezizaceae
  4970. elk nut = oily drupaceous fruit of rabbitwood
  4971. elk-wood = small deciduous tree of eastern North America having creamy white flowers and large leaves in formations like umbrellas at the ends of branches
  4972. elkhorn fern = commonly cultivated fern of Australia and southeastern Asia and Polynesia
  4973. elkwood = small deciduous tree of eastern North America having creamy white flowers and large leaves in formations like umbrellas at the ends of branches
  4974. Elliott's goldenrod = a variety of goldenrod
  4975. elliptic leaf = a simple leaf shaped like an ellipse
  4976. elm = any of various trees of the genus Ulmus: important timber or shade trees / hard tough wood of an elm tree
  4977. elm family = a dicot family of the order Urticales including: genera Ulmus, Celtis, Planera, Trema
  4978. elm tree = any of various trees of the genus Ulmus: important timber or shade trees
  4979. elmwood = hard tough wood of an elm tree
  4980. Elodea = submerged freshwater perennials
  4981. Elodea canadensis = North American waterweed
  4982. Elodea densa = aquatic plant with deep green foliage useful to oxygenate an aquarium
  4983. elongate leaf = a long slender leaf
  4984. elsholtzia = any of various aromatic herbs of the genus Elsholtzia having blue or purple flowers in one-sided spikes
  4985. Elymus = tall tufted perennial grasses
  4986. Elymus arenarius = a dune grass of the Pacific seacoast used as a sand binder
  4987. Elymus canadensis = North American wild rye
  4988. Elymus caput-medusae = weedy rye grass having long bristling awns
  4989. Elymus condensatus = stout perennial grass of western North America
  4990. Elymus hispidus = Asiatic grass introduced into United States rangelands for pasture and fodder
  4991. Elymus trachycaulos = North American grass cultivated in western United States as excellent forage crop
  4992. emarginate leaf = a leaf having a notch at the apex
  4993. Embothrium = small genus of South American evergreen shrubs or small trees with long willowy branches and flowers in flamboyant terminal clusters
  4994. Embothrium coccineum = grown for outstanding display of brilliant usually scarlet-crimson flowers
  4995. embryo = a minute rudimentary plant contained within a seed or an archegonium
  4996. emerald creeper = vigorous Philippine evergreen twining liana
  4997. Emilia = tropical African herbs
  4998. Emilia coccinea = tropical African annual having scarlet tassel-shaped flower heads
  4999. Emilia flammea = tropical African annual having scarlet tassel-shaped flower heads
  5000. Emilia javanica = tropical African annual having scarlet tassel-shaped flower heads
  5001. Emilia sagitta = tropical Asiatic annual cultivated for its small tassel-shaped heads of scarlet flowers
  5002. Emmanthe = one species: yellow bells
  5003. Emmanthe penduliflora = viscid herb of arid or desert habitats of southwestern United States having pendulous yellow flowers
  5004. emmer = hard red wheat grown especially in Russia and Germany
  5005. Empetraceae = heathlike shrubs
  5006. Empetrum = crowberries
  5007. enation = a natural projection or outgrowth from a plant body or organ
  5008. Encelia = genus of shrubs of southwestern United States and Mexico: brittlebush
  5009. Encelia farinosa = fragrant rounded shrub of southwestern United States and adjacent Mexico having brittle stems and small crowded blue-green leaves and yellow flowers
  5010. Enceliopsis = small genus of xerophytic herbs of southwestern United States
  5011. Enceliopsis nudicaulis = herb having a basal cluster of grey-green leaves and leafless stalks each with a solitary broad yellow flower head
  5012. encephalartos = any of numerous cycads of the genus Encephalartos having stout cylindrical trunks and a terminal crown of long often spiny pinnate leaves
  5013. Encephalartos caffer = South African cycad
  5014. enchanter's nightshade = any of several erect perennial rhizomatous herbs of the genus Circaea having white flowers that open at dawn
  5015. Encyclia = large genus of epiphytic and lithophytic orchids of tropical and subtropical Americas and West Indies
  5016. Encyclia citrina = Mexican epiphytic orchid with glaucous grey-green leaves and lemon- to golden-yellow flowers appearing only partially opened
  5017. Encyclia tampensis = orchid of Florida and the Bahamas having showy brightly colored flowers
  5018. Encyclia venosa = Mexican epiphytic orchid having pale green or yellow-green flowers with white purple-veined lip
  5019. endemic = a plant that is native to a certain limited area
  5020. endive = widely cultivated herb with leaves valued as salad green
  5021. endocarp = the hard inner (usually woody) layer of the pericarp of some fruits (as peaches or plums or cherries or olives) that contains the seed
  5022. endogen = a monocotyledonous flowering plant
  5023. Endomycetales = fungi having a zygote or a single cell developing directly into an ascus
  5024. endosperm = nutritive tissue surrounding the embryo within seeds of flowering plants
  5025. endospore = a small asexual spore that develops inside the cell of some bacteria and algae
  5026. Engelmann spruce = tall spruce of Rocky Mountains and British Columbia with blue-green needles and acutely conic crown
  5027. Engelmann's spruce = tall spruce of Rocky Mountains and British Columbia with blue-green needles and acutely conic crown
  5028. engelmannia = common erect hairy perennial of plains and prairies of southern and central United States having flowers that resemble sunflowers
  5029. English bean = Old World upright plant grown especially for its large flat edible seeds but also as fodder
  5030. English daisy = low-growing Eurasian plant with yellow central disc flowers and pinkish-white outer ray flowers
  5031. English elm = broad spreading rough-leaved elm common throughout Europe and planted elsewhere
  5032. English hawthorn = thorny Eurasian shrub of small tree having dense clusters of white to scarlet flowers followed by deep red berries; established as an escape in eastern North America / European hawthorn having deeply cleft leaves and bright red fruits; widely cultivated in many varieties and often grown as impenetrable hedges
  5033. English iris = bulbous iris native to the Pyrenees
  5034. English ivy = Old World vine with lobed evergreen leaves and black berrylike fruits
  5035. English lavender = aromatic Mediterranean shrub widely cultivated for its lilac flowers which are dried and used in sachets
  5036. English oak = medium to large deciduous European oak having smooth leaves with rounded lobes
  5037. English plantain = an Old World plantain with long narrow ribbed leaves widely established in temperate regions
  5038. English primrose = plant of western and southern Europe widely cultivated for its pale yellow flowers
  5039. English ryegrass = European perennial grass widely cultivated for pasture and hay and as a lawn grass
  5040. English violet = European violet typically having purple to white flowers
  5041. English walnut = Eurasian walnut valued for its large edible nut and its hard richly figured wood
  5042. English walnut tree = Eurasian walnut valued for its large edible nut and its hard richly figured wood
  5043. English yew = predominant yew in Europe; extraordinarily long-lived and slow growing
  5044. English-weed = South African bulbous wood sorrel with showy yellow flowers
  5045. Ensete = Old World tropical herbs: Abyssinian bananas
  5046. Ensete ventricosum = large evergreen arborescent herb having huge paddle-shaped leaves and bearing inedible fruit that resemble bananas but edible young flower shoots
  5047. ensiform leaf = a sword-shaped leaf
  5048. Entandrophragma = cedar mahogany trees
  5049. Entandrophragma cylindricum = African tree having rather lightweight cedar-scented wood varying in color from pink to reddish brown
  5050. Entelea = a genus of evergreen shrub that grows in New Zealand
  5051. Enterolobium = small genus of tropical American timber trees closely allied to genus Albizia
  5052. Enterolobium cyclocarpa = tropical South American tree having a wide-spreading crown of bipinnate leaves and coiled ear-shaped fruits
  5053. entire leaf = a leaf having a smooth margin without notches or indentations
  5054. Entoloma = agarics with pink spores but lacking both volva and annulus
  5055. Entoloma aprile = an agaric with a dark brown conical cap
  5056. Entoloma lividum = a deadly poisonous agaric
  5057. Entoloma sinuatum = a deadly poisonous agaric
  5058. Entolomataceae = a family of fungi belonging to the order Agaricales
  5059. Entomophthora = type genus of the Entomophthoraceae
  5060. Entomophthoraceae = mostly parasitic lower fungi that typically develop in the bodies of insects
  5061. Entomophthorales = coextensive with the family Entomophthoraceae
  5062. Epacridaceae = Australasian shrubs or small trees
  5063. epacris = any heathlike evergreen shrub of the genus Epacris grown for their showy and crowded spikes of small bell-shaped or tubular flowers
  5064. epacris family = Australasian shrubs or small trees
  5065. Epacris impressa = spindly upright shrub of southern Australia and Tasmania having white to rose or purple-red flowers
  5066. Epacris obtusifolia = small erect shrub of Australia and Tasmania with fragrant ivory flowers
  5067. Epacris purpurascens = small shrub of southern and western Australia having pinkish to rosy purple tubular flowers
  5068. ephedra = jointed and nearly leafless desert shrub having reduced scalelike leaves and reddish fleshy seeds
  5069. Ephedra sinica = Chinese ephedra yielding ephedrine
  5070. Ephedraceae = ephedras: in some classifications included in the Gnetaceae
  5071. epicalyx = a group of bracts simulating a calyx as in a carnation or hibiscus
  5072. epicarp = outermost layer of the pericarp of fruits as the skin of a peach or grape
  5073. epidendron = any of various orchids of the genus Epidendrum
  5074. Epidendrum = large and variable genus of terrestrial or epiphytic or lithophytic orchids of tropical and subtropical Americas
  5075. Epidendrum tampense = orchid of Florida and the Bahamas having showy brightly colored flowers
  5076. Epidendrum venosum = Mexican epiphytic orchid having pale green or yellow-green flowers with white purple-veined lip
  5077. Epigaea = small creeping evergreen shrubs: trailing arbutus
  5078. Epigaea repens = low-growing evergreen shrub of eastern North America with leathery leaves and clusters of fragrant pink or white flowers
  5079. Epilobium = large widely distributed genus of herbs and subshrubs of especially western North America and Arctic areas
  5080. Epilobium angustifolium = tall North American perennial with creeping rootstocks and narrow leaves and spikes of pinkish-purple flowers occurring in great abundance in burned-over areas or recent clearings
  5081. Epilobium canum canum = shrublet of southwestern United States to Mexico having brilliant scarlet flowers
  5082. Epilobium hirsutum = plant of Europe and Asia having purplish-red flowers and hairy stems and leaves
  5083. Epimedium = herbaceous perennials of Mediterranean to India and eastern Asia
  5084. Epimedium grandiflorum = slow-growing creeping plant with semi-evergreen leaves on erect wiry stems
  5085. Epipactis = genus of hardy orchids with leafy-bracted racemes of greenish or purplish irregular flowers
  5086. Epipactis gigantea = orchid growing along streams or ponds of western North America having leafy stems and 1 greenish-brown and pinkish flower in the axil of each upper leaf
  5087. Epipactis helleborine = European orchid with spikes of green and pinkish or purplish flowers
  5088. epiphyllum = any cactus of the genus Epiphyllum having flattened jointed irregularly branching stems and showy tubular flowers
  5089. epiphyte = plant that derives moisture and nutrients from the air and rain
  5090. epiphytic plant = plant that derives moisture and nutrients from the air and rain
  5091. Epipremnum = small genus of evergreen lianas of southeastern Asia to western Pacific areas
  5092. Epipremnum aureum = evergreen liana widely cultivated for its variegated foliage
  5093. episcia = any plant of the genus Episcia; usually creeping and stoloniferous and of cascading habit
  5094. Episcia dianthiflora = low-growing creeping perennial of Central America having deeply fringed white flowers
  5095. episperm = protective outer layer of seeds of flowering plants
  5096. Equador laurel = large tropical American tree of the genus Cordia grown for its abundant creamy white flowers and valuable wood
  5097. Equisetaceae = sole surviving family of the Equisetales: fern allies
  5098. Equisetales = lower tracheophytes in existence since the Devonian
  5099. Equisetatae = horsetails and related forms
  5100. Equisetum = horsetails
  5101. Equisetum arvense = of Eurasia and Greenland and North America
  5102. Equisetum fluviatile = Eurasia
  5103. Equisetum hyemale = evergreen erect horsetail with rough-edged stems
  5104. Equisetum hyemale robustum = evergreen erect horsetail with rough-edged stems
  5105. Equisetum palustre = scouring-rush horsetail widely distributed in wet or boggy areas of northern hemisphere
  5106. Equisetum robustum = evergreen erect horsetail with rough-edged stems
  5107. Equisetum Sylvaticum = Eurasia except southern Russia
  5108. Equisetum variegatum = northern North America; Greenland
  5109. Eragrostic abyssinica = an African grass economically important as a cereal grass (yielding white flour of good quality) as well as for forage and hay
  5110. Eragrostis = annual or perennial grasses of tropics and subtropics
  5111. Eragrostis curvula = perennial South African grass having densely clumped flimsy stems
  5112. Eragrostis tef = an African grass economically important as a cereal grass (yielding white flour of good quality) as well as for forage and hay
  5113. Eranthis = winter aconite
  5114. Eranthis hyemalis = small Old World perennial herb grown for its bright yellow flowers which appear in early spring often before snow is gone
  5115. Ercilla = a genus of evergreen climbers
  5116. Erechtites hieracifolia = an American weedy plant with small white or greenish flowers
  5117. erect bugle = upright rhizomatous perennial with bright blue flowers
  5118. ergot = a fungus that infects various cereal plants forming compact black masses of branching filaments that replace many grains of the plant
  5119. Erianthus = genus of reedlike grasses having spikes crowded in a panicle covered with long silky hairs
  5120. Erianthus ravennae = grass often cultivated for its long white-ribbed leaves and large plumes resembling those of pampas grass
  5121. erica = any plant of the genus Erica
  5122. Erica arborea = evergreen treelike Mediterranean shrub having fragrant white flowers in large terminal panicles and hard woody roots used to make tobacco pipes
  5123. Erica carnea = dwarf European shrub with very early blooming bell-shaped red flowers
  5124. Erica cinerea = common low European shrub with purple-red flowers
  5125. Erica lusitanica = erect dense shrub native to western Iberian peninsula having profuse white or pink flowers
  5126. Erica perspicua = South African shrub grown for its profusion of white flowers
  5127. Erica tetralix = dwarf European shrub with rose-colored flowers
  5128. Erica vagans = bushy shrub having pink to white flowers; common on the moors of Cornwall and in southwestern Europe
  5129. Ericaceae = heathers
  5130. Ericales = Ericaceae; Clethraceae; Diapensiaceae; Epacridaceae; Lennoaceae; Pyrolaceae
  5131. Erigeron = cosmopolitan genus of usually perennial herbs with flowers that resemble asters
  5132. Erigeron acer = widespread weed with pale purple-blue flowers
  5133. Erigeron annuus = widely naturalized white-flowered North American herb
  5134. Erigeron aurantiacus = mat-forming herb of Turkestan with nearly double orange-yellow flowers
  5135. Erigeron canadensis = common North American weed with linear leaves and small discoid heads of yellowish flowers; widely naturalized throughout temperate regions
  5136. Erigeron divergens = well-branched plant with hairy leaves and stems each with a solitary flower head with narrow white or pink or lavender rays
  5137. Erigeron glaucous = slightly succulent perennial with basal leaves and hairy sticky stems each bearing a solitary flower head with narrow pink or lavender rays
  5138. Erigeron philadelphicus = especially pretty plant having a delicate fringe of threadlike rays around flower heads having very slender white or pink rays
  5139. Erigeron pulchellus = common perennial of eastern North America having flowers with usually violet-purple rays
  5140. Erigeron speciosus = plant having branching leafy stems each branch with an especially showy solitary flower head with many narrow pink or lavender or white rays
  5141. Erigonum fasciculatum = low-growing shrub with spreading branches and flowers in loose heads
  5142. eringo = any plant of the genus Eryngium
  5143. Eriobotrya = Asiatic evergreen fruit trees
  5144. Eriobotrya japonica = evergreen tree of warm regions having fuzzy yellow olive-sized fruit with a large free stone
  5145. Eriocaulaceae = chiefly tropical aquatic or bog herbs: pipeworts
  5146. Eriocaulon = type genus of the Eriocaulaceae: rushlike aquatic or marginal perennials usually found in shallow waters of acid lakes and pools and bogs
  5147. Eriocaulon aquaticum = aquatic perennial of North America and Ireland and Hebrides having translucent green leaves in a basal spiral and dense buttonlike racemes of minute white flowers
  5148. Eriodictyon = small genus of evergreen shrubs of southwestern United States and Mexico
  5149. Eriodictyon californicum = viscid evergreen shrub of western United States with white to deep lilac flowers
  5150. eriogonum = any plant of the genus Eriogonum with small clustered flowers
  5151. Eriogonum allenii = late blooming perennial plant of shale barrens of Virginia having flowers in flat-topped clusters
  5152. Eriophorum = cotton grass
  5153. Eriophorum angustifolium = having densely tufted white cottony or downlike glumes
  5154. Eriophyllum = genus of hairy herbs and shrubs of western North America
  5155. Eriophyllum lanatum = greyish woolly leafy perennial with branched stems ending in leafless stalks bearing golden-yellow flower heads
  5156. Eriophyllum wallacei = tiny grey woolly tufted annual with small golden-yellow flower heads; southeastern California to northwestern Arizona and southwestern Utah
  5157. Erodium = geraniums of Europe and South America and Australia especially mountainous regions
  5158. Erodium cicutarium = European weed naturalized in southwestern United States and Mexico having reddish decumbent stems with small fernlike leaves and small deep reddish-lavender flowers followed by slender fruits that stick straight up
  5159. Erodium moschatum = low annual European herb naturalized in America
  5160. Erodium texanum = of prairies and desert areas of southwestern United States and Mexico
  5161. erose leaf = a leaf having a jagged margin as though gnawed
  5162. Eruca = annual to perennial herbs of the Mediterranean region
  5163. Eruca sativa = erect European annual often grown as a salad crop to be harvested when young and tender
  5164. Eruca vesicaria sativa = erect European annual often grown as a salad crop to be harvested when young and tender
  5165. Eryngium = large genus of decorative plants with thistlelike flower heads
  5166. Eryngium aquaticum = coarse prickly perennial eryngo with aromatic roots; southeastern United States
  5167. Eryngium maritimum = European evergreen eryngo with twisted spiny leaves naturalized on United States east coast
  5168. Eryngium yuccifolium = coarse prickly perennial eryngo of United States thought to cure rattlesnake bite
  5169. eryngo = any plant of the genus Eryngium
  5170. Erysimum = large genus of annual or perennial herbs some grown for their flowers and some for their attractive evergreen leaves
  5171. Erysimum allionii = showy erect biennial or short-lived perennial cultivated for its terminal racemes of orange-yellow flowers
  5172. Erysimum arkansanum = biennial or short-lived perennial prairie rocket having orange-yellow flowers; western North America to Minnesota and Kansas
  5173. Erysimum asperum = biennial or short-lived perennial prairie rocket having orange-yellow flowers; western North America to Minnesota and Kansas
  5174. Erysimum cheiranthoides = slender yellow-flowered European mustard often troublesome as a weed
  5175. Erysimum cheiri = perennial of southern Europe having clusters of fragrant flowers of all colors especially yellow and orange; often naturalized on old walls or cliffs
  5176. Erysiphaceae = family of fungi parasitic mostly on leaves
  5177. Erysiphales = saprophytic and parasitic fungi that live on plants
  5178. Erysiphe = genus of powdery mildews
  5179. erythrina = any of various shrubs or shrubby trees of the genus Erythrina having trifoliate leaves and racemes of scarlet to coral red flowers and black seeds
  5180. Erythrina caffra = small semi-evergreen broad-spreading tree of eastern South Africa with orange-scarlet flowers and small coral-red seeds
  5181. Erythrina corallodendrum = deciduous shrub having racemes of deep red flowers and black-spotted red seeds
  5182. Erythrina crista-galli = small South American spiny tree with dark crimson and scarlet flowers solitary or clustered
  5183. Erythrina Indica = small to medium-sized thorny tree of tropical Asia and northern Australia having dense clusters of scarlet or crimson flowers and black seeds
  5184. Erythrina lysistemon = small semi-evergreen tree of South Africa having dense clusters of clear scarlet flowers and red seeds
  5185. Erythrina variegata = small to medium-sized thorny tree of tropical Asia and northern Australia having dense clusters of scarlet or crimson flowers and black seeds
  5186. Erythrina vespertilio = prickly Australian coral tree having soft spongy wood
  5187. Erythronium = perennial bulbous herbs most of northern United States: dogtooth violet; adder's tongue; trout lily
  5188. Erythronium albidum = North American dogtooth having solitary white flowers with yellow centers and blue or pink exteriors
  5189. Erythronium americanum = eastern North American dogtooth having solitary yellow flowers marked with brown or purple and spotted interiors
  5190. Erythronium californicum = California dogtooth violet with creamy white flowers sometimes yellow-tinged
  5191. Erythronium dens-canis = sturdy European dogtooth with rose to mauve flowers
  5192. Erythronium grandiflorum = dogtooth violet of western North America having bright yellow flowers
  5193. Erythronium montanum = perennial herb having large white flowers marked with orange
  5194. Erythroxylaceae = a family of plants of order Geraniales
  5195. Erythroxylon = a large genus of South American shrubs and small trees of the family Erythroxylaceae
  5196. Erythroxylon coca = a South American shrub whose leaves are chewed by natives of the Andes
  5197. Erythroxylon truxiuense = a South American shrub whose leaves are a source of cocaine
  5198. Erythroxylum = a large genus of South American shrubs and small trees of the family Erythroxylaceae
  5199. escape = a plant originally cultivated but now growing wild
  5200. eschalot = type of onion plant producing small clustered mild-flavored bulbs used as seasoning
  5201. Eschscholtzia = showy herbs of western North America
  5202. Eschscholtzia californica = of Pacific coast of North America
  5203. esparcet = Eurasian perennial herb having pale pink flowers and curved pods; naturalized in Britain and North America grasslands on calcareous soils
  5204. estragon = aromatic perennial of southeastern Russia
  5205. Ethiopian banana = large evergreen arborescent herb having huge paddle-shaped leaves and bearing inedible fruit that resemble bananas but edible young flower shoots
  5206. Euascomycetes = category not used in many classification systems
  5207. Eubryales = mosses with perennial erect gametophores and stems with rows of leaves and drooping capsules
  5208. eucalypt = a tree of the genus Eucalyptus
  5209. Eucalypt grandis = very tall tree of Queensland and New South Wales
  5210. Eucalypt gunnii = small to medium-sized tree of Tasmania
  5211. Eucalypt ovata = medium-sized tree of southern Australia
  5212. Eucalypt tereticornis = tall tree of Queensland and New South Wales and Victoria
  5213. eucalyptus = a tree of the genus Eucalyptus / wood of any of various eucalyptus trees valued as timber
  5214. Eucalyptus amygdalina = red gum tree of Tasmania
  5215. Eucalyptus calophylla = very large red gum tree
  5216. Eucalyptus camaldulensis = somewhat crooked red gum tree growing chiefly along rivers
  5217. Eucalyptus camphora = medium-sized swamp gum of New South Wales and Victoria
  5218. Eucalyptus citriodora = similar to but smaller than the spotted gum and having lemon-scented leaves
  5219. Eucalyptus coriacea = small to medium-sized tree of Australia and Tasmania having smooth white to light-grey bark shedding in patches or strips
  5220. Eucalyptus delegatensis = tall timber tree with hard heavy pinkish or light brown wood
  5221. Eucalyptus dumosa = small shrubby mallee
  5222. Eucalyptus fraxinoides = large tree with dark compact bark on lower trunk but smooth and white above
  5223. Eucalyptus globulus = tall fast-growing timber tree with leaves containing a medicinal oil
  5224. eucalyptus gum = reddish-brown dried gummy exudation from any of several trees of the genus Eucalyptus especially Eucalyptus camaldulensis
  5225. eucalyptus kino = reddish-brown dried gummy exudation from any of several trees of the genus Eucalyptus especially Eucalyptus camaldulensis
  5226. Eucalyptus maculata = large gum tree with mottled bark
  5227. Eucalyptus maculata citriodora = similar to but smaller than the spotted gum and having lemon-scented leaves
  5228. Eucalyptus pauciflora = small to medium-sized tree of Australia and Tasmania having smooth white to light-grey bark shedding in patches or strips
  5229. Eucalyptus regnans = tree having wood similar to the alpine ash
  5230. Eucalyptus rostrata = somewhat crooked red gum tree growing chiefly along rivers
  5231. eucalyptus tree = a tree of the genus Eucalyptus
  5232. Eucalyptus viminalis = tall tree yielding a false manna
  5233. Eucalyptusd eugenioides = stringybark having white wood
  5234. Eucalytus stellulata = a small mallee with rough dark-colored bark toward the butt
  5235. Eucarya = quandong trees
  5236. Eucarya acuminata = Australian tree with edible flesh and edible nutlike seed
  5237. Eugenia = tropical trees and shrubs with aromatic leaves and often valuable hard wood
  5238. Eugenia aromaticum = moderate sized very symmetrical red-flowered evergreen widely cultivated in the tropics for its flower buds which are source of cloves
  5239. Eugenia caryophyllatum = moderate sized very symmetrical red-flowered evergreen widely cultivated in the tropics for its flower buds which are source of cloves
  5240. Eugenia corynantha = Australian tree with sour red fruit
  5241. Eugenia dicrana = tree of extreme southern Florida and West Indies having thin scaly bark and aromatic fruits and seeds and yielding hard heavy close-grained zebrawood
  5242. Eugenia jambos = tropical tree of the East Indies cultivated for its edible fruit
  5243. Eugenia uniflora = Brazilian tree with spicy red fruit
  5244. Eumycetes = category used in some classifications: coextensive with division Eumycota
  5245. Eumycota = true fungi; eukaryotic heterotrophic walled organisms; distinguished from Myxomycota (funguslike slime molds): comprises subdivisions Mastigomycotina; Zygomycotina; Ascomycotina; Basidiomycotina
  5246. Euonymous alatus = bushy deciduous shrub with branches having thin wide corky longitudinal wings; brilliant red in autumn
  5247. Euonymus = widely distributed chiefly evergreen shrubs or small trees or vines
  5248. Euonymus americanus = upright deciduous plant with crimson pods and seeds
  5249. Euonymus atropurpureus = deciduous shrub having purple capsules enclosing scarlet seeds
  5250. Euonymus europaeus = small erect deciduous shrub having tough white wood and cathartic bark and fruit
  5251. Euonymus fortunei radicans = broad and bushy Asiatic twining shrub with pinkish fruit
  5252. Euonymus radicans vegetus = broad and bushy Asiatic twining shrub with pinkish fruit
  5253. Eupatorium = large genus of chiefly tropical herbs having heads of white or purplish flowers
  5254. Eupatorium aya-pana = low spreading tropical American shrub with long slender leaves used to make a mildly stimulating drink resembling tea
  5255. Eupatorium cannabinum = coarse European herb with palmately divided leaves and clusters of small reddish-purple flower heads
  5256. Eupatorium capillifolium = weedy plant of southeastern United States having divided leaves and long clusters of greenish flowers
  5257. Eupatorium coelestinum = rhizomatous plant of central and southeastern United States and West Indies having large showy heads of clear blue flowers
  5258. Eupatorium maculatum = North American herb having whorled leaves and terminal clusters of small pinkish or purple flower heads
  5259. Eupatorium perfoliatum = perennial herb of southeastern United States having white-rayed flower heads
  5260. Eupatorium purpureum = North American herb having whorled leaves and terminal clusters of flowers spotted with purple
  5261. Eupatorium rugosum = American herb having flat-topped clusters of small white flower heads; reputedly a cause of trembles and milk sickness
  5262. Euphorbia = type genus of the Euphorbiaceae: very large genus of diverse plants all having milky juice
  5263. Euphorbia amygdaloides = European perennial herb with greenish yellow terminal flower clusters
  5264. Euphorbia antisyphilitica = wax-coated shrub of northern Mexico and southwestern United States
  5265. Euphorbia caput-medusae = African dwarf succulent perennial shrub with numerous slender drooping branches
  5266. Euphorbia corollata = common perennial United States spurge having showy white petallike bracts
  5267. Euphorbia cyathophora = poinsettia of United States and eastern Mexico
  5268. Euphorbia cyparissias = Old World perennial having foliage resembling cypress
  5269. Euphorbia dentata = an annual weed of northeastern North America with dentate leaves
  5270. Euphorbia esula = tall European perennial naturalized and troublesome as a weed in eastern North America
  5271. Euphorbia exigua = European erect or depressed annual weedy spurge adventive in northeastern United States
  5272. Euphorbia fulgens = Mexican shrub often cultivated for its scarlet-bracted flowers
  5273. Euphorbia helioscopia = not unattractive European weed whose flowers turn toward the sun
  5274. Euphorbia heterophylla = showy poinsettia found from the southern United States to Peru
  5275. Euphorbia hirsuta = much-branched hirsute weed native to northeastern North America
  5276. Euphorbia ingens = small tree of dry open parts of southern Africa having erect angled branches suggesting candelabra
  5277. Euphorbia lathyris = poisonous Old World spurge; adventive in America
  5278. Euphorbia litchi = tree of southeastern Asia to Australia grown primarily for its sweet edible fruit resembling litchi nuts
  5279. Euphorbia marginata = annual spurge of western United States having showy white-bracted flower clusters and very poisonous milk
  5280. Euphorbia medusae = African dwarf succulent perennial shrub with numerous slender drooping branches
  5281. Euphorbia milii = somewhat climbing bushy spurge of Madagascar having long woody spiny stems with few leaves and flowers with scarlet bracts
  5282. Euphorbia peplus = an Old World spurge introduced as a weed in the eastern United States
  5283. Euphorbia pulcherrima = tropical American plant having poisonous milk and showy tapering usually scarlet petallike leaves surrounding small yellow flowers
  5284. Euphorbiaceae = a family of plants of order Geraniales
  5285. European ash = tall ash of Europe to the Caucasus having leaves shiny dark-green above and pale downy beneath
  5286. European barberry = upright deciduous European shrub widely naturalized in United States having clusters of juicy berries
  5287. European bean = Old World upright plant grown especially for its large flat edible seeds but also as fodder
  5288. European beech = large European beech with minutely-toothed leaves
  5289. European beggar-ticks = bur marigold of temperate Eurasia
  5290. European bird cherry = small European cherry tree closely resembling the American chokecherry
  5291. European black alder = medium-sized tree with brown-black bark and woody fruiting catkins
  5292. European black currant = widely cultivated current bearing edible black aromatic berries
  5293. European bog asphodel = of western Europe: Scandinavia to northern Spain and Portugal
  5294. European box = large slow-growing evergreen shrub or small tree with multiple stems
  5295. European brooklime = European plant having low-lying stems with blue flowers
  5296. European chestnut = wild or cultivated throughout southern Europe, northwestern Africa and southwestern Asia
  5297. European cranberry = small red-fruited trailing cranberry of Arctic and cool regions of the northern hemisphere
  5298. European cranberry bush = deciduous thicket-forming Old World shrub with clusters of white flowers and small bright red berries
  5299. European cranberrybush = deciduous thicket-forming Old World shrub with clusters of white flowers and small bright red berries
  5300. European dewberry = creeping European bramble bearing dewberries
  5301. European dogtooth = sturdy European dogtooth with rose to mauve flowers
  5302. European dune grass = a dune grass of the Pacific seacoast used as a sand binder
  5303. European elder = a common shrub with black fruit or a small tree of Europe and Asia
  5304. European elm = broad spreading rough-leaved elm common throughout Europe and planted elsewhere
  5305. European field elm = European elm with lustrous smooth leaves used as an ornamental
  5306. European fly honeysuckle = cultivated Eurasian shrub with twin yellowish-white flowers and scarlet fruit
  5307. European hackberry = bright green deciduous shade tree of southern Europe
  5308. European honeysuckle = cultivated Eurasian shrub with twin yellowish-white flowers and scarlet fruit
  5309. European hop = European twining plant whose flowers are used chiefly to flavor malt liquors
  5310. European hornbeam = medium-sized Old World tree with smooth grey bark and leaves like beech that turn yellow-orange in autumn
  5311. European ladies' tresses = European orchid having shorter racemes of strongly spiraling snow-white flowers
  5312. European larch = tall European tree having a slender conic crown, flat needlelike leaves, and hairy cone scales
  5313. European mountain ash = Eurasian tree with orange-red berrylike fruits
  5314. European nut pine = medium-sized two-needled pine of southern Europe having a spreading crown
  5315. European olive tree = evergreen tree cultivated in the Mediterranean region since antiquity and now elsewhere
  5316. European parsley fern = fern of Europe and Asia Minor having short slender rhizome and densely tufted bright green fronds resembling parsley
  5317. European pasqueflower = European perennial having usually violet or white spring flowers
  5318. European quaking aspen = Old World aspen with a broad much-branched crown
  5319. European raspberry = the common European raspberry
  5320. European red elder = Eurasian shrub
  5321. European sanicle = sanicle of Europe and Asia having white to pale pink flowers
  5322. European silver fir = tall timber tree of central and southern Europe having a regular crown and grey bark
  5323. European turkey oak = large deciduous tree of central and southern Europe and Asia Minor having lanceolate leaves with spiked lobes
  5324. European white birch = European birch with silvery white peeling bark and markedly drooping branches
  5325. European white lily = a water lily with white flowers
  5326. European woolly thistle = woolly thistle of western and central Europe and Balkan Peninsula
  5327. Eurotiales = order of fungi having a closed ascocarp (cleistothecium) with the asci scattered rather than gathered in a hymenium
  5328. Eurotium = a genus of fungi belonging to the order Eurotiales
  5329. eusporangium = a sporangium that arises from a group of epidermal cells
  5330. Eustoma = small genus of herbs of warm regions of southern North America to northern South America
  5331. Eustoma grandiflorum = one of the most handsome prairie wildflowers having large erect bell-shaped bluish flowers
  5332. Euterpe = a monocotyledonous genus of graceful palm trees in tropical America
  5333. Euterpe oleracea = Brazilian palm of genus Euterpe whose leaf buds are eaten like cabbage when young
  5334. even-pinnate leaf = a pinnate leaf with a pair of leaflets at the apex
  5335. evening lychnis = bluish-green herb having sticky stems and clusters of large evening-opening white flowers with much-inflated calyx
  5336. evening primrose = any of several plants of the family Onagraceae
  5337. evening trumpet flower = poisonous woody evergreen vine of southeastern United States having fragrant yellow funnel-shaped flowers
  5338. evening-primrose family = a large and widely distributed family of plants of the order Myrtales
  5339. evening-snow = small California annual with white flowers
  5340. evergreen = a plant having foliage that persists and remains green throughout the year
  5341. evergreen beech = any of various beeches of the southern hemisphere having small usually evergreen leaves
  5342. evergreen bittersweet = broad and bushy Asiatic twining shrub with pinkish fruit
  5343. evergreen blueberry = shrub of the eastern United States having shining evergreen leaves and bluish-black fruit
  5344. evergreen cherry = California evergreen wild plum with spiny leathery leaves and white flowers
  5345. evergreen grass = coarse perennial Eurasian grass resembling oat; found on roadside verges and rough grassland and in hay meadows
  5346. evergreen huckleberry = stiff bushy evergreen shrub of western North America having sour black berries and glossy green foliage used in floral arrangements
  5347. evergreen magnolia = evergreen tree of southern United States having large stiff glossy leaves and huge white sweet-smelling flowers
  5348. evergreen millet = tall perennial grass that spreads by creeping rhizomes and is grown for fodder
  5349. evergreen oak = evergreen oak of southern Europe having leaves somewhat resembling those of holly
  5350. evergreen plant = a plant having foliage that persists and remains green throughout the year
  5351. evergreen thorn = evergreen hawthorn of southeastern Europe
  5352. evergreen winterberry = evergreen holly of eastern North America with oblong leathery leaves and small black berries
  5353. evergreen wood fern = North American fern with evergreen fronds / North American evergreen fern having pinnate leaves and dense clusters of lance-shaped fronds
  5354. everlasting = any of various plants of various genera of the family Compositae having flowers that can be dried without loss of form or color
  5355. everlasting flower = any of various plants of various genera of the family Compositae having flowers that can be dried without loss of form or color
  5356. everlasting pea = any of several perennial vines of the genus Lathyrus
  5357. Evernia = lichens of the family Usneaceae having a pendulous or shrubby thallus
  5358. Exacum = genus of tropical Asiatic and African plants: especially Persian violets
  5359. Exacum affine = perennial cultivated especially as a houseplant for its fragrant bluish to dark lavender flowers
  5360. exocarp = outermost layer of the pericarp of fruits as the skin of a peach or grape
  5361. exogen = flowering plant with two cotyledons
  5362. exploding cucumber = Mediterranean vine having oblong fruit that when ripe expels its seeds and juice violently when touched
  5363. explorer's gentian = tufted sometimes sprawling perennial with blue flowers spotted with green
  5364. expressed almond oil = pale yellow fatty oil expressed from sweet or bitter almonds
  5365. ezo-yama-hagi = Asian shrub having conspicuous racemose rose-purple flowers widely used as an ornamental and in erosion control and as a source of feed for wild birds
  5366. Fabaceae = a large family of trees, shrubs, vines, and herbs bearing bean pods; divided for convenience into the subfamilies Caesalpiniaceae; Mimosaceae
  5367. Fabiana = genus of South and Central American heathlike evergreen shrubs
  5368. Fabiana imbricata = Peruvian shrub with small pink to lavender tubular flowers
  5369. Fagaceae = chiefly monoecious trees and shrubs: beeches; chestnuts; oaks
  5370. Fagales = an order of dicotyledonous trees of the subclass Hamamelidae
  5371. Fagopyrum = buckwheat
  5372. Fagopyrum esculentum = a member of the genus Fagopyrum
  5373. Fagus = beeches
  5374. Fagus americana = North American forest tree with light green leaves and edible nuts
  5375. Fagus grandifolia = North American forest tree with light green leaves and edible nuts
  5376. Fagus pendula = variety of European beech with pendulous limbs
  5377. Fagus purpurea = variety of European beech with shining purple or copper-colored leaves
  5378. Fagus sylvatica = large European beech with minutely-toothed leaves
  5379. Fagus sylvatica atropunicea = variety of European beech with shining purple or copper-colored leaves
  5380. Fagus sylvatica pendula = variety of European beech with pendulous limbs
  5381. Fagus sylvatica purpurea = variety of European beech with shining purple or copper-colored leaves
  5382. fair-maids-of-France = rosette-forming perennial having compact panicles of white flowers
  5383. fairway crested wheat grass = Eurasian grass grown in United States great plains area for forage and erosion control
  5384. fairy bell = tall leafy European biennial or perennial having spectacular clusters of large tubular pink-purple flowers
  5385. fairy circle = a ring of fungi marking the periphery of the perennial underground growth of the mycelium
  5386. fairy cup = miterwort of northeastern North America usually with two opposite leaves on erect flowering stems that terminate in erect racemes of white flowers / a scarlet European fungus with cup-shaped ascocarp
  5387. fairy lantern = any of several plants of the genus Calochortus having egg-shaped flowers
  5388. fairy ring = a ring of fungi marking the periphery of the perennial underground growth of the mycelium
  5389. fairy-ring mushroom = mushroom that grows in a fairy ring
  5390. fairy-slipper = rare north temperate bog orchid bearing a solitary white to pink flower marked with purple at the tip of an erect reddish stalk above 1 basal leaf
  5391. Falcatifolium = sickle pines: dioecious evergreen tropical trees and shrubs having sickle-shaped leaves; similar to Dacrycarpus in habit
  5392. Falcatifolium falciforme = small tropical rain forest tree of Indonesia and Malaysia
  5393. Falcatifolium taxoides = a rain forest tree or shrub of New Caledonia having a conic crown and pale green sickle-shaped leaves
  5394. fall dandelion = fall-blooming European herb with a yellow flower
  5395. fall-blooming hydrangea = deciduous shrub or small tree with pyramidal flower clusters
  5396. falls = the petals or sepals of a flower that bend downward
  5397. false alumroot = plant growing in clumps with mostly basal leaves and cream-colored or pale pink fringed flowers in several long racemes
  5398. false asphodel = a plant of the genus Tofieldia having linear chiefly basal leaves and small spicate flowers
  5399. false azalea = straggling shrub of northwestern North America having foliage with a bluish tinge and umbels of small bell-shaped flowers
  5400. false baby's breath = Eurasian herb with ample panicles of small white flowers
  5401. false beachdrops = fleshy tawny or reddish saprophytic herb resembling the Indian pipe and growing in woodland humus of eastern North America
  5402. false bittersweet = twining shrub of North America having yellow capsules enclosing scarlet seeds
  5403. false bracken = resembles Pteridium aquilinum
  5404. false buckthorn = deciduous tree of southeastern United States and Mexico
  5405. false bugbane = tall perennial of the eastern United States having large basal leaves and white summer flowers
  5406. false calyx = a group of bracts simulating a calyx as in a carnation or hibiscus
  5407. false chamomile = any of various autumn-flowering perennials having white or pink to purple flowers that resemble asters
  5408. false deathcap = agaric often confused with the death cup
  5409. false dogwood = evergreen of tropical America having pulpy fruit containing saponin which was used as soap by Native Americans
  5410. false dragon head = North American plant having a spike of two-lipped pink or white flowers
  5411. false dragonhead = North American plant having a spike of two-lipped pink or white flowers
  5412. false flax = annual and biennial herbs of Mediterranean to central Asia
  5413. false foxglove = multi-stemmed North American annual having solitary axillary dark golden-yellow flowers resembling those of the foxglove; sometimes placed in genus Gerardia / sparsely branched North American perennial with terminal racemes of bright yellow flowers resembling those of the foxglove
  5414. false fruit = a fleshy fruit (apple or pear or related fruits) having seed chambers and an outer fleshy part
  5415. false garlic = pungent Old World wild onion
  5416. false goatsbeard = North American astilbe with panicles of creamy white flowers
  5417. false gromwell = any of several North American perennial herbs with hairy foliage and small yellowish or greenish flowers
  5418. false heather = North American decumbent evergreen heathlike plant with yellow flowers
  5419. false hellebore = perennial herbs of the lily family having thick toxic rhizomes
  5420. false indigo = an erect to spreading hairy shrub of the Pacific coast of the United States having racemes of red to indigo flowers / dense shrub of moist riverbanks and flood plains of the eastern United States having attractive fragrant foliage and dense racemes of dark purple flowers / any of several plants of the genus Baptisia
  5421. false lily of the valley = small two-leaved herb of the northern United States and parts of Canada having racemes of small fragrant white flowers / small white-flowered plant of western Europe to Japan
  5422. false lupine = western United States bushy herb having yellow pea-like flowers
  5423. false mallow = an American plant of the genus Malvastrum / genus of coarse herbs and subshrubs of arid North and South America having pink or scarlet flowers and globose fruits
  5424. false mildew = any of various fungi of the family Peronosporaceae parasitic on e.g. grapes and potatoes and melons
  5425. false mistletoe = American plants closely resembling Old World mistletoe
  5426. false miterwort = stoloniferous white-flowered spring-blooming woodland plant / plant with tiny white flowers hanging in loose clusters on leafy stems
  5427. false mitrewort = stoloniferous white-flowered spring-blooming woodland plant / plant with tiny white flowers hanging in loose clusters on leafy stems
  5428. false morel = a fungus of the family Helvellaceae
  5429. false nettle = any of several flowering weeds of the genus Boehmeria lacking stinging hairs
  5430. false oat = coarse perennial Eurasian grass resembling oat; found on roadside verges and rough grassland and in hay meadows
  5431. false pimpernel = weedy plant having short dry chafflike leaves
  5432. false ragweed = tall annual marsh elder common in moist rich soil in central North America that can cause contact dermatitis
  5433. false rue = slender erect perennial of eastern North America having tuberous roots and pink-tinged white flowers
  5434. false rue anemone = slender erect perennial of eastern North America having tuberous roots and pink-tinged white flowers
  5435. false saffron = thistlelike Eurasian plant widely grown for its red or orange flower heads and seeds that yield a valuable oil
  5436. false sago = southeastern Indian cycad with palmlike foliage
  5437. false sarsaparilla = common perennial herb having aromatic roots used as a substitute for sarsaparilla
  5438. false tamarisk = Eurasian shrub resembling the tamarisk
  5439. false truffle = any of various fungi of the genus Scleroderma having hard-skinned subterranean fruiting bodies resembling truffles / any of various fungi of the family Rhizopogonaceae having subterranean fruiting bodies similar to the truffle
  5440. false wintergreen = evergreen of eastern North America with leathery leaves and numerous white flowers
  5441. family Acanthaceae = widely distributed herbs and shrubs and trees
  5442. family Aceraceae = a family of trees and shrubs of order Sapindales including the maples
  5443. family Actinidiaceae = tropical trees or shrubs or woody vines
  5444. family Adiantaceae = used in some classification systems for some genera of the family Polypodiaceae
  5445. family Agaricaceae = large family including many familiar mushrooms
  5446. family Agavaceae = chiefly tropical and xerophytic plants: includes Dracenaceae
  5447. family Aizoaceae = succulent herbs or small shrubs mostly of South Africa but also New Zealand and North America: carpetweeds
  5448. family Albuginaceae = fungi that produce white sori resembling blisters on certain flowering plants
  5449. family Alismataceae = perennial or annual aquatic or marsh plants
  5450. family Alliaceae = one of many families or subfamilies into which some classification systems subdivide the Liliaceae but not widely accepted
  5451. family Allioniaceae = a family of flowering plants of the order Caryophyllales
  5452. family Aloeaceae = one of many families or subfamilies into which some classification systems subdivide the Liliaceae but not widely accepted
  5453. family Alstroemeriaceae = one of many families or subfamilies into which some classification systems subdivide the Liliaceae but not widely accepted
  5454. family Amaranthaceae = cosmopolitan family of herbs and shrubs
  5455. family Amaryllidaceae = snowdrop; narcissus; daffodil
  5456. family Ambrosiaceae = in some classifications considered a separate family comprising a subgroup of the Compositae including the ragweeds
  5457. family Amygdalaceae = used in former classifications for plum and peach and almond trees which are now usually classified as members of the genus Prunus
  5458. family Anacardiaceae = the cashew family; trees and shrubs and vines having resinous (sometimes poisonous) juice
  5459. family Annonaceae = chiefly tropical trees or shrubs
  5460. family Anthocerotaceae = hornworts
  5461. family Aphyllanthaceae = one of many families or subfamilies into which some classification systems subdivide the Liliaceae but not widely accepted
  5462. family Apiaceae = plants having flowers in umbels: parsley; carrot; anise; caraway; celery
  5463. family Apocynaceae = chiefly tropical trees or shrubs or herbs having milky juice and often showy flowers
  5464. family Aquifoliaceae = widely distributed shrubs and trees
  5465. family Araceae = anthurium; calla lily; jack-in-the-pulpit
  5466. family Araliaceae = mostly tropical trees and shrubs and lianas: genera Panax and Hedera
  5467. family Araucariaceae = tall evergreen cone-bearing trees of South America and Australia with broad leathery leaves
  5468. family Arecaceae = chiefly tropical trees and shrubs and vines usually having a tall columnar trunk bearing a crown of very large leaves
  5469. family Aristolochiaceae = family of birthworts
  5470. family Asclepiadaceae = widely distributed family of herbs and shrubs of the order Gentianales
  5471. family Asparagaceae = one of many families or subfamilies into which some classification systems subdivide the Liliaceae: includes genera Asparagus and sometimes Ruscus
  5472. family Aspergillaceae = family of fungi including some common molds
  5473. family Asphodelaceae = one of many subfamilies into which some classification systems subdivide the Liliaceae
  5474. family Aspleniaceae = one of a number of families into which Polypodiaceae has been subdivided in some classification systems
  5475. family Asteraceae = plants with heads composed of many florets: aster; daisy; dandelion; goldenrod; marigold; lettuces; ragweed; sunflower; thistle
  5476. family Athyriaceae = alternative names for one of a number of families into which the family Polypodiaceae has been subdivided in some classification systems
  5477. family Auriculariaceae = fungi having gelatinous sporophores
  5478. family Avicenniaceae = used in some classifications: coextensive with the genus Avicennia
  5479. family Azollaceae = used in some classifications for the genus Azolla
  5480. family Balsaminaceae = distinguished from the family Geraniaceae by the irregular flowers
  5481. family Batidaceae = family coextensive with genus Batis: saltworts
  5482. family Begoniaceae = monoecious succulent herbs or shrubs of tropical and warm regions especially America
  5483. family Bennettitaceae = a family of fossil gymnospermous plants of the Carboniferous
  5484. family Berberidaceae = shrubs or herbs
  5485. family Betulaceae = monoecious trees and shrubs
  5486. family Bignoniaceae = trees or shrubs or woody vines or herbs having fruit resembling gourds or capsules
  5487. family Blastodiaceae = a family of saprobic fungi of order Blastocladiales
  5488. family Blechnaceae = one of a number of families into which the family Polypodiaceae has been subdivided in some classification systems
  5489. family Boletaceae = family of fleshy fungi having the germ pores easily separating from the cup and often from each other
  5490. family Bombacaceae = tropical trees with large dry or fleshy fruit containing usually woolly seeds
  5491. family Boraginaceae = a widely distributed family of plants distinguished by circinate flowers and nutlike fruit
  5492. family Brassicaceae = a large family of plants with four-petaled flowers
  5493. family Bromeliaceae = a family of tropical American plants of order Xyridales including several (as the pineapple) of economic importance
  5494. family Bryaceae = a family of acrocarpous mosses
  5495. family Burmanniaceae = family of chiefly tropical herbs with basal leaves like bracts and small flowers
  5496. family Burseraceae = resinous or aromatic chiefly tropical shrubs or trees
  5497. family Buxaceae = widely distributed evergreen shrubs and trees
  5498. family Cactaceae = constituting the order Opuntiales
  5499. family Caesalpiniaceae = spiny trees, shrubs, or perennial herbs, including the genera Caesalpinia, Cassia, Ceratonia, Bauhinia
  5500. family Callitrichaceae = dicot aquatic herbs
  5501. family Calostomataceae = a family of fungi belonging to the order Tulostomatales
  5502. family Calycanthaceae = shrubs or small trees having aromatic bark
  5503. family Campanulaceae = family of plants of the order Campanulales
  5504. family Canellaceae = one genus: aromatic tropical trees of eastern Africa and Florida to West Indies
  5505. family Cannabidaceae = two genera of erect or twining herbs that are pollinated by the wind, including the genera Cannabis and Humulus; term not used in all classifications
  5506. family Cannaceae = coextensive with the genus Canna
  5507. family Capparidaceae = a dilleniid dicot family of the order Rhoeadales that includes: genera Capparis, Cleome, Crateva, and Polanisia
  5508. family Caprifoliaceae = shrubs and small trees and woody vines
  5509. family Caricaceae = trees native to tropical America and Africa with milky juice and large palmately lobed leaves
  5510. family Carpinaceae = used in some classification systems for the genera Carpinus, Ostryopsis, and Ostryopsis
  5511. family Caryocaraceae = small genus of tropical South American trees
  5512. family Caryophyllaceae = large family of herbs or subshrubs
  5513. family Casuarinaceae = one genus: genus Casuarina
  5514. family Cecropiaceae = in some classifications included in family Moraceae
  5515. family Celastraceae = trees and shrubs and woody vines usually having bright-colored fruits
  5516. family Cephalotaceae = a family of plants of order Rosales
  5517. family Cephalotaxaceae = a family of Cephalotaxaceae
  5518. family Ceratophyllaceae = coextensive with the genus Ceratophyllum: hornworts
  5519. family Ceratostomataceae = fungi having carbonous perithecia with long necks
  5520. family Cercidiphyllaceae = one genus
  5521. family Chenopodiaceae = includes spinach and beets
  5522. family Chloranthaceae = small family of tropical herbs and shrubs and trees
  5523. family Chytridiaceae = a family of aquatic fungi of order Chytridiales
  5524. family Cistaceae = shrubs or woody herbs of temperate regions especially Mediterranean
  5525. family Cladoniaceae = a family of lichens
  5526. family Clathraceae = family of fleshy fungi resembling stinkhorns
  5527. family Clavariaceae = fleshy fungi: coral fungi
  5528. family Clethraceae = coextensive with the genus Clethra
  5529. family Clusiaceae = widely distributed family of chiefly tropical trees and shrubs and vines that produce oils and resins and some usable timber
  5530. family Colchicaceae = one of many subfamilies into which some classification systems subdivide the Liliaceae but not widely accepted: genera Colchicum and Gloriosa
  5531. family Combretaceae = a family of tropical trees and shrubs of the order Myrtales
  5532. family Commelinaceae = large widely distributed family of chiefly perennial herbs or climbers: spiderworts
  5533. family Compositae = plants with heads composed of many florets: aster; daisy; dandelion; goldenrod; marigold; lettuces; ragweed; sunflower; thistle
  5534. family Connaraceae = mostly tropical climbing shrubs or small trees
  5535. family Convallariaceae = one of many subfamilies into which some classification systems subdivide the Liliaceae but not widely accepted
  5536. family Convolvulaceae = morning glory; bindweed; sweet potato
  5537. family Coprinaceae = used in some classifications for the genus Coprinus
  5538. family Cordaitaceae = chiefly Paleozoic plants
  5539. family Cornaceae = a rosid dicot family of the order Umbellales including: genera Aucuba, Cornus, Corokia, Curtisia, Griselinia, Helwingia
  5540. family Cortinariaceae = a family of fungi belonging to the order Agaricales
  5541. family Corylaceae = used in some classification systems for the genus Corylus
  5542. family Crassulaceae = succulent shrubs and herbs
  5543. family Cruciferae = a large family of plants with four-petaled flowers
  5544. family Cryptogrammataceae = one of a number of families into which the family Polypodiaceae has been subdivided in some classification systems
  5545. family Cucurbitaceae = a family of herbaceous vines
  5546. family Cunoniaceae = trees or shrubs or climbers
  5547. family Cupressaceae = cypresses and junipers and many cedars
  5548. family Cyatheaceae = tropical tree ferns
  5549. family Cycadaceae = ancient palmlike plants closely related to ferns in that fertilization is by means of spermatozoids
  5550. family Cyperaceae = bulrush; chufa; cotton grass; papyrus
  5551. family Cyrilliaceae = shrubs and trees with leathery leaves and small white flowers in racemes: genera Cyrilla and Cliftonia
  5552. family Dacrymycetaceae = a family of basidiomycetous fungi belonging to the order Tremellales having a bifurcate basidium that lacks septa
  5553. family Davalliaceae = one of a number of families into which Polypodiaceae has been subdivided in some classification systems
  5554. family Dematiaceae = family of imperfect mushrooms having dark-colored hyphae or conidia
  5555. family Dennstaedtiaceae = one of a number of families into which Polypodiaceae has been subdivided in some classification systems
  5556. family Diapensiaceae = north temperate low evergreen plants
  5557. family Dicksoniaceae = tree ferns: genera Dicksonia, Cibotium, Culcita, and Thyrsopteris elegans
  5558. family Dicranaceae = mosses having costate leaves and long-stalked capsules with cleft peristome
  5559. family Dilleniaceae = chiefly tropical shrubs and trees and climbers having leathery leaves or flattened leaflike stems: genera Dillenia and Hibbertia
  5560. family Dioscoreaceae = yams
  5561. family Dipsacaceae = chiefly southern European herbs with flowers usually in dense cymose heads
  5562. family Dipterocarpaceae = chiefly tropical Asian trees with two-winged fruits
  5563. family Droseraceae = a family of carnivorous herbs and shrubs
  5564. family Dryopteridaceae = alternative names for one of a number of families into which the family Polypodiaceae has been subdivided in some classification systems
  5565. family Ebenaceae = fruit and timber trees of tropical and warm regions including ebony and persimmon
  5566. family Elaeagnaceae = shrubs or small trees often armed
  5567. family Elaeocarpaceae = genus of trees and shrubs widely distributed in warm regions some yielding useful timber
  5568. family Empetraceae = heathlike shrubs
  5569. family Entolomataceae = a family of fungi belonging to the order Agaricales
  5570. family Entomophthoraceae = mostly parasitic lower fungi that typically develop in the bodies of insects
  5571. family Epacridaceae = Australasian shrubs or small trees
  5572. family Ephedraceae = ephedras: in some classifications included in the Gnetaceae
  5573. family Equisetaceae = sole surviving family of the Equisetales: fern allies
  5574. family Ericaceae = heathers
  5575. family Eriocaulaceae = chiefly tropical aquatic or bog herbs: pipeworts
  5576. family Erysiphaceae = family of fungi parasitic mostly on leaves
  5577. family Erythroxylaceae = a family of plants of order Geraniales
  5578. family Euphorbiaceae = a family of plants of order Geraniales
  5579. family Fabaceae = a large family of trees, shrubs, vines, and herbs bearing bean pods; divided for convenience into the subfamilies Caesalpiniaceae; Mimosaceae
  5580. family Fagaceae = chiefly monoecious trees and shrubs: beeches; chestnuts; oaks
  5581. family Fistulinaceae = a family of fungi closely related to the family Polyporaceae except that the tubes on the undersurface of the cap are separate from each other
  5582. family Flacourtiaceae = chiefly tropical trees and shrubs
  5583. family Fouquieriaceae = small family of spiny shrubs or trees of southwestern United States
  5584. family Fumariaceae = erect or climbing herbs of the northern hemisphere and southern Africa: bleeding heart; Dutchman's breeches; fumitory
  5585. family Funkaceae = one of many families or subfamilies into which some classification systems subdivide the Liliaceae but not widely accepted
  5586. family Geastraceae = a family of earthstar fungi belonging to the order Lycoperdales
  5587. family Gentianaceae = chiefly herbaceous plants with showy flowers
  5588. family Geoglossaceae = a family of fungi belonging to the order Helotiales
  5589. family Geraniaceae = chiefly herbaceous plants
  5590. family Gesneriaceae = large family of tropical herbs or shrubs or lianas
  5591. family Ginkgoaceae = constituting the order Ginkgoales
  5592. family Gleicheniaceae = a family of ferns belonging to order Filicales
  5593. family Gnetaceae = plants having small unisexual flowers and fleshy or winged fruit: in some classifications includes the genera Ephedra and Welwitschia as well as genus Gnetum
  5594. family Goodeniaceae = a family of sappy plants that grow in Australasia and southeast China
  5595. family Graminaceae = the grasses: chiefly herbaceous but some woody plants including cereals; bamboo; reeds
  5596. family Gramineae = the grasses: chiefly herbaceous but some woody plants including cereals; bamboo; reeds
  5597. family Grossulariaceae = in some classifications considered a part of the family Saxifragaceae: plants whose fruit is a berry
  5598. family Guttiferae = widely distributed family of chiefly tropical trees and shrubs and vines that produce oils and resins and some usable timber
  5599. family Haemodoraceae = some genera placed in family Liliaceae
  5600. family Haloragaceae = a family of dicotyledonous plants of the order Myrtales
  5601. family Haloragidaceae = a family of dicotyledonous plants of the order Myrtales
  5602. family Hamamelidaceae = comprises genera Hamamelis, Corylopsis, Fothergilla, Liquidambar, Parrotia, and other small genera
  5603. family Helotiaceae = a fungus family of order Helotiales
  5604. family Helvellaceae = family of false morels or lorchels
  5605. family Hemerocallidaceae = one of many subfamilies into which some classification systems subdivide the Liliaceae but not widely accepted
  5606. family Hippocastanaceae = trees having showy flowers and inedible nutlike seeds in a leathery capsule
  5607. family Hostaceae = one of many families or subfamilies into which some classification systems subdivide the Liliaceae but not widely accepted
  5608. family Hyacinthaceae = one of many families or subfamilies in which some classification systems subdivide the Liliaceae but not widely accepted
  5609. family Hydnaceae = tooth fungi
  5610. family Hydnoraceae = a family of flowering plants in Africa and Argentina that are parasitic on the roots of other plants
  5611. family Hydrangeaceae = sometimes included in the family Saxifragaceae
  5612. family Hydrocharidaceae = simple nearly stemless freshwater aquatic plants
  5613. family Hydrocharitaceae = simple nearly stemless freshwater aquatic plants
  5614. family Hydrophyllaceae = perennial woodland herbs
  5615. family Hygrophoraceae = a family of fungi belonging to the order Agaricales
  5616. family Hymenophyllaceae = terrestrial (hygrophytic) or epiphytic ferns: filmy ferns
  5617. family Hypericaceae = used in some classification systems for plants usually included among the Guttiferae
  5618. family Hypocreaceae = family of fungi having brightly colored fleshy or membranous ascocarps
  5619. family Hypoxidaceae = in some classification systems included in the Amaryllidaceae
  5620. family Iridaceae = large family of usually perennial geophytic herbs with rhizomes or corms or bulbs
  5621. family Isoetaceae = quillworts
  5622. family Juglandaceae = trees having usually edible nuts: butternuts; walnuts; hickories
  5623. family Juncaceae = tufted herbs resembling grasses: rushes
  5624. family Juncaginaceae = a family of monocotyledonous bog herbs of order Naiadales
  5625. family Jungermanniaceae = comprising the leafy members of the order Jungermanniales
  5626. family Labiatae = a large family of aromatic herbs and shrubs having flowers resembling the lips of a mouth and four-lobed ovaries yielding four one-seeded nutlets and including mint; thyme; sage
  5627. family Lamiaceae = a large family of aromatic herbs and shrubs having flowers resembling the lips of a mouth and four-lobed ovaries yielding four one-seeded nutlets and including mint; thyme; sage
  5628. family Lardizabalaceae = thick-stemmed lianas and some shrubs
  5629. family Lauraceae = a family of Lauraceae
  5630. family Lecanoraceae = a fungus family of the division Lichenes
  5631. family Lecythidaceae = large tropical trees bearing large fruits with woody skins
  5632. family Leguminosae = a large family of trees, shrubs, vines, and herbs bearing bean pods; divided for convenience into the subfamilies Caesalpiniaceae; Mimosaceae
  5633. family Leitneriaceae = coextensive with the genus Leitneria
  5634. family Lemnaceae = family of small free-floating thalloid plants
  5635. family Lennoaceae = family of fleshy parasitic herbs lacking green foliage and having heads of small flowers
  5636. family Lentibulariaceae = carnivorous aquatic or bog plants: genera Utricularia, Pinguicula, and Genlisea
  5637. family Lepidobotryaceae = family created in 1950 solely for the classification of a distinctive African tree repeatedly classified in other families
  5638. family Lepidodendraceae = fossil plants characterized by conspicuous spirally arranged leaf scars on the trunk
  5639. family Lepiotaceae = a family of fungi having free gills and a cap that is cleanly separable from the stalk
  5640. family Liliaceae = includes species sometimes divided among the following families: Alliaceae; Aloeaceae; Alstroemeriaceae; Aphyllanthaceae; Asparagaceae; Asphodelaceae; Colchicaceae; Convallariaceae; Hemerocallidaceae; Hostaceae; Hyacinthaceae; Melanthiaceae; Ruscaceae; Smilacaceae; Tecophilaeacea
  5641. family Linaceae = a widely distributed family of plants
  5642. family Loasaceae = family of bristly hairy sometimes climbing plants
  5643. family Lobeliaceae = not recognized in all classification systems
  5644. family Loganiaceae = a dicotyledonous family of plants of order Gentianales
  5645. family Lomariopsidaceae = small family of usually scandent ferns
  5646. family Lophosoriaceae = very small family of tree ferns
  5647. family Loranthaceae = in some classification includes Viscaceae: parasitic or hemiparasitic shrublets or shrubs or small trees of tropical and temperate regions
  5648. family Loxomataceae = very small family of New Zealand ferns
  5649. family Lycoperdaceae = a fungus family belonging to the order Lycoperdales
  5650. family Lycopodiaceae = a family of ferns belonging to the order Lycopodiales
  5651. family Lythraceae = herbs and shrubs and small trees with pink or purple flowers
  5652. family Magnoliaceae = subclass Magnoliidae: genera Liriodendron, Magnolia, and Manglietia
  5653. family Malpighiaceae = tropical shrubs or trees
  5654. family Malvaceae = herbs and shrubs and some trees: mallows; cotton
  5655. family Marantaceae = tropical perennial herbs with usually starchy rhizomes
  5656. family Marattiaceae = constituting the order Marattiales: chiefly tropical eusporangiate ferns with gigantic fronds
  5657. family Marchantiaceae = liverworts with prostrate and usually dichotomously branched thalli
  5658. family Marsileaceae = clover ferns
  5659. family Martyniaceae = in most classifications not considered a separate family but included in the Pedaliaceae
  5660. family Mayacaceae = a monocotyledonous family of bog plants of order Xyridales
  5661. family Melampsoraceae = rust fungi
  5662. family Melanthiaceae = one of many subfamilies into which some classification systems subdivide the Liliaceae but not widely accepted: includes Aletris; Narthecium
  5663. family Melastomaceae = a family of trees and bushes and herbs of order Myrtales
  5664. family Melastomataceae = a family of trees and bushes and herbs of order Myrtales
  5665. family Meliaceae = tropical trees and shrubs including many important timber and ornamental trees
  5666. family Menispermaceae = herbaceous or woody climbers
  5667. family Menyanthaceae = a dicotyledonous family of marsh plants of order Gentianales
  5668. family Mimosaceae = family of spiny woody plants (usually shrubs or small trees) whose leaves mimic animals in sensitivity to touch
  5669. family Mniaceae = family of erect mosses with club-shaped paraphyses and the hexagonal cells of the upper leaf surface
  5670. family Moniliaceae = family of imperfect fungi having white or brightly colored hyphae and spores that are produced directly on the mycelium and not aggregated in fruiting bodies
  5671. family Monotropaceae = used in some classification for saprophytic herbs sometimes included in the family Pyrolaceae: genera Monotropa and Sarcodes
  5672. family Moraceae = trees or shrubs having a milky juice
  5673. family Morchellaceae = a family of edible fungi including the true morels
  5674. family Mucoraceae = large family of chiefly saprophytic fungi that includes many common molds destructive to food products
  5675. family Musaceae = treelike tropical Asian herbs
  5676. family Myricaceae = constituting the order Myricales
  5677. family Myristicaceae = family of aromatic tropical trees with arillate seeds
  5678. family Myrsinaceae = family of Old World tropical trees and shrubs
  5679. family Myrtaceae = trees and shrubs yielding a fragrant oil
  5680. family Naiadaceae = monotypic family of aquatic plants having narrow leaves and small flowers
  5681. family Najadaceae = monotypic family of aquatic plants having narrow leaves and small flowers
  5682. family Nepenthaceae = coextensive with the genus Nepenthes
  5683. family Nidulariaceae = bird's-nest fungi
  5684. family Nyctaginaceae = a family of flowering plants of the order Caryophyllales
  5685. family Nymphaeaceae = dicot aquatic plants
  5686. family Nyssaceae = a family of dicotyledonous trees of order Myrtales that includes the sour gum trees
  5687. family Ochnaceae = family of tropical evergreen trees and shrubs with thick shining parallel-veined leaves
  5688. family Oleaceae = trees and shrubs having berries or drupes or capsules as fruits; sometimes placed in the order Oleales: olive; ash; jasmine; privet
  5689. family Oleandraceae = one of a number of families into which Polypodiaceae has been subdivided in some classification systems
  5690. family Onagraceae = a large and widely distributed family of plants of the order Myrtales
  5691. family Ophioglossaceae = a family of succulent ferns of order Ophioglossales
  5692. family Orchidaceae = enormous cosmopolitan family of perennial terrestrial or epiphytic plants with fleshy tubers or rootstocks and unusual flowers
  5693. family Orobanchaceae = brown or yellow leafless herbs
  5694. family Osmundaceae = large family of ferns widely distributed in temperate and tropical areas
  5695. family Oxalidaceae = a family of widely distributed herbs of the order Geraniales
  5696. family Paeoniaceae = perennial rhizomatous herbs and shrubs
  5697. family Palmaceae = chiefly tropical trees and shrubs and vines usually having a tall columnar trunk bearing a crown of very large leaves
  5698. family Palmae = chiefly tropical trees and shrubs and vines usually having a tall columnar trunk bearing a crown of very large leaves
  5699. family Pandanaceae = family of woody plants of the order Pandanales including pandanus
  5700. family Papaveraceae = herbs or shrubs having milky and often colored juices and capsular fruits
  5701. family Papilionacea = leguminous plants whose flowers have butterfly-shaped corollas
  5702. family Parkeriaceae = coextensive with the genus Ceratopteris
  5703. family Parmeliaceae = a family of lichens
  5704. family Passifloraceae = tropical woody tendril-climbing vines
  5705. family Pedaliaceae = the family of plants of order Polemoniales
  5706. family Peronosporaceae = parasitic fungi: downy mildews
  5707. family Pertusariaceae = a fungus family of division Lichenes
  5708. family Pezizaceae = large family comprising many typical cup fungi
  5709. family Phallaceae = a family of fungi belonging to the order Phallales and comprising the true stinkhorns
  5710. family Phyllocladaceae = a family of Phyllocladaceae
  5711. family Phytolaccaceae = chiefly tropical herbaceous plants (including shrubs and trees) with racemose flowers: genera Phytolacca, Agdestis, Ercilla, Rivina, Trichostigma
  5712. family Pinaceae = a family of Pinaceae
  5713. family Piperaceae = tropical woody vines and herbaceous plants having aromatic herbage and minute flowers in spikelets
  5714. family Plantaginaceae = cosmopolitan family of small herbs and a few shrubs
  5715. family Plasmodiophoraceae = family of fungi often causing hypertrophy in seed plants
  5716. family Platanaceae = coextensive with the genus Platanus: plane trees
  5717. family Plumbaginaceae = perennial herbs and shrubs and lianas
  5718. family Pluteaceae = a family of fungi belonging to the order Agaricales
  5719. family Poaceae = the grasses: chiefly herbaceous but some woody plants including cereals; bamboo; reeds
  5720. family Podocarpaceae = gymnosperms with simple persistent needlelike or scalelike leaves
  5721. family Polemoniaceae = a widely distributed family of chiefly herbaceous plants of the order Polemoniales
  5722. family Polygalaceae = trees, shrubs, and herbs widely distributed throughout both hemispheres
  5723. family Polygonaceae = a family of plants of order Polygonales chiefly of the north temperate zone
  5724. family Polypodiaceae = ferns: a large family that in some classification systems has been subdivided into several families
  5725. family Polyporaceae = fungi that become corky or woody with age, often forming shelflike growths on trees
  5726. family Pontederiaceae = aquatic or bog plants
  5727. family Portulacaceae = family of usually succulent herbs
  5728. family Potamogetonaceae = plants that grow in ponds and slow streams
  5729. family Primulaceae = a dicotyledonous family of the order Primulales with a regular flower
  5730. family Proteaceae = large family of Australian and South African shrubs and trees with leathery leaves and clustered mostly tetramerous flowers
  5731. family Psilophytaceae = Paleozoic plants
  5732. family Psilotaceae = small family of lower ferns having nearly naked stems and minute scalelike leaves
  5733. family Pteridaceae = one of a number of families into which the family Polypodiaceae has been subdivided in some classification systems
  5734. family Pucciniaceae = large important family of rust fungi
  5735. family Punicaceae = one species: pomegranates
  5736. family Pyrolaceae = evergreen herbs of temperate regions: genera Pyrola, Chimaphila, Moneses, Orthilia
  5737. family Pythiaceae = fungi having sporangia usually borne successively and singly at the tips of branching sporangiophores
  5738. family Rafflesiaceae = a family of parasitic plants of the order Aristolochiales
  5739. family Ranunculaceae = a family of Ranunculaceae
  5740. family Rapateaceae = South American herbs somewhat resembling members of the Juncaceae
  5741. family Resedaceae = mainly Mediterranean herbs: mignonette
  5742. family Rhamnaceae = trees and shrubs usually thorny bearing drupaceous fruit many having medicinal value
  5743. family Rhizophoraceae = trees and shrubs that usually form dense jungles along tropical seacoasts
  5744. family Rhizopogonaceae = a family of fungi of order Hymenogastrales having round subterranean sporophores
  5745. family Rhyniaceae = primitive plants of the Paleozoic
  5746. family Roccellaceae = a fungus family of division Lichenes
  5747. family Roridulaceae = in some classifications included in the family Droseraceae
  5748. family Rosaceae = a large family of dicotyledonous plants of order Rosales
  5749. family Rubiaceae = widely distributed family of mostly tropical trees and shrubs and herbs
  5750. family Ruscaceae = one of many subfamilies into which some classification systems subdivide the Liliaceae but not widely accepted
  5751. family Russulaceae = used in some classification systems for the genus Russula
  5752. family Rutaceae = a family of dicotyledonous plants of order Geraniales
  5753. family Saccharomycetaceae = family of fungi comprising the typical yeasts: reproduce by budding and ferment carbohydrates
  5754. family Salicaceae = two genera of trees or shrubs having hairy catkins: Salix
  5755. family Salvadoraceae = a family of Old World shrubs and trees of order Gentianales
  5756. family Salviniaceae = water ferns
  5757. family Santalaceae = chiefly tropical herbs or shrubs or trees bearing nuts or one-seeded fruit
  5758. family Sapindaceae = chiefly tropical New and Old World deciduous and evergreen trees and shrubs bearing leathery drupes with yellow translucent flesh
  5759. family Sapotaceae = tropical trees or shrubs with milky juice and often edible fleshy fruit
  5760. family Sarcoscyphaceae = family of fungi belonging to the order Pezizales
  5761. family Sarraceniaceae = insectivorous plants
  5762. family Saururaceae = family of perennial aromatic herbs: genera Saururus, Anemopsis, Houttuynia
  5763. family Saxifragaceae = a large and diverse family of evergreen or deciduous herbs; widely distributed in northern temperate and cold regions
  5764. family Scheuchzeriaceae = a family of monocotyledonous bog herbs of order Naiadales
  5765. family Schizaeaceae = small family of mainly tropical ferns
  5766. family Schizosaccharomycetaceae = a family of fungi belonging to order Endomycetales
  5767. family Sciadopityaceae = family comprising a single genus that until recently was considered part of Taxodiaceae
  5768. family Sclerodermataceae = a family of fungi or order Sclerodermatales with a single-layered peridium
  5769. family Sclerotiniaceae = a fungus family of order Helotiales
  5770. family Scrophulariaceae = a family of dicotyledonous plants of the order Polemoniales; includes figwort and snapdragon and foxglove and toadflax and speedwell and mullein
  5771. family Secotiaceae = a family of fungi that have a stalk and cap and a wrinkled mass of tissue (the gleba) where spores are produced
  5772. family Selaginellaceae = lesser club mosses: terrestrial chiefly tropical plants resembling mosses
  5773. family Septobasidiaceae = a family of fungi belonging to the subdivision Basidiomycota
  5774. family Simaroubaceae = chiefly tropical trees and shrubs with bitter bark having dry usually one-seeded winged fruit
  5775. family Solanaceae = large and economically important family of herbs or shrubs or trees often strongly scented and sometimes narcotic or poisonous
  5776. family Sparganiaceae = coextensive with the genus Sparganium
  5777. family Sphaeriaceae = parasitic fungi having globose and sometimes necked or beaked perithecia
  5778. family Sphaerobolaceae = monotypic family of fungi in which the more or less spherical gleba is forcibly ejected at maturity
  5779. family Sphaerocarpaceae = liverworts with bilaterally symmetrical gametophytes
  5780. family Staphylaceae = a family of dicotyledonous plants of order Sapindales found mostly in the north temperate zone
  5781. family Sterculiaceae = a large family of plants of order Malvales
  5782. family Strelitziaceae = woody plants with erect stems of tropical South America and South Africa and Madagascar
  5783. family Strophariaceae = sometimes included in family Agaricaceae
  5784. family Styracaceae = a widely distributed family of shrubs and trees of order Ebenales
  5785. family Symplocaceae = a dicotyledonous family of order Ebenales
  5786. family Synchytriaceae = a fungus family of order Chytridiales
  5787. family Taccaceae = small family of tropical herbs
  5788. family Tamaricaceae = family of desert shrubs and trees
  5789. family Taxaceae = sometimes classified as member of order Taxales
  5790. family Tecophilaeacea = one of many subfamilies into which some classification systems subdivide the Liliaceae but not widely accepted
  5791. family Tetragoniaceae = succulent herbs or small shrubs mostly of South Africa but also New Zealand and North America: carpetweeds
  5792. family Theaceae = a family of trees and shrubs of the order Parietales
  5793. family Thelephoraceae = fungi having leathery or membranous sporophores
  5794. family Thelypteridaceae = genera Thelypteris, Phegopteris, and others
  5795. family Theophrastaceae = family of mainly tropical American trees and shrubs similar to those of the Myrsinaceae
  5796. family Thymelaeaceae = family of trees and shrubs and herbs having tough bark that are found especially in Australia and tropical Africa
  5797. family Tiliaceae = chiefly trees and shrubs of tropical and temperate regions of especially southeastern Asia and Brazil
  5798. family Tilletiaceae = a family of smut fungi having a simple promycelium bearing the spores in an apical cluster
  5799. family Trapaceae = family comprising solely the genus Trapa
  5800. family Tremellaceae = a family of basidiomycetous fungi of the order Tremellales that have the basidium divided longitudinally
  5801. family Tricholomataceae = a family of fungi belonging to the order Agaricales
  5802. family Trilliaceae = small family of herbs having flowers with 3 petals and 3 sepals
  5803. family Tropaeolaceae = coextensive with the genus Tropaeolum
  5804. family Tuberaceae = family of fungi whose ascocarps resemble tubers and vary in size from that of an acorn to that of a large apple
  5805. family Tuberculariaceae = large family of mainly saprophytic imperfect fungi
  5806. family Tulostomaceae = stalked puffballs
  5807. family Tulostomataceae = stalked puffballs
  5808. family Typhaceae = perennial marsh plants with creeping rootstocks and long linear leaves
  5809. family Ulmaceae = a dicot family of the order Urticales including: genera Ulmus, Celtis, Planera, Trema
  5810. family Umbelliferae = plants having flowers in umbels: parsley; carrot; anise; caraway; celery
  5811. family Urticaceae = a family of plants of order Urticales including many nettles with stinging hairs
  5812. family Usneaceae = fruticose lichens having prostrate or erect or pendulous thalli: genera Usnea, Evernia, Ramalina, Alectoria
  5813. family Ustilaginaceae = a fungus family of loose smuts
  5814. family Valerianaceae = genus of mostly herbs having a characteristic fetid odor
  5815. family Verbenaceae = family of New World tropical and subtropical herbs and shrubs and trees
  5816. family Violaceae = a family of order Parietales including the genera Viola, Hybanthus, Hymenanthera, Melicytus
  5817. family Viscaceae = in some classifications considered a subfamily of Loranthaceae
  5818. family Vitaceae = a family of vines belonging to order Rhamnales
  5819. family Vittariaceae = one of a number of families into which Polypodiaceae has been subdivided in some classification systems: genus Vittaria
  5820. family Volvariaceae = a family of fungi belonging to the order Agaricales
  5821. family Welwitschiaceae = in some classifications included in the Gnetaceae
  5822. family Winteraceae = small family of chiefly tropical shrubs and trees of genera Drimys and Pseudowintera
  5823. family Xanthorrhoeaceae = one of many subfamilies into which some classification systems subdivide the Liliaceae but not widely accepted
  5824. family Xylariaceae = family of fungi characterized by dark brown to black spores
  5825. family Xyridaceae = plants of tropical to temperate regions
  5826. family Zamiaceae = a family of cycads often included in the family Cycadaceae: zamias
  5827. family Zannichelliaceae = alternative classification for some genera included in Potamogetonaceae
  5828. family Zingiberaceae = a family of tropical monocotyledonous plants of order Musales
  5829. family Zosteraceae = used in some classifications: essentially equivalent to Potamogetonaceae
  5830. family Zygophyllaceae = small trees, shrubs, and herbs of warm arid and saline regions; often resinous
  5831. fan fern = large Australasian fern with fanlike repeatedly forked fronds
  5832. fan palm = palm having palmate or fan-shaped leaves
  5833. fanweed = foetid Eurasian weed having round flat pods
  5834. fanwort = common aquatic plant of eastern North America having floating and submerged leaves and white yellow-spotted flowers
  5835. farkleberry = shrub or small tree of eastern United States having black inedible berries
  5836. Farley maidenhair = named for a country house in Barbados where it was discovered
  5837. Farley maidenhair fern = named for a country house in Barbados where it was discovered
  5838. fat hen = European plant naturalized in North America
  5839. fava bean = seed of the broad-bean plant
  5840. fawn lily = California dogtooth violet with creamy white flowers sometimes yellow-tinged
  5841. feabane mullet = hairy perennial Eurasian herb with yellow daisylike flowers reputed to destroy or drive away fleas
  5842. feather ball = a low tuberculate cactus with white feathery spines
  5843. feather geranium = Eurasian aromatic oak-leaved goosefoot with many yellow-green flowers
  5844. feather palm = palm having pinnate or featherlike leaves
  5845. feather reed grass = a variety of reed grass
  5846. feather-foil = a plant of the genus Hottonia
  5847. featherfoil = a plant of the genus Hottonia
  5848. feathertop = a variety of reed grass / northeastern tropical African plant having feathery panicles
  5849. feathertop grass = northeastern tropical African plant having feathery panicles
  5850. February daphne = small European deciduous shrub with fragrant lilac-colored flowers followed by red berries on highly toxic twigs
  5851. federita = a Sudanese sorghum having exceptionally large soft white grains
  5852. feijoa = South American shrub having edible greenish plumlike fruit
  5853. feijoa bush = South American shrub having edible greenish plumlike fruit
  5854. Felicia = genus of tropical African herbs or subshrubs with usually blue flowers
  5855. Felicia amelloides = hairy South African or Australian subshrub that has daisylike flowers with blue rays
  5856. Felicia bergeriana = softly hairy South African herb having flowers with bright blue rays
  5857. felt fern = east Asian fern having fronds shaped like tongues
  5858. felt fungus = fungus that frequently encircles twigs and branches of various trees especially citrus trees in southern United States
  5859. felwort = gentian of Europe and China having creamy white flowers with fringed corollas
  5860. fen orchid = small terrestrial orchid of eastern North America and Europe having two nearly basal leaves and dull yellow-green racemose flowers
  5861. fen orchis = small terrestrial orchid of eastern North America and Europe having two nearly basal leaves and dull yellow-green racemose flowers
  5862. fennel = any of several aromatic herbs having edible seeds and leaves and stems
  5863. fennel flower = nigella of Spain and southern France
  5864. fenugreek = annual herb of southern Europe, North Africa and eastern Asia having off-white flowers and aromatic seeds used medicinally and in curry
  5865. fern = any of numerous flowerless and seedless vascular plants having true roots from a rhizome and fronds that uncurl upward
  5866. fern ally = pteridophytes of other classes than Filicopsida
  5867. fern family = families of ferns and fern allies
  5868. fern genus = genera of ferns and fern allies
  5869. fern palm = southeastern Indian cycad with palmlike foliage
  5870. fern rhapis = small graceful palm with reedlike stems and leaf bases clothed with loose coarse fibers
  5871. fern seed = the asexual spore of ferns that resembles dust
  5872. Ferocactus = genus of nearly globular cacti of Mexico and southwestern United States: barrel cacti
  5873. fescue = grass with wide flat leaves cultivated in Europe and America for permanent pasture and hay and for lawns
  5874. fescue grass = grass with wide flat leaves cultivated in Europe and America for permanent pasture and hay and for lawns
  5875. Festuca = a genus of tufted perennial grasses of the family Gramineae
  5876. Festuca elatior = grass with wide flat leaves cultivated in Europe and America for permanent pasture and hay and for lawns
  5877. Festuca ovina = cultivated for sheep pasturage in upland regions or used as a lawn grass
  5878. feterita = a Sudanese sorghum having exceptionally large soft white grains
  5879. fetid bugbane = bugbane of Siberia and eastern Asia having ill-smelling green-white flowers
  5880. fetid horehound = ill-smelling European herb with rugose leaves and whorls of dark purple flowers
  5881. fetter bush = showy evergreen shrub of southeastern United States with shiny leaves and angled branches and clusters of pink to reddish flowers that resemble an umbel
  5882. fetterbush = showy evergreen shrub of southeastern United States with shiny leaves and angled branches and clusters of pink to reddish flowers that resemble an umbel / ornamental evergreen shrub of southeastern United States having small white bell-shaped flowers
  5883. fever tree = African tree supposed to mark healthful regions / tall fast-growing timber tree with leaves containing a medicinal oil
  5884. feverfew = bushy aromatic European perennial herb having clusters of buttonlike white-rayed flower heads; valued traditionally for medicinal uses
  5885. feverroot = coarse weedy American perennial herb with large usually perfoliate leaves and purple or dull red flowers
  5886. few-flowered leek = leek producing bulbils instead of flowers
  5887. fibrous-rooted begonia = any of numerous begonias having fibrous rather than tuberous or rhizomatous roots
  5888. fibrovascular bundle = a unit strand of the vascular system in stems and leaves of higher plants consisting essentially of xylem and phloem
  5889. Ficus = large genus of tropical trees or shrubs or climbers including fig trees
  5890. Ficus aurea = a strangler tree native to southern Florida and West Indies
  5891. Ficus bengalensis = East Indian tree that puts out aerial shoots that grow down into the soil forming additional trunks
  5892. Ficus carica = Mediterranean tree widely cultivated for its edible fruit
  5893. Ficus carica sylvestris = wild variety of the common fig used to facilitate pollination of certain figs
  5894. Ficus deltoidea = shrub or small tree often grown as a houseplant having foliage like mistletoe
  5895. Ficus diversifolia = shrub or small tree often grown as a houseplant having foliage like mistletoe
  5896. Ficus elastica = large tropical Asian tree frequently dwarfed as a houseplant
  5897. Ficus religiosa = fig tree of India noted for great size and longevity; lacks the prop roots of the banyan
  5898. Ficus rubiginosa = Australian tree resembling the banyan often planted for ornament
  5899. Ficus sycomorus = thick-branched wide-spreading tree of Africa and adjacent southwestern Asia often buttressed with branches rising from near the ground; produces cluster of edible but inferior figs on short leafless twigs
  5900. fiddlehead = New World fern having woolly cinnamon-colored spore-bearing fronds in early spring later surrounded by green fronds
  5901. fiddlehead fern = New World fern having woolly cinnamon-colored spore-bearing fronds in early spring later surrounded by green fronds
  5902. fiddleneck = hairy annual of California to Mexico with crowded cymes of small blue to lilac or mauve flowers
  5903. field balm = low-growing strongly aromatic perennial herb of southern Europe to Great Britain; naturalized in United States / trailing European aromatic plant of the mint family having rounded leaves and small purplish flowers often grown in hanging baskets; naturalized in North America
  5904. field bean = Old World upright plant grown especially for its large flat edible seeds but also as fodder
  5905. field bindweed = weakly climbing European perennial with white or pink flowers
  5906. field brome = annual grass of Europe and temperate Asia
  5907. field chamomile = European white-flowered weed naturalized in North America
  5908. field chickweed = densely tufted perennial chickweed of north temperate zone
  5909. field corn = corn grown primarily for animal feed or market grain
  5910. field crop = a crop (other than fruits or vegetables) that is grown for agricultural purposes
  5911. field garlic = pungent Old World wild onion
  5912. field horsetail = of Eurasia and Greenland and North America
  5913. field lupine = white-flowered Eurasian herb widely cultivated for forage and erosion control
  5914. field maple = shrubby Eurasian maple often used as a hedge
  5915. field marigold = European herb with bright yellow flowers
  5916. field mint = European mint naturalized in United States
  5917. field mouse-ear = densely tufted perennial chickweed of north temperate zone
  5918. field mushroom = common edible mushroom found naturally in moist open soil
  5919. field mustard = weedy Eurasian plant often a pest in grain fields
  5920. field pansy = common Old World viola with creamy often violet-tinged flowers
  5921. field pea = variety of pea plant native to the Mediterranean region and North Africa and widely grown especially for forage / seed of the field pea plant
  5922. field pennycress = foetid Eurasian weed having round flat pods
  5923. field poppy = annual European poppy common in grain fields and often cultivated
  5924. field pussytoes = a variety of pussytoes
  5925. field sandbur = grass of the eastern United States and tropical America having spikelets enclosed in prickly burs
  5926. field scabious = perennial having bluish-lilac flowers
  5927. field speedwell = European plant with minute axillary blue flowers on long stalks
  5928. field thistle = stout North American thistle with purplish-pink flower heads
  5929. field wormwood = European wormwood similar to common wormwood in its properties
  5930. field-pea plant = variety of pea plant native to the Mediterranean region and North Africa and widely grown especially for forage
  5931. fiesta flower = straggling California annual herb with deep purple or violet flowers
  5932. fig = Mediterranean tree widely cultivated for its edible fruit
  5933. fig leaf = a leaf from a fig tree
  5934. fig marigold = any of several South African plants of the genus Mesembryanthemum cultivated for showy pink or white flowers
  5935. fig tree = any moraceous tree of the tropical genus Ficus
  5936. figwort = any of numerous tall coarse woodland plants of the genus Scrophularia
  5937. figwort family = a family of dicotyledonous plants of the order Polemoniales; includes figwort and snapdragon and foxglove and toadflax and speedwell and mullein
  5938. filago = any plant of the genus Filago having capitate clusters of small woolly flower heads
  5939. Filago germanica = a variety of cotton rose
  5940. filament = the stalk of a stamen
  5941. filaree = European weed naturalized in southwestern United States and Mexico having reddish decumbent stems with small fernlike leaves and small deep reddish-lavender flowers followed by slender fruits that stick straight up
  5942. filaria = European weed naturalized in southwestern United States and Mexico having reddish decumbent stems with small fernlike leaves and small deep reddish-lavender flowers followed by slender fruits that stick straight up
  5943. filbert = small nut-bearing tree much grown in Europe
  5944. Filicales = true (leptosporangiate) ferns
  5945. Filicinae = ferns
  5946. Filicopsida = ferns
  5947. film fern = any fern of the genus Hymenophyllum growing in tropical humid regions and having translucent leaves
  5948. filmy fern = any fern of the genus Hymenophyllum growing in tropical humid regions and having translucent leaves / any fern of the genus Trichomanes having large pinnatifid often translucent fronds
  5949. fine-leaved heath = common low European shrub with purple-red flowers
  5950. finger grass = any grass of the genus Chloris; occurs in short grassland especially on waste ground or poor soils / grasses with creeping stems that root freely
  5951. finger millet = East Indian cereal grass whose seed yield a somewhat bitter flour, a staple in the Orient
  5952. finger-flower = tall leafy European biennial or perennial having spectacular clusters of large tubular pink-purple flowers
  5953. finger-root = tall leafy European biennial or perennial having spectacular clusters of large tubular pink-purple flowers
  5954. fingerflower = tall leafy European biennial or perennial having spectacular clusters of large tubular pink-purple flowers
  5955. fingerroot = tall leafy European biennial or perennial having spectacular clusters of large tubular pink-purple flowers
  5956. fir = any of various evergreen trees of the genus Abies
  5957. fir clubmoss = of northern Europe and America
  5958. fir cone = the seed-producing cone of a fir tree
  5959. fir tree = any of various evergreen trees of the genus Abies
  5960. fire bush = densely branched Eurasian plant; foliage turns purple-red in autumn / evergreen South American shrub having showy trumpet-shaped orange flowers
  5961. fire pink = perennial herb of eastern North America, having red flowers with narrow notched petals
  5962. fire thorn = any of various thorny shrubs of the genus Pyracantha bearing small white flowers followed by hard red or orange-red berries
  5963. fire tree = a terrestrial evergreen shrub or small tree of western Australia having brilliant yellow-orange flowers
  5964. fire wheel = annual of central United States having showy long-stalked yellow flower heads marked with scarlet or purple in the center
  5965. fire-bush = densely branched Eurasian plant; foliage turns purple-red in autumn / evergreen South American shrub having showy trumpet-shaped orange flowers
  5966. fire-on-the-mountain = poinsettia of United States and eastern Mexico
  5967. fire-wheel = annual of central United States having showy long-stalked yellow flower heads marked with scarlet or purple in the center
  5968. firethorn = any of various thorny shrubs of the genus Pyracantha bearing small white flowers followed by hard red or orange-red berries
  5969. fireweed = an American weedy plant with small white or greenish flowers / tall North American perennial with creeping rootstocks and narrow leaves and spikes of pinkish-purple flowers occurring in great abundance in burned-over areas or recent clearings
  5970. firewheel tree = eastern Australian tree widely cultivated as a shade tree and for its glossy leaves and circular clusters of showy red to orange-scarlet flowers
  5971. Firmiana = small genus of Asian trees or shrubs
  5972. Firmiana simplex = deciduous tree widely grown in southern United States as an ornamental for its handsome maplelike foliage and long racemes of yellow-green flowers followed by curious leaflike pods
  5973. Fischer's slime mushroom = a type of slime mushroom
  5974. fish fuddle = small tree of West Indies and Florida having large odd-pinnate leaves and panicles of red-striped purple to white flowers followed by decorative curly winged seedpods
  5975. fish geranium = an upright geranium having scalloped leaves with a broad color zone inside the margin and white or pink or red flowers
  5976. fishpole bamboo = small bamboo of southeastern China having slender culms flexuous when young
  5977. fishtail palm = attractive East Indian palm having distinctive bipinnate foliage
  5978. Fistulina = fungi having each pore separate though crowded
  5979. Fistulina hepatica = a popular edible fungus with a cap the color of liver or raw meat
  5980. Fistulinaceae = a family of fungi closely related to the family Polyporaceae except that the tubes on the undersurface of the cap are separate from each other
  5981. five-finger = any of a numerous plants grown for their five-petaled flowers; abundant in temperate regions
  5982. five-fingered maidenhair fern = hardy palmately branched North American fern with divergent recurved branches borne on lustrous dark reddish stipes
  5983. five-flowered gentian = gentian of eastern North America having clusters of bristly blue flowers
  5984. five-point bishop's cap = small plant with leaves in a basal cluster and tiny greenish flowers in slender racemes
  5985. five-spot = California annual having white flowers with a deep purple blotch on each petal
  5986. Flacourtia = often spiny trees or shrubs of tropical Asia and Africa
  5987. flacourtia family = chiefly tropical trees and shrubs
  5988. Flacourtia indica = small shrubby tree of Madagascar cultivated in tropical regions as a hedge plant and for its deep red acid fruits resembling small plums
  5989. Flacourtiaceae = chiefly tropical trees and shrubs
  5990. flag = plants with sword-shaped leaves and erect stalks bearing bright-colored flowers composed of three petals and three drooping sepals
  5991. flag smut fungus = a smut fungus causing a smut in cereals and other grasses that chiefly affects leaves and stems and is characterized chains of sori within the plant tissue that later rupture releasing black masses of spores
  5992. flagroot = perennial marsh plant having swordlike leaves and aromatic roots
  5993. flamboyant = showy tropical tree or shrub native to Madagascar; widely planted in tropical regions for its immense racemes of scarlet and orange flowers
  5994. flamboyant tree = tropical shrub or small tree having showy yellow to orange-red flowers
  5995. flame bush = Australian shrub having simple obovate leaves and brilliant scarlet flowers
  5996. flame durrajong = south Australian tree having panicles of brilliant scarlet flowers
  5997. flame flower = plant with fleshy roots and erect stems with narrow succulent leaves and one reddish-orange flower in each upper leaf axil; southwestern United States
  5998. flame nettle = any of various Old World tropical plants of the genus Coleus having multicolored decorative leaves and spikes of blue flowers
  5999. flame pea = any of several small shrubs or twining vines having entire or lobed leaves and racemes of yellow to orange-red flowers
  6000. flame tree = tropical American thorny shrub or small tree; fragrant yellow flowers used in making perfumery / south Australian tree having panicles of brilliant scarlet flowers / north Australian tree having white flowers and broad leaves / showy tropical tree or shrub native to Madagascar; widely planted in tropical regions for its immense racemes of scarlet and orange flowers; sometimes placed in genus Poinciana / a terrestrial evergreen shrub or small tree of western Australia having brilliant yellow-orange flowers
  6001. flame-flower = plant with fleshy roots and erect stems with narrow succulent leaves and one reddish-orange flower in each upper leaf axil; southwestern United States
  6002. flameflower = plant with fleshy roots and erect stems with narrow succulent leaves and one reddish-orange flower in each upper leaf axil; southwestern United States
  6003. flaming poppy = California wild poppy with bright red flowers
  6004. flamingo flower = commonly cultivated anthurium having bright scarlet spathe and spadix
  6005. flamingo plant = commonly cultivated anthurium having bright scarlet spathe and spadix
  6006. Flammulina = a genus of agarics
  6007. Flammulina velutipes = an edible agaric that is available in early spring or late fall when few other mushrooms are; has a viscid smooth orange to brown cap and a velvety stalk that turns black in maturity and pallid gills
  6008. Flanders poppy = annual European poppy common in grain fields and often cultivated
  6009. flannel bush = any of several handsome evergreen shrubs of California and northern Mexico having downy lobed leaves and showy yellow flowers
  6010. flannel leaf = any of various plants of the genus Verbascum having large usually woolly leaves and terminal spikes of yellow or white or purplish flowers
  6011. flannel mullein = tall-stalked very woolly mullein with densely packed yellow flowers
  6012. flannelbush = any of several handsome evergreen shrubs of California and northern Mexico having downy lobed leaves and showy yellow flowers
  6013. flat pea = European perennial with mottled flowers of purple and pink; sometimes cultivated for fodder or as green manure / evergreen shrub having almost heart-shaped foliage and bright yellow pea-like flowers followed by flat pods with flat wings
  6014. flat-leaf parsley = a variety of parsley having flat leaves
  6015. flat-topped white aster = a variety of aster
  6016. flax = plant of the genus Linum that is cultivated for its seeds and for the fibers of its stem
  6017. flax family = a widely distributed family of plants
  6018. flax rust = fungus causing flax rust
  6019. flax rust fungus = fungus causing flax rust
  6020. fleabane = common North American weed with linear leaves and small discoid heads of yellowish flowers; widely naturalized throughout temperate regions; sometimes placed in genus Erigeron / any of several North American plants of the genus Erigeron having daisylike flowers
  6021. fleawort = plantain of Mediterranean regions whose seeds swell and become gelatinous when moist and are used as a mild laxative
  6022. flesh = a soft moist part of a fruit
  6023. fleur-de-lis = plants with sword-shaped leaves and erect stalks bearing bright-colored flowers composed of three petals and three drooping sepals
  6024. Flindersia = small genus of Australian timber trees
  6025. Flindersia australis = tall Australian timber tree yielding tough hard wood used for staves etc
  6026. Flindersia schottiana = Australian timber tree whose bark yields a poison
  6027. flindosa = tall Australian timber tree yielding tough hard wood used for staves etc
  6028. flindosy = tall Australian timber tree yielding tough hard wood used for staves etc
  6029. flint corn = corn having kernels with a hard outer layer enclosing the soft endosperm
  6030. flint maize = corn having kernels with a hard outer layer enclosing the soft endosperm
  6031. floating fern = small free-floating aquatic fern from the eastern United States to tropical America
  6032. floating-moss = free-floating aquatic ferns
  6033. floccose chanterelle = a mildly poisonous fungus with a fruiting body shaped like a hollow trumpet
  6034. flooded gum = any of several Australian gum trees growing on moist or alluvial soil
  6035. floral cup = the cuplike or ringlike or tubular structure of a flower which bears the sepals and stamens and calyx
  6036. floral envelope = collective term for the outer parts of a flower consisting of the calyx and corolla and enclosing the stamens and pistils
  6037. floral leaf = a modified leaf that is part of a flower
  6038. Florence fennel = grown especially for its edible aromatic bulbous stem base
  6039. Florentine iris = German iris having large white flowers with lavender-tinged falls and a fragrant rhizome
  6040. florest's cineraria = herb derived from Pericallis cruenta and widely cultivated in a variety of profusely flowering forms with florets from white to pink to red or purple or violet or blue
  6041. floret = a diminutive flower
  6042. Florida arrowroot = small tough woody zamia of Florida and West Indies and Cuba
  6043. Florida bean = the annual woody vine of Asia having long clusters of purplish flowers and densely hairy pods
  6044. florida selaginella = occurs widely in Florida
  6045. Florida strangler fig = a strangler tree native to southern Florida and West Indies
  6046. Florida strap fern = common epiphytic or sometimes terrestrial fern having pale yellow-green strap-shaped leaves
  6047. Florida yew = small bushy yew of northern Florida having spreading branches and very narrow leaves
  6048. florist's chrysanthemum = of China
  6049. florist's gloxinia = South American herb cultivated in many varieties as a houseplant for its large handsome leaves and large variously colored bell-shaped flowers
  6050. florist's willow = much-branched Old World willow having large catkins and relatively large broad leaves
  6051. florists' chrysanthemum = of China
  6052. flour corn = corn having kernels almost entirely of soft starch
  6053. flower = reproductive organ of angiosperm plants especially one having showy or colorful parts / a plant cultivated for its blooms or blossoms
  6054. flower bud = a bud from which only a flower or flowers develop
  6055. flower cluster = an inflorescence consisting of a cluster of flowers
  6056. flower head = a shortened compact cluster of flowers so arranged that the whole gives the effect of a single flower as in clover or members of the family Compositae
  6057. flower petal = part of the perianth that is usually brightly colored
  6058. flower stalk = erect leafless flower stalk growing directly from the ground as in a tulip
  6059. flower-cup fern = slender fern of northern North America with shining chestnut-colored stipes and bipinnate fronds with usually distinct marginal sori
  6060. flower-of-an-hour = annual weedy herb with ephemeral yellow purple-eyed flowers; Old World tropics
  6061. floweret = a diminutive flower
  6062. flowering almond = woody oriental plant with smooth unfurrowed red fruit grown especially for its white or pale pink blossoms / deciduous Chinese shrub or small tree with often trilobed leaves grown for its pink-white flowers
  6063. flowering ash = shrubby ash of southwestern United States having fragrant white flowers / shrubby California ash with showy off-white flowers / southern Mediterranean ash having fragrant white flowers in dense panicles and yielding manna
  6064. flowering cherry = any of several shrubs or trees of the genus Prunus cultivated for their showy white or pink single or double blossoms
  6065. flowering crab = small tree or shrub of southeastern United States
  6066. flowering fern = any fern of the genus Osmunda: large ferns with creeping rhizomes
  6067. flowering glume = the lower and stouter of the two glumes immediately enclosing the floret in most Gramineae
  6068. flowering hazel = any of several Asiatic deciduous shrubs cultivated for their nodding racemes of yellow flowers that appear before the leaves
  6069. flowering maple = an ornamental plant of the genus Abutilon having leaves that resemble maple leaves
  6070. flowering onion = European onion with white flowers
  6071. flowering plant = plants having seeds in a closed ovary
  6072. flowering quince = Asiatic ornamental shrub with spiny branches and pink or red blossoms
  6073. flowering raspberry = shrubby raspberry of eastern North America having showy rose to purplish flowers and red or orange thimble-shaped fruit
  6074. flowering shrub = shrub noted primarily for its flowers
  6075. flowering spurge = common perennial United States spurge having showy white petallike bracts
  6076. flowering stone = any plant of the genus Lithops native to Africa having solitary yellow or white flowers and thick leaves that resemble stones
  6077. flowering tobacco = South American ornamental perennial having nocturnally fragrant greenish-white flowers
  6078. flowering tree = any tree having seeds and ovules contained in the ovary
  6079. flowering wintergreen = common trailing perennial milkwort of eastern North America having leaves like wintergreen and usually rosy-purple flowers with winged sepals
  6080. flowers-of-an-hour = annual weedy herb with ephemeral yellow purple-eyed flowers; Old World tropics
  6081. fly agaric = poisonous (but rarely fatal) woodland fungus having a scarlet cap with white warts and white gills
  6082. fly honeysuckle = erect deciduous North American shrub with yellow-white flowers
  6083. fly orchid = European orchid whose flowers resemble flies / any of several dwarf creeping orchids with small bizarre insect-like hairy flowers on slender stalks
  6084. fly poison = all parts of plant are highly toxic; bulb pounded and used as a fly poison
  6085. foamflower = stoloniferous white-flowered spring-blooming woodland plant
  6086. Foeniculum = very small genus of aromatic European herbs with pinnately compound leaves and yellow flowers
  6087. Foeniculum dulce = grown especially for its edible aromatic bulbous stem base
  6088. Foeniculum vulgare = strongly aromatic with a smell of aniseed
  6089. Foeniculum vulgare dulce = grown especially for its edible aromatic bulbous stem base
  6090. foetid bugbane = bugbane of Siberia and eastern Asia having ill-smelling green-white flowers
  6091. foetid pothos = deciduous perennial low-growing fetid swamp plant of eastern North America having minute flowers enclosed in a mottled greenish or purple cowl-shaped spathe
  6092. foliage = the main organ of photosynthesis and transpiration in higher plants
  6093. Fomes = genus of bracket fungi forming corky or woody perennial shelflike sporophores often of large size
  6094. Fomes igniarius = fungus used in the preparation of punk for fuses
  6095. fool's huckleberry = straggling shrub of northwestern North America having foliage with a bluish tinge and umbels of small bell-shaped flowers
  6096. fool's parsley = European weed naturalized in America that resembles parsley but causes nausea and poisoning when eaten
  6097. footsteps-of-spring = sanicle of northwestern United States and British Columbia having yellow flowers
  6098. forest red gum = tall tree of Queensland and New South Wales and Victoria
  6099. forestiera = any plant of the genus Forestiera
  6100. Forestiera neomexicana = spiny branching deciduous shrub of southwestern United States having clusters of insignificant yellow-white flowers appearing before leaves followed by attractive black berrylike fruits
  6101. forget-me-not = small perennial herb having bright blue or white flowers
  6102. form genus Rhizoctinia = form genus of imperfect fungi some species of which are now placed in genera Pellicularia and Corticium because their perfect stages have been found
  6103. forsythia = any of various early blooming oleaceous shrubs of the genus Forsythia
  6104. Fortunella = small genus of shrubs native to south China producing small ovoid fruits resembling oranges: includes kumquats
  6105. Fortunella japonica = shrub bearing round-fruited kumquats
  6106. Fortunella margarita = shrub bearing oval-fruited kumquats
  6107. Fothergilla = small genus of deciduous shrubs of the southeastern United States / any of several deciduous low-growing shrubs of the genus Fothergilla having showy brushlike spikes of white flowers in spring and fiery red and orange autumn color
  6108. fountain grass = tall perennial ornamental grass with long nodding flower plumes of tropical Africa and Asia
  6109. Fouquieria = resinous succulent trees or shrubs of desert and semidesert regions of southwestern United States that are leafless most of the year
  6110. Fouquieria columnaris = candlewood of Mexico and southwestern California having tall columnar stems and bearing honey-scented creamy yellow flowers
  6111. Fouquieria splendens = desert shrub of southwestern United States and Mexico having slender naked spiny branches that after the rainy season put forth foliage and clusters of red flowers
  6112. Fouquieriaceae = small family of spiny shrubs or trees of southwestern United States
  6113. four o'clock = any of several plants of the genus Mirabilis having flowers that open in late afternoon
  6114. four-o'clock family = a family of flowering plants of the order Caryophyllales
  6115. fox grape = native grape of northeastern United States
  6116. foxberry = low evergreen shrub of high north temperate regions of Europe and Asia and America bearing red edible berries
  6117. foxglove = any of several plants of the genus Digitalis
  6118. foxglove family = a family of dicotyledonous plants of the order Polemoniales; includes figwort and snapdragon and foxglove and toadflax and speedwell and mullein
  6119. foxtail = grasses of the genera Alopecurus and Setaria having dense silky or bristly brushlike flowering spikes
  6120. foxtail barley = barley grown for its highly ornamental flower heads with delicate long silky awns
  6121. foxtail grass = grasses of the genera Alopecurus and Setaria having dense silky or bristly brushlike flowering spikes / ground pine thickly covered with bristly leaves
  6122. foxtail millet = coarse drought-resistant annual grass grown for grain, hay, and forage in Europe and Asia and chiefly for forage and hay in United States
  6123. foxtail orchid = any of various orchids of the genus Rhyncostylis having pink- to purple-marked white flowers in a dense cylindrical raceme
  6124. Fragaria = strawberries
  6125. Fragaria ananassa = widely cultivated
  6126. Fragaria chiloensis = wild strawberry of western United States and South America
  6127. Fragaria vesca = Europe
  6128. Fragaria virginiana = North American wild strawberry with sweet scarlet fruit
  6129. fragile fern = delicate fern widely distributed in North America and European having thin pinnatifid fronds with brittle stems
  6130. fragrant agrimony = fragrant European perennial herb found at woodland margins on moist soils
  6131. fragrant bedstraw = Old World fragrant stoloniferous perennial having small white flowers and narrow leaves used as flavoring and in sachets; widely cultivated as a ground cover
  6132. fragrant cliff fern = fern or northern Eurasia and North America having fragrant fronds
  6133. fragrant orchid = European orchid having dense spikes of fragrant pink or lilac or red flowers with conspicuous spurs
  6134. fragrant shield fern = fern or northern Eurasia and North America having fragrant fronds
  6135. fragrant sumac = sweet-scented sumac of eastern America having ternate leaves and yellowish-green flowers in spikes resembling catkins followed by red hairy fruits
  6136. fragrant water lily = a water lily having large leaves and showy fragrant flowers that float on the water
  6137. fragrant wood fern = fern or northern Eurasia and North America having fragrant fronds
  6138. fragrant woodsia = a common rock-inhabiting fern of northern temperate regions having rusty-brown stipes and lanceolate pinnate fronds
  6139. framboise = the common European raspberry
  6140. Francoa = perennial evergreen herbs with white or pink flowers
  6141. Francoa ramosa = Chilean evergreen shrub having delicate spikes of small white flowers
  6142. frangipani = any of various tropical American deciduous shrubs or trees of the genus Plumeria having milky sap and showy fragrant funnel-shaped variously colored flowers
  6143. frangipanni = any of various tropical American deciduous shrubs or trees of the genus Plumeria having milky sap and showy fragrant funnel-shaped variously colored flowers
  6144. frankincense pine = tall spreading three-needled pine of southeastern United States having reddish-brown fissured bark and a full bushy upper head
  6145. Fraser fir = small fast-growing but short-lived fir of southern Alleghenies similar to balsam fir but with very short leaves
  6146. Frasera = genus of North American herbs: columbo
  6147. Frasera speciosa = tall herb with panicles of white flowers flushed with green; northwestern United States
  6148. fraxinella = Eurasian perennial herb with white flowers that emit flammable vapor in hot weather
  6149. Fraxinus = ash
  6150. Fraxinus Americana = spreading American ash with leaves pale green or silvery beneath and having hard brownish wood
  6151. Fraxinus caroliniana = small ash of swampy areas of southeastern United States
  6152. Fraxinus cuspidata = shrubby ash of southwestern United States having fragrant white flowers
  6153. Fraxinus dipetala = shrubby California ash with showy off-white flowers
  6154. Fraxinus excelsior = tall ash of Europe to the Caucasus having leaves shiny dark-green above and pale downy beneath
  6155. Fraxinus latifolia = timber tree of western North America yielding hard light wood
  6156. Fraxinus nigra = vigorous spreading North American tree having dark brown heavy wood
  6157. Fraxinus oregona = timber tree of western North America yielding hard light wood
  6158. Fraxinus ornus = southern Mediterranean ash having fragrant white flowers in dense panicles and yielding manna
  6159. Fraxinus pennsylvanica = smallish American tree with velvety branchlets and lower leaf surfaces
  6160. Fraxinus pennsylvanica subintegerrima = a variety of red ash having glossy branchlets and lower leaf surfaces
  6161. Fraxinus quadrangulata = ash of central and southern United States with bluish-green foliage and hard brown wood
  6162. Fraxinus texensis = low-growing ash of Texas
  6163. Fraxinus tomentosa = timber tree of central and southeastern United States having hairy branchlets and a swollen trunk base
  6164. Fraxinus velutina = small shrubby ash of southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico
  6165. free central placentation = where ovules develop on a central column in a compound ovary lacking septa or with septa at base only
  6166. freesia = any of several plants of the genus Freesia valued for their one-sided clusters of usually fragrant yellow or white or pink tubular flowers
  6167. Fremontia = flannelbush
  6168. Fremontodendron = flannelbush
  6169. French bracken = large deeply rooted fern of worldwide distribution with upright bipinnate compound tufted fronds
  6170. French honeysuckle = perennial of southern Europe cultivated for forage and for its nectar-rich pink flowers that make it an important honey crop / European herb with small fragrant crimson or white spurred flowers
  6171. French lavender = shrubby greyish lavender of southwestern Europe having usually reddish-purple flowers / Mediterranean plant with pale purple flowers that yields spike lavender oil
  6172. French marigold = strong-scented bushy annual with orange or yellow flower heads marked with red
  6173. French rye = coarse perennial Eurasian grass resembling oat; found on roadside verges and rough grassland and in hay meadows
  6174. French sorrel = low perennial with small silvery-green ovate to hastate leaves
  6175. French spinach = common Eurasian weed
  6176. French weed = foetid Eurasian weed having round flat pods
  6177. freshwater cordgrass = North American cordgrass having leaves with dry membranous margins and glumes with long awns
  6178. friar's-cowl = tuberous perennial having a cowl-shaped maroon or violet-black spathe; Mediterranean; Canaries
  6179. friendship plant = low stingless nettle of Central and South America having velvety brownish-green toothed leaves and clusters of small green flowers
  6180. frijol = the common bean plant grown for the beans rather than the pods
  6181. frijole = the common bean plant grown for the beans rather than the pods
  6182. frijolillo = shrub or small tree having pinnate leaves poisonous to livestock and dense racemes of intensely fragrant blue flowers and red beans
  6183. frijolito = shrub or small tree having pinnate leaves poisonous to livestock and dense racemes of intensely fragrant blue flowers and red beans
  6184. fringe bush = small bushy tree of southeastern United States having profuse clusters of white flowers
  6185. fringe cups = plant growing in clumps with mostly basal leaves and cream-colored or pale pink fringed flowers in several long racemes
  6186. fringe tree = any of various small decorative flowering trees or shrubs of the genus Chionanthus
  6187. fringed gentian = any of various herbs of the genus Gentianopsis having the margins of the corolla lobes fringed
  6188. fringed grass of Parnassus = bog plant with broadly heart-shaped basal leaves and cream-colored or white saucer-shaped flowers with fringed petals
  6189. fringed loosestrife = of North America
  6190. fringed orchid = any of several summer-flowering American orchids distinguished by a fringed or lacerated lip
  6191. fringed orchis = any of several summer-flowering American orchids distinguished by a fringed or lacerated lip
  6192. fringed pink = Eurasian perennial pink having fragrant lilac or rose flowers with deeply fringed margins / low wiry-stemmed branching herb or southern California having fringed pink flowers
  6193. fringed polygala = common trailing perennial milkwort of eastern North America having leaves like wintergreen and usually rosy-purple flowers with winged sepals
  6194. fringed poppy mallow = perennial poppy mallow of United States southern plains states having rose-red or rose-purple flowers
  6195. fringepod = annual herb having pinnatifid basal leaves and slender racemes of small white flowers followed by one-seeded winged silicles
  6196. Fritillaria = fritillary
  6197. Fritillaria affinis = herb of northwestern America having green-and-purple bell-shaped flowers
  6198. Fritillaria agrestis = a malodorous California herb with bell-shaped flowers
  6199. Fritillaria biflora = herb of southwestern United States having dark purple bell-shaped flowers mottled with green
  6200. Fritillaria imperialis = Eurasian herb with a cluster of leaves and orange-red bell-shaped flowers at the top of the stem
  6201. Fritillaria lanceolata = herb of northwestern America having green-and-purple bell-shaped flowers
  6202. Fritillaria liliaceae = California herb with white conic or bell-shaped flowers usually tinged with green
  6203. Fritillaria meleagris = Eurasian checkered lily with pendant flowers usually veined and checkered with purple or maroon on a pale ground and shaped like the bells carried by lepers in medieval times
  6204. Fritillaria micrantha = California herb with brownish-purple or greenish bell-shaped flowers
  6205. Fritillaria mutica = herb of northwestern America having green-and-purple bell-shaped flowers
  6206. Fritillaria parviflora = California herb with brownish-purple or greenish bell-shaped flowers
  6207. Fritillaria pluriflora = California herb with pinkish purple flowers
  6208. Fritillaria recurva = western United States herb with scarlet and yellow narrow bell-shaped flowers
  6209. fritillary = any liliaceous plant of the genus Fritillaria having nodding variously colored flowers
  6210. Froelichia = genus of erect or procumbent herbs of the Americas having spikes of woolly white flowers: cottonweed
  6211. frog orchid = orchid having hooded long-bracted green to yellow-green flowers suffused with purple / any of several green orchids of the genus Habenaria
  6212. frog's lettuce = very similar to Potamogeton
  6213. frog's-bit = European floating plant with roundish heart-shaped leaves and white flowers
  6214. frog's-bit family = simple nearly stemless freshwater aquatic plants
  6215. frogbit = European floating plant with roundish heart-shaped leaves and white flowers
  6216. frogbit family = simple nearly stemless freshwater aquatic plants
  6217. frond = compound leaf of a fern or palm or cycad
  6218. Frost's bolete = a fungus with a red cap and a red coarsely reticulate stalk
  6219. frost-weed = tall perennial herb having clusters of white flowers; the eastern United States / perennial of the eastern United States having early solitary yellow flowers followed by late petalless flowers
  6220. frostweed = tall perennial herb having clusters of white flowers; the eastern United States / perennial of the eastern United States having early solitary yellow flowers followed by late petalless flowers
  6221. frostwort = perennial of the eastern United States having early solitary yellow flowers followed by late petalless flowers
  6222. fructification = organs of fruiting
  6223. fruit = the ripened reproductive body of a seed plant
  6224. fruit tree = tree bearing edible fruit
  6225. fruitage = the yield of fruit
  6226. fruiting body = an organ specialized for producing spores
  6227. fruitlet = a diminutive fruit, especially one that is part of a multiple fruit
  6228. fruitwood = wood of various fruit trees (as apple or cherry or pear) used especially in cabinetwork
  6229. fuchsia = any of various tropical shrubs widely cultivated for their showy drooping purplish or reddish or white flowers
  6230. Fuchsia coccinea = erect or climbing shrub of Brazil with deep pink to red flowers
  6231. Fuchsia excorticata = erect deciduous shrub or tree to 10 feet with maroon flowers
  6232. fuji = shrubby Japanese cherry tree having pale pink blossoms
  6233. fuji cherry = shrubby Japanese cherry tree having pale pink blossoms
  6234. full moon maple = leaves deeply incised and bright red in autumn
  6235. fuller's teasel = similar to the common teasel and similarly used; widespread in Europe and North Africa and western Asia
  6236. Fumaria = annual herbs whose flowers have only one petal spurred at the base
  6237. Fumaria claviculata = annual vine with decompound leaves and racemes of yellow and pink flowers
  6238. Fumaria fungosa = vine with feathery leaves and white or pinkish flowers
  6239. Fumaria officinalis = delicate European herb with greyish leaves and spikes of purplish flowers
  6240. Fumaria sempervirens = glaucous herb of northeastern United States and Canada having loose racemes of yellow-tipped pink flowers
  6241. Fumariaceae = erect or climbing herbs of the northern hemisphere and southern Africa: bleeding heart; Dutchman's breeches; fumitory
  6242. fumed oak = oak given a weathered appearance by exposure to fumes of ammonia
  6243. fumeroot = herb of northern Europe and Asia having erect racemes of red flowers / delicate European herb with greyish leaves and spikes of purplish flowers
  6244. fumewort = herb of northern Europe and Asia having erect racemes of red flowers / delicate European herb with greyish leaves and spikes of purplish flowers
  6245. fumitory = delicate European herb with greyish leaves and spikes of purplish flowers
  6246. fumitory family = erect or climbing herbs of the northern hemisphere and southern Africa: bleeding heart; Dutchman's breeches; fumitory
  6247. Fungi = the taxonomic kingdom including yeast, molds, smuts, mushrooms, and toadstools
  6248. Fungi imperfecti = large and heterogeneous form division of fungi comprising forms for which no sexually reproductive stage is known
  6249. fungus = an organism of the kingdom Fungi lacking chlorophyll and feeding on organic matter
  6250. fungus family = includes lichen families
  6251. fungus genus = includes lichen genera
  6252. fungus kingdom = the taxonomic kingdom including yeast, molds, smuts, mushrooms, and toadstools
  6253. fungus order = the order of fungi
  6254. funicle = the stalk of a plant ovule or seed
  6255. funiculus = the stalk of a plant ovule or seed
  6256. Funka = robust east Asian clump-forming perennial herbs having racemose flowers: plantain lilies
  6257. Funkaceae = one of many families or subfamilies into which some classification systems subdivide the Liliaceae but not widely accepted
  6258. funnel-crest rosebud orchid = orchid of northeastern United States with magenta-pink flowers having funnel-shaped lip
  6259. furze = very spiny and dense evergreen shrub with fragrant golden-yellow flowers
  6260. Fusanus = quandong trees
  6261. Fusanus acuminatus = Australian tree with edible flesh and edible nutlike seed
  6262. Fuscoboletinus = a genus of fungi belonging to the family Boletaceae
  6263. Fuscoboletinus paluster = an edible fungus with a pinkish purple cap and stalk and a pore surface that is yellow with large angular pores that become like gills in maturity
  6264. Fuscoboletinus serotinus = an edible fungus with a broadly convex brown cap and a whitish pore surface and stalk
  6265. fuzz = filamentous hairlike growth on a plant
  6266. gai choi = Asiatic mustard used as a potherb
  6267. gaillardia = any plant of western America of the genus Gaillardia having hairy leaves and long-stalked flowers in hot vibrant colors from golden yellow and copper to rich burgundy
  6268. Gaillardia pulchella = annual of central United States having showy long-stalked yellow flower heads marked with scarlet or purple in the center
  6269. galangal = European sedge having rough-edged leaves and spikelets of reddish flowers and aromatic roots / southeastern Asian perennial with aromatic roots
  6270. galax = tufted evergreen perennial herb having spikes of tiny white flowers and glossy green round to heart-shaped leaves that become coppery to maroon or purplish in fall
  6271. Galax urceolata = tufted evergreen perennial herb having spikes of tiny white flowers and glossy green round to heart-shaped leaves that become coppery to maroon or purplish in fall
  6272. galaxy = tufted evergreen perennial herb having spikes of tiny white flowers and glossy green round to heart-shaped leaves that become coppery to maroon or purplish in fall
  6273. galbulus = the seed-producing cone of a cypress tree
  6274. galea = an organ shaped like a helmet
  6275. Galega = small genus of Eurasian herbs: goat's rue
  6276. Galega officinalis = tall bushy European perennial grown for its pinnate foliage and slender spikes of blue flowers
  6277. Galeopsis = erect annual European herbs
  6278. Galeopsis tetrahit = coarse bristly Eurasian plant with white or reddish flowers and foliage resembling that of a nettle
  6279. Galiella rufa = the cup-shaped fruiting body of this discomycete has a jellylike interior and a short stalk
  6280. galingale = European sedge having rough-edged leaves and spikelets of reddish flowers and aromatic roots
  6281. Galium = annual or perennial herbs: bedstraw
  6282. Galium aparine = annual having the stem beset with curved prickles
  6283. Galium boreale = North American stoloniferous perennial having white flowers
  6284. Galium lanceolatum = bedstraw with sweetish roots
  6285. Galium mollugo = Eurasian herb with ample panicles of small white flowers
  6286. Galium odoratum = Old World fragrant stoloniferous perennial having small white flowers and narrow leaves used as flavoring and in sachets; widely cultivated as a ground cover
  6287. Galium verum = common yellow-flowered perennial bedstraw
  6288. gall = abnormal swelling of plant tissue caused by insects or microorganisms or injury
  6289. gall of the earth = common perennial herb widely distributed in the southern and eastern United States having drooping clusters of pinkish flowers and thick basal leaves suggesting a lion's foot in shape
  6290. gall-berry = evergreen holly of eastern North America with oblong leathery leaves and small black berries
  6291. gallberry = evergreen holly of eastern North America with oblong leathery leaves and small black berries
  6292. Galtonia candicans = southern African herb with white bell-shaped flowers
  6293. gamboge tree = low spreading tree of Indonesia yielding an orange to brown gum resin (gamboge) used as a pigment when powdered
  6294. gametangium = cell or organ in which gametes develop
  6295. gametoecium = gametangia and surrounding bracts
  6296. gametophore = a modified branch bearing gametangia as in the thalloid liverworts
  6297. gametophyte = the gamete-bearing individual or phase in the life cycle of a plant having alternation of generations
  6298. gand flower = small European perennial with numerous branches having racemes of blue, pink or white flowers
  6299. ganja = a strong-smelling plant whose dried leaves can be smoked for a pleasant effect or pain reduction
  6300. garambulla = arborescent cactus of western Mexico bearing a small oblong edible berrylike fruit
  6301. garambulla cactus = arborescent cactus of western Mexico bearing a small oblong edible berrylike fruit
  6302. garbanzo = the seed of the chickpea plant
  6303. Garcinia = evergreen trees and shrubs: mangosteens
  6304. Garcinia cambogia = low spreading tree of Indonesia yielding an orange to brown gum resin (gamboge) used as a pigment when powdered
  6305. Garcinia gummi-gutta = low spreading tree of Indonesia yielding an orange to brown gum resin (gamboge) used as a pigment when powdered
  6306. Garcinia hanburyi = low spreading tree of Indonesia yielding an orange to brown gum resin (gamboge) used as a pigment when powdered
  6307. Garcinia mangostana = East Indian tree with thick leathery leaves and edible fruit
  6308. garden angelica = a biennial cultivated herb
  6309. garden balm = bushy perennial Old World mint having small white or yellowish flowers and fragrant lemon-flavored leaves
  6310. garden current = cultivated European current bearing small edible red berries
  6311. garden egg = hairy upright herb native to southeastern Asia but widely cultivated for its large glossy edible fruit commonly used as a vegetable
  6312. garden forget-me-not = small biennial to perennial herb of Europe, northern Africa and western Asia having blue, purple or white flowers
  6313. garden heliotrope = tall rhizomatous plant having very fragrant flowers and rhizomes used medicinally
  6314. garden huckleberry = improved garden variety of black nightshade having small edible orange or black berries
  6315. garden lettuce = annual or perennial garden plant having succulent leaves used in salads
  6316. garden loosestrife = frequently considered a weed
  6317. garden nasturtium = strong-growing annual climber having large flowers of all shades of orange from orange-red to yellowish orange and seeds that are pickled and used like capers
  6318. garden orache = Asiatic plant resembling spinach often used as a potherb
  6319. garden pea = plant producing peas usually eaten fresh rather than dried / the flattened to cylindric inflated multi-seeded fruit of the common pea plant
  6320. garden pea plant = plant producing peas usually eaten fresh rather than dried
  6321. garden pepper cress = annual herb used as salad green and garnish
  6322. garden pink = any of various flowers of plants of the genus Dianthus cultivated for their fragrant flowers
  6323. garden plant = any of a variety of plants usually grown especially in a flower or herb garden
  6324. garden rhubarb = long cultivated hybrid of Rheum palmatum
  6325. garden rocket = erect European annual often grown as a salad crop to be harvested when young and tender
  6326. garden sorrel = European sorrel with large slightly acidic sagittate leaves grown throughout north temperate zone for salad and spring greens / low perennial with small silvery-green ovate to hastate leaves
  6327. garden strawberry = widely cultivated
  6328. garden violet = European violet typically having purple to white flowers
  6329. gardener's delight = an old cottage garden plant of southeastern Europe widely cultivated for its attractive white woolly foliage and showy crimson flowers
  6330. gardener's garters = perennial grass of marshy meadows and ditches having broad leaves
  6331. gardenia = any of various shrubs and small trees of the genus Gardenia having large fragrant white or yellow flowers
  6332. Gardenia augusta = evergreen shrub widely cultivated for its large fragrant waxlike white flowers and glossy leaves
  6333. Gardenia jasminoides = evergreen shrub widely cultivated for its large fragrant waxlike white flowers and glossy leaves
  6334. garget = tall coarse perennial American herb having small white flowers followed by blackish-red berries on long drooping racemes; young fleshy stems are edible
  6335. gari = cassava with long tuberous edible roots and soft brittle stems
  6336. garland crab = medium-sized tree of the eastern United States having pink blossoms and small yellow fruit
  6337. garland flower = widely cultivated low evergreen shrub with dense clusters of fragrant pink to deep rose flowers
  6338. garlic = bulbous herb of southern Europe widely naturalized
  6339. garlic chive = a plant of eastern Asia
  6340. garlic mustard = European herb that smells like garlic
  6341. Garry oak = small deciduous tree of western North America with crooked branches and pale grey bark
  6342. gas plant = Eurasian perennial herb with white flowers that emit flammable vapor in hot weather
  6343. gasteromycete = any fungus of the class Gasteromycetes
  6344. Gasteromycetes = fungi in which the hymenium is enclosed until after spores have matured: puffballs; earth stars
  6345. Gastroboletus = a genus of fungi belonging to the family Secotiaceae
  6346. Gastroboletus scabrosus = a dingy yellow brown fungus with a rough stalk that superficially resembles a bolete
  6347. Gastroboletus turbinatus = a fungus with a cap that can vary from red to dark brown
  6348. Gastrocybe = a genus of fungi of the family Secotiaceae
  6349. Gastrocybe lateritia = a species of Gastrocybe fungus that has a conic cap and a thin stalk; at first the stalk is upright but as it matures the stalk bends over and then downward
  6350. gastrolobium = any of various Australian evergreen shrubs of the genus Gastrolobium having whorled compound leaves poisonous to livestock and showy yellow to deep reddish-orange flowers followed by two-seeded pods
  6351. gastromycete = any fungus of the class Gasteromycetes
  6352. Gastromycetes = fungi in which the hymenium is enclosed until after spores have matured: puffballs; earth stars
  6353. Gaultheria = widely distributed genus of creeping or upright evergreen shrubs
  6354. Gaultheria hispidula = slow-growing procumbent evergreen shrublet of northern North America and Japan having white flowers and numerous white fleshy rough and hairy seeds
  6355. Gaultheria procumbens = creeping shrub of eastern North America having white bell-shaped flowers followed by spicy red berrylike fruit and shiny aromatic leaves that yield wintergreen oil
  6356. Gaultheria shallon = small evergreen shrub of Pacific coast of North America having edible dark purple grape-sized berries
  6357. gay-feather = any of various North American plants of the genus Liatris having racemes or panicles of small discoid flower heads
  6358. gayfeather = any of various North American plants of the genus Liatris having racemes or panicles of small discoid flower heads
  6359. Gaylussacia = deciduous or evergreen shrubs of North America: black huckleberries
  6360. Gaylussacia baccata = low shrub of the eastern United States bearing shiny black edible fruit
  6361. Gaylussacia brachycera = creeping evergreen shrub of southeastern United States having small shiny boxlike leaves and flavorless berries
  6362. Gaylussacia frondosa = huckleberry of the eastern United States with pink flowers and sweet blue fruit
  6363. gaywings = common trailing perennial milkwort of eastern North America having leaves like wintergreen and usually rosy-purple flowers with winged sepals
  6364. gazania = any plant of the genus Gazania valued for their showy daisy flowers
  6365. Gazania rigens = decumbent South African perennial with short densely leafy stems and orange flower rays with black eyespots at base
  6366. gean = wild or seedling sweet cherry used as stock for grafting
  6367. Geastraceae = a family of earthstar fungi belonging to the order Lycoperdales
  6368. Geastrum = type genus of Geastraceae
  6369. Geastrum coronatum = an earthstar with a bluish spore sac and a purplish brown gleba
  6370. gebang palm = large-leaved palm of Malay to Philippines and northern Australia
  6371. geebung = any of numerous shrubs and small trees having hard narrow leaves and long-lasting yellow or white flowers followed by small edible but insipid fruits
  6372. Geglossaceae = a type of ascomycetous fungus
  6373. Gelsemium = evergreen twining shrubs of Americas and southeastern Asia
  6374. Gelsemium sempervirens = poisonous woody evergreen vine of southeastern United States having fragrant yellow funnel-shaped flowers
  6375. gemma = small asexual reproductive structure in e.g. liverworts and mosses that detaches from the parent and develops into a new individual
  6376. genip = tropical American tree bearing a small edible fruit with green leathery skin and sweet juicy translucent pulp
  6377. genipa = any tree of the genus Genipa bearing yellow flowers and edible fruit with a thick rind
  6378. Genipa Americana = tree of the West Indies and northern South America bearing succulent edible orange-sized fruit
  6379. genipap fruit = tree of the West Indies and northern South America bearing succulent edible orange-sized fruit
  6380. Genista = chiefly deciduous shrubs or small trees of Mediterranean area and western Asia: broom
  6381. Genista anglica = prickly yellow-flowered shrub of the moors of New England and Europe
  6382. Genista hispanica = erect shrub of southwestern Europe having racemes of golden yellow flowers
  6383. Genista raetam = desert shrub of Syria and Arabia having small white flowers; constitutes the juniper of the Old Testament
  6384. Genista tinctoria = small Eurasian shrub having clusters of yellow flowers that yield a dye; common as a weed in Britain and the United States
  6385. genlisea = rootless carnivorous swamp plants having at the base of the stem a rosette of foliage and leaves consisting of slender tubes swollen in the middle to form traps
  6386. gentian = any of various plants of the family Gentianaceae especially the genera Gentiana and Gentianella and Gentianopsis
  6387. gentian family = chiefly herbaceous plants with showy flowers
  6388. Gentiana = type genus of the Gentianaceae; cosmopolitan genus of herbs nearly cosmopolitan in cool temperate regions
  6389. Gentiana acaulis = low-growing alpine plant cultivated for its dark glossy green leaves in basal rosettes and showy solitary bell-shaped blue flowers
  6390. Gentiana andrewsii = gentian of eastern North America having tubular blue or white flowers that open little if at all
  6391. Gentiana calycosa = tufted sometimes sprawling perennial with blue flowers spotted with green
  6392. Gentiana clausa = similar to Gentiana andrewsii but with larger flowers
  6393. Gentiana crinita = tall widely distributed fringed gentian of eastern North America having violet-blue or white fringed flowers
  6394. Gentiana detonsa = medium-tall fringed gentian with pale-blue to blue-purple flowers
  6395. Gentiana holopetala = small blue-flowered fringed gentian of Sierra Nevada mountains
  6396. Gentiana lutea = robust European perennial having clusters of yellow flowers
  6397. Gentiana pneumonanthe = perennial Eurasian gentian with sky-blue funnel-shaped flowers of damp open heaths
  6398. Gentiana procera = small blue-flowered fringed gentian of east central North America
  6399. Gentiana quinquefolia = gentian of eastern North America having clusters of bristly blue flowers
  6400. Gentiana saponaria = erect perennial of wet woodlands of North America having leaves and flower buds resembling those of soapwort
  6401. Gentiana thermalis = small blue-flowered fringed gentian of western United States (Rocky Mountains) especially around hot springs in Yellowstone National Park
  6402. Gentiana villosa = a perennial marsh gentian of eastern North America
  6403. Gentianaceae = chiefly herbaceous plants with showy flowers
  6404. Gentianales = an order of dicotyledonous plants having gamopetalous flowers; Gentianaceae; Apocynaceae; Asclepiadaceae; Loganiaceae; Oleaceae
  6405. gentianella = low-growing alpine plant cultivated for its dark glossy green leaves in basal rosettes and showy solitary bell-shaped blue flowers / genus of herbs with flowers that resemble gentian
  6406. gentianella amarella = gentian of Europe and China having creamy white flowers with fringed corollas
  6407. Gentianella quinquefolia = gentian of eastern North America having clusters of bristly blue flowers
  6408. Gentianopsid procera = small blue-flowered fringed gentian of east central North America
  6409. Gentianopsis = genus of fringed gentians
  6410. <